Devshirme[a] (Ottoman Turkish: دوشيرمه, devşirme, usually translated as “child levy” or “blood tax”)[2] was the Ottoman Empire practice of recruiting soldiers and bureaucrats from among the children of their Balkan Christian subjects.[3] Ottoman soldiers would take Christian boys, ages 8 to 20, away from their parents in Eastern and Southeastern Europe and removing them to Istanbul.[4] The boys were then converted to Islam[5] with the primary objective of selecting and training the ablest children and teenagers for the military or civil service of the empire, notably into the Janissaries.[6]

Devshirme started in the mid 1300s under Murad I as a means to counteract the growing power of the Turkish nobility. According to a number of scholars, the practice violated Islamic law.[7] David Nicolle writes that the boys were "effectively enslaved" under the devshirme system, which was a violation of the dhimmi protections guaranteed under Islamic law.[8] This is disputed by Halil İnalcık, who argues that the devshirme were not slaves.[9][c]

By 1700, the practice was dying out, but perhaps 200,000 babies and young people had been “recruited” in this way.[10] An attempt to re-institute it in 1703 was resisted by its Ottoman members who coveted its military and civilian posts. Finally in the early days of Ahmet III's reign, the practice of devshirme was abolished.


The Devshirme came up out of the kul system of slavery that developed in the early centuries of the Ottoman Empire and which reached this final development during the reign of Sultan Bayazit I.[11] The origin of the kuls was mostly prisoners from war, hostages or slaves that were purchased by the state. An early Greek source mentioning devshirme (paidomazoma in Greek) is a 1395 speech of the Archbishop Isidore of Thessalonica. The speech meant to comfort the parents of young boys abducted after orders of sultan Bayezid I.[12]

The Ottoman Empire, beginning with Murad I, felt a need to "counteract the power of (Turkic) nobles by developing Christian vassal soldiers and converted kapıkulları as his personal troops, independent of the regular army."[13] The elite forces, which served the Ottoman Sultan directly, were divided into two main groups: cavalry and infantry.[b] The cavalry was commonly known as the Kapıkulu Süvari (The Cavalry of the Servants of the Porte) and the infantry were the popular Yeni Çeri (transliterated in English as Janissary), meaning "the New Corps".

At first, the soldiers serving in these corps were selected from the slaves captured during war. However, the system commonly known as devshirme was soon adopted. In this system children of the rural Christian populations of the Balkans were conscripted before adolescence and were brought up as Muslims. Upon reaching adolescence, these children were enrolled in one of the four imperial institutions: the Palace, the Scribes, the Religious and the Military. Those enrolled in the Military would become either part of the Janissary corps, or part of any other corps.[14] The brightest were sent to the Palace institution (Enderun), and were destined for a career within the palace itself where the most able could aspire to attain the very highest office of state, that of Grand Vizier, the Sultan's immensely powerful chief minister and military deputy.

The life of the devshirme

The ideal age of a recruit was between 8 and 10 years of age,[15] recruitment of boys younger than 8 was forbidden. Those were called şirhor (nursling) and beççe (child).[16] The devshirme system was at times locally resented[17] and was resisted, even to the point of disfiguring their sons.[18][19] On the other hand, as the devshirme were recruited to rise up to the grand vizier status (the second most powerful man in the empire), Christian parents in Bosnia were known to bribe scouts to take their children.[20] "The children were taken from their families and transported to Istanbul. Upon their arrival, they were converted to Islam, examined, and trained to serve the empire. This system produced infantry corps soldiers as well as civilian administrators and high-ranked military officials."[21]

Although the influence of Turkic nobility continued in the Ottoman court until Mehmet II (see Çandarlı Halil), the Ottoman ruling class slowly came to be ruled exclusively by the devshirme, creating a separate social class.[22] This class of rulers was chosen from the brightest of devshirme and hand-picked to serve in the Palace institution, known as the Enderun.[23] They had to accompany the Sultan on campaigns, but exceptional service would be rewarded by assignments outside the palace.[24] Those chosen for the Scribe institution, known as Kalemiye were also granted prestigious positions. The Religious institution, İlmiye, was where all orthodox Muslim clergy of the Ottoman Empire were educated and sent to provinces or served in the capital.[25]

