# Dini derivative

In mathematics and, specifically, real analysis, the Dini derivatives (or Dini derivates) are a class of generalizations of the derivative. They were introduced by Ulisse Dini who studied continuous but nondifferentiable functions, for which he defined the so-called Dini derivatives.

The upper Dini derivative, which is also called an upper right-hand derivative, of a continuous function

$f:{\mathbb {R} }\rightarrow {\mathbb {R} },$ is denoted by f and defined by

$f'_{+}(t)=\limsup _{h\to {0+}}{\frac {f(t+h)-f(t)}{h}},$ where lim sup is the supremum limit and the limit is a one-sided limit. The lower Dini derivative, f, is defined by

$f'_{-}(t)=\liminf _{h\to {0+}}{\frac {f(t+h)-f(t)}{h}},$ where lim inf is the infimum limit.

If f is defined on a vector space, then the upper Dini derivative at t in the direction d is defined by

$f'_{+}(t,d)=\limsup _{h\to {0+}}{\frac {f(t+hd)-f(t)}{h}}.$ If f is locally Lipschitz, then f is finite. If f is differentiable at t, then the Dini derivative at t is the usual derivative at t.

## Remarks

• Sometimes the notation D+ f(t) is used instead of f(t) and D f(t) is used instead of f(t).
• Also,
$D^{+}f(t)=\limsup _{h\to {0+}}{\frac {f(t)-f(t-h)}{h}}$ and

$D_{-}f(t)=\liminf _{h\to {0-}}{\frac {f(t)-f(t-h)}{h}}$ .
• So when using the D notation of the Dini derivatives, the plus or minus sign indicates the left- or right-hand limit, and the placement of the sign indicates the infimum or supremum limit.
• On the extended reals, each of the Dini derivatives always exist; however, they may take on the values +∞ or −∞ at times (i.e., the Dini derivatives always exist in the extended sense).

## See also

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