Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills

The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar trills is r, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r. It is commonly called the rolled R, rolling R, or trilled R. Quite often, r is used in phonemic transcriptions (especially those found in dictionaries) of languages like English and German that have rhotic consonants that are not an alveolar trill. That is partly for ease of typesetting and partly because r is the letter used in the orthographies of such languages.

In many Indo-European languages, a trill may often be reduced to a single vibration in unstressed positions. In Italian, a simple trill typically displays only one or two vibrations, while a geminate trill will have three or more.[1] Languages where trills always have multiple vibrations include Albanian, Spanish, Cypriot Greek, and a number of Armenian and Portuguese dialects.

People with ankyloglossia may find it exceptionally difficult to articulate the sound because of the limited mobility of their tongues.[2][3]

Voiced alveolar trill

Alveolar trill
IPA Number122
Entity (decimal)r
Unicode (hex)U+0072
Audio sample
source · help

Most commonly, the alveolar trill is voiced.


Features of the alveolar trill:

  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.



Hungarian[5]arra[ɒr̪ːɒ]'that way'See Hungarian phonology
Romanian[6]repede[ˈr̪e̞pe̞d̪e̞]'quickly'Apical. See Romanian phonology
Russian[7]рьяный[ˈr̪ʲjän̪ɨ̞j]'zealous'Apical, palatalized. Usually only a single vibration, presumably due to the palatalization.[7] It contrasts with a post-alveolar trill. See Russian phonology


AfrikaansStandard[8]rooi[roːi̯]'red'May be a tap [ɾ] instead.[8] See Afrikaans phonology
ArabicModern Standardراء[raːʔ]Resh[ɾ] in Egyptian
ArmenianEastern[9]ռումբ[rumb] 'cannonball'
Bengaliরা[rat̪]'night'Occurs word-initially; as against [ɾ], which occurs medially and finally. See Bengali phonology
Bretonroue[ruːe]'king'Dominant in and around Léon and Morbihan while many other dialects have adopted the voiced uvular fricative. See Breton phonology
Czech[10]chlor[xlɔ̝ːr]'chlorine'Contrasts with /r̝/; may be syllabic. See Czech phonology
DanishFew speakers of the Jutlandic dialect[11]Corresponds to much more back [ʁ ~ ʕ] in standard Danish. See Danish phonology
EnglishScottishcurd[kʌrd]'curd'Only some dialects. Corresponds to [ɾ ~ ɹ] in others. See English phonology
Welsh[12]bright[braɪt]'bright'Some dialects under Welsh influence. Corresponds to [ɾ ~ ɹ] in others.
EsperantoEsperanto[espeˈranto]'who hopes'Usually a flap [ɾ]. See Esperanto phonology
Finnishraaka[rɑ:kɑ] 'raw'See Finnish phonology
GreekStandard[13]άρτος[ˈartos]'Communion bread'Allophone of /r/. Usual in clusters, otherwise a tap or an approximant.[13] See Modern Greek phonology
Cypriot[14][15]βορράς[voˈrːas]'north'Contrasts with /ɾ/.
HebrewSephardiריש[ˈreʃ]'Resh'See Sephardi Hebrew
Hindustaniपत्थ / پتھر[pət̪t̪ʰər]'stone'See Hindustani phonology
Indonesiagetar [gətar]'vibrate'See Indonesian phonology
Italian[16]terra[ˈt̪ɛrːä] 'earth'See Italian phonology
Latvian[19]rags[räks̪]'horn'See Latvian phonology
Polish[20]krok[krɔk] 'step'See Polish phonology
Portugueserato[ratu]'mouse'Contrasts with /ɾ/. Many northern dialects retain the alveolar trill, and the trill is still dominant in rural areas. See Portuguese phonology and Guttural R.
Scottish Gaelicceart[kʲarˠʃd]'true'Pronounced as a trill at the beginning of a word, or as rr, or before consonants d, t, l, n, s; otherwise a voiced alveolar tap. Contrasts with /ɾʲ/ and /ɾ/ intervocally and word-finally. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian[21][22]рт / rt[r̩t]'cape'May be syllabic.[23] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[24]krk[kr̩k]'neck'May be a tap, particularly when not syllabic.
Slovene[25]r[ríːʃ]'rice'Also described as tap [ɾ],[26] and variable between trill [r] and tap [ɾ].[27] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[28]perro[ˈpe̞ro̞] 'dog'Contrasts with /ɾ/. See Spanish phonology
SwedishSome West coast dialectsbra[brɑː]'good'Allophone of /ɹ/. Very common in Gothenburg, second-largest city in Sweden, and the surrounding areas. See Swedish phonology
Tagalogrambutan[rɐmbuˈtan]'rambutan'Allophone of the more common [ɾ], especially with more conservative speakers.[29] See Tagalog phonology
Ukrainianрух[rux]'motion'See Ukrainian phonology
WelshRhagfyr[ˈr̥aɡvɨr]'December'Contrasts with the voiceless alveolar trill, /r̥/. See Welsh phonology
YiddishStandard[30]בריק[brɪk]'bridge'More commonly a flap [ɾ]; can be uvular [ɢ̆ ~ ʀ] instead.[30] See Yiddish phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[31]r-ree[rɘˀɘ]'go out (habitually)'Underlyingly two sequences of /ɾ/.