Tavernier noted in 1678 that the Janissaries looked more like a religious order than a military corps.[26] The members of the organization were not banned from marriage, as Tavernier further noted, but it was very uncommon for them. He goes on to write that their numbers had increased to a hundred thousand, but this was because of a degeneration of regulations and many of these were in fact "fake" Janissaries, posing as such for tax exemptions and other social privileges. He notes that the actual number of janissaries was in fact much lower (Shaw writes that their number was 30,000 under Suleiman the Magnificent[27]). By the 1650s the number of janissaries had increased to 50,000, although by this time the devşirme had largely been abandoned as a method of recruitment.[28] Recruits were sometimes gained through voluntary accessions, as some parents were often eager to have their children enroll in the Janissary service that ensured them a successful career and comfort.[29] The Balkan peasantry tried to evade the tribute collectors, with many attempting to substitute their children in Bosnia, [30] but there are cases Albanian families offering their children voluntarily as it offered them prospects not available to them in any other manner.[31] Conversion to Islam was used in Bosnia and Herzegovina to escape the system. Some Muslim families tried to have the recruiters take their sons so they could achieve professional advancement.[32]

Albertus Bobovius wrote in 1686 that diseases were common among the devshirme and strict discipline was enforced.[33]

The BBC notes the following regarding the devshirme system: "Although members of the devshirme class were technically slaves, they were of great importance to the Sultan because they owed him their absolute loyalty and became vital to his power. This status enabled some of the 'slaves' to become both powerful and wealthy."[34] Yet this system was clearly illegal according to Islamic law, sharia.[35] Turkish historian Halil İnalcık writes that the devshirme were not actually considered to be slaves.[9][c] Professor James L. Gelvin explains that Ottoman jurists were able to get around this injunction with an extraordinarily creative legal manoeuvre, arguing that although Islamic tradition forbade the enslavement of Christians, Balkan Christians were different because they had converted to Christianity after the advent of Islam.[3]

According to Cleveland, the devshirme system offered "limitless opportunities to the young men who became a part of it."[36] Basilike Papoulia wrote that "...the devsirme was the 'forcible removal', in the form of a tribute, of children of the Christian subjects from their ethnic, religious and cultural environment and their transportation into the Turkish-Islamic environment with the aim of employing them in the service of the Palace, the army, and the state, whereby they were on the one hand to serve the Sultan as slaves and freedmen and on the other to form the ruling class of the State."[37] Accordingly, Papoulia agrees with Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb and Harold Bowen, authors of Islamic Society and the West, that the devshirme was a penalization imposed on the Balkan peoples since their ancestors resisted the Ottoman invasion.[38] Vladimir Minorsky states, "The most striking manifestation of this fact is the unprecedented system of devshirme, i.e. the periodic conscription of 'tribute boys', by which the children of Christians were wrung from their families, churches, and communities to be molded into Ottoman praetorians owing their allegiance to the Sultan and the official faith of Islam."[39] This system as explained by Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha, founder of the Janissaries, "The conquered are slaves of the conquerors, to whom their goods, their women, and their children belong as lawful possession".[40]

Ethnicity of the devshirme, and exemptions

The devshirme were collected once every four or five years from rural provinces in Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe and Anatolia, and with a few exceptions, only from non-Muslims. The devshirme levy was not applied to the major cities of the empire, and children of local craftsmen in rural towns were also exempt, as it was considered that conscripting them would harm the economy.[41]

According to Bernard Lewis, the Janissaries were mainly recruited from the "Slavic and Albanian populations of the Balkans".[42] According to the Encyclopædia Britannica and the Encyclopaedia of Islam, in the early days of the empire all Christians were enrolled indiscriminately. Later, those from Albania, Greece, Bosnia, and Bulgaria were preferred.[43] What is certain is that devshirme were primarily recruited from Christians living in the Balkans, particularly Serbs and Bosnians (islamized Serbs and Croats[44][45][46][47] from Bosnia region, Albanians and Greeks. Well known examples of Ottomans who had been recruited as devshirme include Skanderbeg, Sinan Pasha and Sokollu Mehmed Pasha. The early Ottoman emphasis on recruiting Greeks, Albanians, Bulgarians, and south Slavs was a direct consequence of being centred on territories, in northwestern Anatolia and the southern Balkans, where these ethnic groups were prevalent.[48]

Jews were exempt from this service and until recently Armenians were thought to have also been exempt.[49][50] However, Armenian manuscript colophons from the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries and foreign travelers of the time indicate that Armenians were not spared from the devshirme.[51][52] Boys who were orphans or who were their family's only son were exempt.[15]

Devshirme in the Ottoman Palace School

The primary objective of the Palace School was to train the ablest children for leadership positions, either as military leaders or as high administrators to serve the Devlet.[53] Although there are many resemblances between Enderûn and other palace schools of the previous civilizations, such as those of the Abbasids, and Seljuks[54] or the contemporary European palace schools, Enderûn was unique with respect to the background of the student body and its meritocratic system. In the strict draft phase, students were taken forcefully from the Christian population of the Empire and were converted to Islam; Jews and Gypsies were exempted from Devshirme, and so were all Muslims.

Those entrusted to find these children were scouts, who were specially trained agents, throughout the Empire's European lands. Scouts were recruiting youngsters according to their talent and ability with school subjects, in addition to their personality, character, and physical perfection. The Enderûn candidates were not supposed to be orphans, or the only child in their family (to ensure the candidates had strong family values); they must not have already learned to speak Turkish or a craft/trade. The ideal age of a recruit was between 10 and 20 years of age.[55] Mehmed Refik Beg mentioned that youth with a bodily defect, no matter how slight, was never admitted into palace service,[56] since Turks believed that a strong soul and a good mind could be found only in a perfect body.[57]

The selected children were dressed in red, so that they could not easily escape on their way to Constantinople. The cost of the devshirme service and their clothes were paid by their villages or communities. The boys were gathered into cohorts of a hundred or more to walk to Constantinople where they were circumcised and divided between the palace schools and the military training. Anyone not chosen for the palace spent years being toughened by hard labor on Anatolian farms until they were old enough for the military.[58]

The brightest youths who fit into the general guidelines and had a strong primary education were then given to selected Muslim families across Anatolia to complete the enculturation process.[59][56][60] They would later attend schools across Anatolia to complete their training for six to seven years in order to qualify as ordinary military officers.[61] They would get the highest salaries amongst the administrators of the empire, and very well respected in public.[62] M. Armağan,[63] defined the system as a pyramid which was designed to select the elite of the elite, the ablest and most physically perfect. Only a very few would reach the Palace School.


According to historian Cemal Kafadar, one of the main reasons for the decline of the devshirme system was that the size of the Janissary corps had to be expanded in order to compensate for the decline in the importance of the sipahi cavalry forces, which itself was a result of changes in early modern warfare (such as the introduction of firearms and increased importance of infantry).[64] Indeed, the Janissary corps would soon become the empire's largest single military corps[65]. As a result, by the late sixteenth century, the devshirme system was increasingly being abandoned for less rigid recruitment methods that allowed Muslims to enter directly into the Janissary corps.[66]

In 1632 the Janissaries attempted an unsuccessful coup against Murad IV, who then imposed a loyalty oath on them. In 1638[67] or 1648 the devshirme-based recruiting system of the Janissary corps formally came to an end.[68] In an order sent in multiple copies to authorities throughout the European provinces in 1666 a devshirme recruitment target of between 300 and 320 was set for an area covering the whole of the central and western Balkans.[69] On the accession of sultan Suleiman II in 1687 only 130 Janissary inductees were graduated to the Janissary ranks.[70] The system was finally abolished in the early part of Ahmet III's reign (1703–1730).[71]

After Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798 there was a reform movement in Sultan Selim III's regime, to reduce the numbers of the askeri class, who were the first class citizens or military class (also called janissaries). Selim was taken prisoner and murdered by the Janissaries. The successor to the sultan, Mahmud II was patient but remembered the results of the uprising in 1807. In 1826 he created the basis of a new, modern army, the Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediye,[72] which caused a revolt among the Janissaries. The authorities kept the Janissaries in their barracks and slaughtered thousands of them.[73] This development entered the Ottoman history annals as the Auspicious Incident.

Early accounts of devsirme

The earliest known account of devsirme is found in a speech of bishop Isidoros of Thessaloniki, made on Sunday, February 28th, 1395, with the title "On the abduction of children according to sultan's order and on the Future Judgment". The speech includes references to the violent islamization of children and their hard training in the use of dogs and falcons.[74]

Reference to devsirme is made in a poem composed c. 1550 in Greek by Ioannes Axayiolis, who appeals to emperor Charles V of Germany to liberate the Greeks from the Turks. The text is in the Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1624. In another account, the Roman Catholic bishop of Chios in 1646 writes to the director of the Catholic Greek Gymnasion of Rome asking the latter to accept a 12 y.o. boy from Chios, named Paulos Omeros, to save him from the devsirme.[75]

See also


    1. ^ Known simply as "collecting" (devshirme) Ottoman دوشيرمه. In other languages, it is known as: Greek: παιδομάζωμα/Paedomazoma - collection of children; Armenian: Մանկահավաք/Mankahavak′ - child-gathering; Romanian: tribut de sânge; Serbo-Croatian: Danak u krvi, Данак у крви, Macedonian: Данок во крв/Danok vo krv, Bulgarian: Кръвен данък/Kraven Danak - blood tax
    2. ^ More classifications, such as the artillery and cannon corps, miners and moat diggers and even a separate cannon-wagon corps were introduced later on, but the number of people in these groups were relatively small, and they incorporated Christian elements.
    3. ^ This levy exacted by early Ottoman governments on Balkan Christians remains a sore spot in Balkan historiography: While many contemporary Turks prefer to look at the process of recruitment as purely voluntary[3]


    1. Nasuh, Matrakci (1588). "Janissary Recruitment in the Balkans". Süleymanname, Topkapi Sarai Museum, Ms Hazine 1517. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    2. Ingvar Svanberg and David Westerlund, Islam Outside the Arab World, Routledge, 1999, p. 140
    3. James L. Gelvin (2016). The Modern Middle East: A History. Oxford University Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-19-021886-7.
    4. John K. Cox (2002). The History of Serbia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-313-31290-8.
    5. The New Encyclopedia of Islam, ed. Cyril Glassé, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2008), 129.
    6. Basgoz, I. & Wilson, H. E. (1989), The educational tradition of the Ottoman Empire and the development of the Turkish educational system of the republican era. Turkish Review 3(16), 15.
    7. Gillian Lee Weiss (2002). Back from Barbary : captivity, redemption and French identity in the seventeenth-and eighteenth-century Mediterreanean. Stanford University. p. 32. Many scholars consider that the "child levy" violated Islamic law.
    8. David Nicolle (22 July 2011). "Devshirme System". In Alexander Mikaberidze (ed.). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 273–. ISBN 978-1-59884-337-8. This effectively enslaved some of the sultan's own non-Islamic subjects and was therefore illegal under Islamic law, which stipulated that conquered non-Muslims should be demilitarized and protected
    9. Halil Inalcik, "Ottoman Civilisation", p. 138, Ankara 2004.
    10. Peter F. Sugar (1 July 2012). Southeastern Europe under Ottoman Rule, 1354-1804. University of Washington Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-295-80363-0.
    11. Halil Inalcik, "Ottoman Civilisation", p138, Ankara 2004.
    12. Papadopoulos Stephanos I. Μνεία παιδομαζώματος στη Θεσσαλονίκη κατά την πρώτη κατοχή της πόλης από τους Τούρκους, [Mention of Paidomazoma in Thessaloniki during the first occupation of the city by the Turks] Christian Thessaloniki ... (11th-15th c. AD), Thessaloniki, 1992, pp. 71-77. In Greek language.
    13. Shaw 1976, p. 27.
    14. Shaw 1976, pp. 112–129.
    15. Taskin, U. (2008). "Klasik donem Osmanli egitim kurumlari – Ottoman educational foundations in classical terms" (PDF). Journal of International Social Research. 1 (3): 343–366.
    16. Ortaylı, İlber (2016). Türklerin Tarihi 2. Timaş Yayınları. p. 71. ISBN 978-605-08-2221-2.
    17.; "...and point out that many Christian families were hostile and resentful about it—which is perhaps underlined by the use of force to impose the system.".
    18. Yannaras, Christos, Orthodoxy and the West: Hellenic self-identity in the modern age, (Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2006), 112.
    19. S. Trifkovic. The Sword of the Prophet: Islam; History, Theology, Impact on the World. p. 97
    20. Malcolm, Noel (1996). Bosnia: A Short History. London: Papermac. p. 46. ISBN 0-333-66215-6.
    21. A History of the modern middle east Cleveland and Buntin p.42
    22. Zürcher, Erik (1999). Arming the State. United States of America: LB Tauris and Co. Ltd. p. 5. ISBN 1-86064-404-X.
    23. Shaw 1976, pp. 115–117.
    24. Shaw 1976, p. 117.
    25. Shaw 1976, pp. 132–139.
    26. Tavernier. Nouvelle Relation de L'ınterieur du Serrial du Grand Seigneur. 1678, Amsterdam.
    27. Shaw 1976, p. 121.
    28. Ágoston, Gábor (2014). "Firearms and Military Adaptation: The Ottomans and the European Military Revolution, 1450–1800". Journal of World History. 25: 118.
      • Kunt, Metin İ. (1983). The Sultan's Servants: The Transformation of Ottoman Provincial Government, 1550-1650. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 76. ISBN 0-231-05578-1.
    29. The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pg. 130
    30. Ottoman Empire and Islamic Tradition, Norman Itzkowitz, p. 49
    31. Jean W. Sedlar. East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500. University of Washington Press. p. 269.
    32. Traian Stoianovich. Balkan Worlds: The First and Last Europe. Routledge. p. 201.
    33. Nicolas Brenner. Serai Enderun; das ist inwendige beschaffenheit der türkischen Kayserl, residentz, zu Constantinopoli die newe burgk genannt sampt der ordnung und gebrauschen so von Alberto Bobivio Leopolitano. J. J. Kürner. 1667. Search under Bobovio, Bobovius or Ali Ulvi for other translations. French version exists, and fragments exist in C.G. and A.W. Fisher's "Topkapi Sarayi in the Mid-17th Century: Bobovi's Description" in 1985.
    34. "BBC - Religions - Islam: Slavery in Islam". Retrieved 9 April 2018.
      • Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, ed. Alexander Mikaberidze, 273;"This effectively enslaved some of the sultan's own non-Islamic subjects and was therefore illegal under Islamic law, which stipulated that conquered non-Muslims should be demilitarized and protected."
        *The Rise of the Ottomans, I. Metin Kunt, The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 6, C.1300-c.1415, 860.
    35. Cleveland, William L. "A History of the Modern Middle East. 3rd Edition." p. 46
    36. Some Notes on the Devsirme, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1966, V.L.Menage, (Cambridge University Press, 1966), 64.
    37. Some Notes on the Devsirme, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1966, V.L.Menage, (Cambridge University Press, 1966), 70.
    38. Shaykh Bali-Efendi on the Safavids, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1/3, 1957, V. Minorsky, (Cambridge University Press, 1957), p. 437.
    39. Lybyer, Albert Howe, The Government of the Ottoman empire in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent, (Harvard University Press, 1913), 63-64.
    40. Shaw 1976, p. 114.
    41. Lewis, Bernard (1992). Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. Oxford University Press. p. 65.
    42. Encyclopædia Britannica. Eleventh Edition, vol. 15 and Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden Grill, 1967-97), vol. 4, art. 'Devshirme'. p 151.
    43. John A. Fine - The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey pdf
    44. Nasuh, Matrakci (1588). "Janissary Recruitment in the Balkans". Süleymanname, Topkapi Sarai Museum, Ms Hazine 1517
    45. Basgoz, I. & Wilson, H. E. (1989), The educational tradition of the Ottoman Empire and the development of the Turkish educational system of the republican era. Turkish Review 3(16), 15
    46. Perry Anderson (1979). Lineages of the Absolutist State. Verso. stranica 366
    47. Andrina Stiles, 'The Ottoman Empire: 1450-1700' (Hodder & Stoughton, 1989), pp. 66-73.
    48. Shaw 1976, p. 114: Shaw states that the reason for this exemption may have been the recognition of both People as a separate Nation (none of the Balkan ethnic groups were recognized as such) or that both Jews and Armenians lived mostly in the major cities anyway.
    49. Albertus Bobovius, who was enslaved by Crimean Tatars and sold into the palace in the 17th century, reports that both Armenians and Jews were exempt from the devshirme levy. He writes that the reason for this exemption of Armenians is religious: That Armenian Gregorian church was considered the closest to Christ's (and therefore Muhammed's) teachings.
    50. Kouymjian, Dickran (1997). "Armenia from the Fall of the Cilician Kingdom (1375) to the Forced Migration under Shah Abbas (1604)" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume II: Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century. Richard Hovannisian (ed.) New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 12-14. ISBN 1-4039-6422-X.
    51. (in Armenian) Zulalyan, Manvel. «Դեվշիրմեն» (մանկահավաքը) օսմանյան կայսրության մեջ ըստ թուրքական և հայկական աղբյուրների [The "Devshirme" (Child-Gathering) in the Ottoman Empire According to Turkish and Armenian Sources Patma-Banasirakan Handes 5-6/2-3 (1959): pp. 247-256.
    52. Basgoz, I. & Wilson, H. E. (1989). The educational tradition of the Ottoman Empire and the development of the Turkish educational system of the republican era. Turkish Review 3(16), 15.
    53. Van Duinkerken, W. (1998). Educational reform in the tanzimat era (1839–1876): Secular reforms in tanzimat (Unpublished masters thesis, McGiIl University). Retrieved from =0&dvs=1248070802480~852
    54. Taskin, U. (2008). Klasik donem Osmanli egitim kurumlari - Ottoman educational foundations in classical terms. Uluslararasi Sosyal Arastirmalar Dergisi - The Journal of International Social Research 1, 343–366.
    55. Miller, B. (1973). The palace school of Muhammad the Conqueror (Reprint ed.). NY: Arno Press.
    56. Ipsirli, M. (1995). Enderûn. In Diyanet Islam ansiklopedisi (Vol. XI, pp. 185–187). Istanbul, Turkey: Turkiye Diyanet Vakfi.
    57. Devshirme is a Contested Practice Katheryn Hain (2012), Historia: the Alpha Rho Papers, vol. 2, p. 167, 168.
    58. Horniker, A. N. (1944). The Corps of the Janizaries. Military Affairs 8(3), 177–04.
    59. Ipsirli, M. (1995). Enderun. In Diyanet Islam ansiklopedisi (Vol. XI, pp. 185–187). Istanbul, Turkey: Turkiye Diyanet Vakfi.
    60. Ilgurel, M. (1988). Acemi Oglani. In Diyanet Islam ansiklopedisi (Vol. I, pp. 324–25). Istanbul, Turkey: Turkiye Diyanet Vakfi.
    61. Akarsu, F. (n.d.) “Enderun: Ustun yetenekliler icin saray okulu”. Retrieved from
    62. Armağan, Mustafa (2006). Osmanlı’da ustün yetenekliler fabrikası: Enderun Mektebi. Yeni Dünya Dergisi 10, 32.
    63. Cemal Kafadar. "The Question of Ottoman Decline." Harvard Middle Eastern and Islamic Review, vol. 4, no. 1-2, 1997-1998, pp. 52
    64. Cemal Kafadar. "The Question of Ottoman Decline." Harvard Middle Eastern and Islamic Review, vol. 4, no. 1-2, 1997-1998, pp. 52
    65. Cemal Kafadar. "The Question of Ottoman Decline." Harvard Middle Eastern and Islamic Review, vol. 4, no. 1-2, 1997-1998, pp. 52
    66. Hubbard, Glenn and Tim Kane. (2013). Balance: The Economics of Great Powers From Ancient Rome to Modern America . Simon & Schuster. P. 152. ISBN 978-1-4767-0025-0
    67. Zürcher, Erik (1999). Arming the State. London and New York: LB Tauris and Co. Ltd. p. 80. ISBN 1-86064-404-X.
    68. Murphey 2006, pp. 44-45.
    69. Murphey 2006, p. 46.
    70. Murphey 2006, p. 223.
    71. Kinross, pp. 456–457.
    72. Hubbard, Glenn and Tim Kane. (2013). Balance: The Economics of Great Powers From Ancient Rome to Modern America. Simon & Schuster. P. 153. ISBN 978-1-4767-0025-0
    73. Papadopoulos I. Stefanos, "Account of paedomazoma in Thessaloniki during the first occupation of the city by the Turks, ... ", Thessaloniki, 1992, pp. 71-77 (Παπαδόπουλος Στέφανος Ι., Μνεία παιδομαζώματος στη Θεσσαλονίκη κατά την πρώτη κατοχή της πόλης από τους Τούρκους, Χριστιανική Θεσσαλονίκη ... (11ος-15ος μ.Χ.), Θεσσαλονίκη 1992, σ. 71-77). In Greek. "Paedomazoma" is the Greek term for Devsirme.
    74. Zoras Th. Georgios, "Some accounts on Paedomazoma", Parnassos, vol. 4, 2 (1962), pp. 217 - (Ζώρας Θ. Γεώργιος, "Μαρτυρίαι τινές περί το Παιδομάζωμα" In Greek. On the Axayioli poem, pp 217-221. On the letter of bishop of Chios, pp 221-223. Original letter in italian.


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