Catalan[32]roba[ˈr̠ɔβ̞ə]'clothes'Contrasts with /ɾ/. See Catalan phonology
Gokana[33]bele[bēr̠ē]'we'Allophone of /l/, medially between vowels within the morpheme, and finally in the morpheme
before a following vowel in the same word. It can be a postalveolar tap or simply [l] instead.[33]
Russian[7]играть[ɪˈɡr̠ätʲ]'to play'Contrasts with a palatalized dental trill. See Russian phonology


GermanStandard[34]Schmarrn[ʃmarn]'nonsense'Varies between apical dental and apical alveolar; may be a tap instead.[34] See Standard German phonology

Voiced alveolar fricative trill

Voiced alveolar fricative trill
IPA Number122 429
Audio sample
source · help

In Czech, there are two contrasting alveolar trills. Besides the typical apical trill, written r, there is another laminal trill, written ř, in words such as rybáři [ˈrɪbaːr̝ɪ] 'fishermen' and the common surname Dvořák. Its manner of articulation is similar to [r] but is laminal and the body of the tongue is raised. It is thus partially fricative, with the frication sounding rather like [ʒ] but less retracted. It sounds like a simultaneous [r] and [ʒ], and non-native speakers may pronounce it as [rʐ] or [ɹʒ]. In the IPA, it is typically written as r plus the raising diacritic, , but it has also been written as laminal .[35] (Before the 1989 IPA Kiel Convention, it had a dedicated symbol ɼ.) The Kobon language of Papua New Guinea also has a fricative trill, but the degree of frication is variable.


Features of the voiced alveolar fricative trill:

  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.


Czech[36][37][38][39]čtyři[ˈt͡ʃtɪr̝ɪ] 'four'May be a non-sibilant fricative.[37] It contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. See Czech phonology
Kashubian[40]Only some northern and northwestern speakers.[40]
KobonAmount of frication variable. May also be a fricative flap
PolishSome dialects[41]rzeka'river'Contrasts with /r/ and /ʐ/. Present in areas from Starogard Gdański to Malbork[41] and those south, west and northwest of them,[41] area from Lubawa to Olsztyn to Olecko to Działdowo,[41] south and east from Wieleń,[41] around Wołomin,[41] southeast from Ostrów Mazowiecka[41] and west from Siedlce,[41] from Brzeg to Opole and those north of them,[41] and roughly from Racibórz to Nowy Targ.[41] Most speakers, as well as standard Polish merge it with /ʐ/,[41] and speakers maintaining the distinction (which is mostly the elderly) sporadically do that too.[41] See Polish phonology
Portuguese[42]os rins[u ˈr̝ĩʃ]'the kidneys'Possible realization of the sequence /sr/ for speakers who realize /r/ as [r].[42] See Portuguese phonology
SilesianGmina Istebna[43]umrz[ˈumr̝iw]'(he) died'Contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. Merges with /ʐ/ in most Polish dialects.
SlovakNorthern dialects[41][44]řyka[ˈr̝ɪkä]'river'Only in a few dialects near the Polish border.[41] See Slovak phonology

See also


  1. Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  2. Chaubal & Dixit (2011), pp. 270–272.
  3. Mayo Clinic (2012).
  4. Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 228.
  5. Siptár & Törkenczy (2000), pp. 75–76, Szende (1999), p. 104
  6. Ovidiu Drăghici, Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie (PDF), retrieved April 19, 2013
  7. Skalozub (1963), p. ?; cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 221
  8. Lass (1987), p. 117.
  9. Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 19.
  10. Pultrová (2013), p. 22.
  11. Torp (2001), p. 78.
  12. "Investigating Language Attitudes: Social Meanings of Dialect, Ethnicity and Performance". Google Books. Peter Garrett, Nikolas Coupland, Angie Williams. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  13. Arvaniti (2007), pp. 14–18
  14. Arvaniti (2010), pp. 3–4.
  15. "βορράς", Cypriot Greek Lexicographic Database, Ερευνητικό Πρόγραμμα Συντυσές, 2011, retrieved 5 March 2014
  16. Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  17. Ladefoged (2005), p. 165
  18. Kara (2003), p. 11.
  19. Nau (1998), p. 6.
  20. Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  21. Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  22. Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  23. Kordić (2006), p. 4.
  24. Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 374.
  25. Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  26. Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 135.
  27. Greenberg (2006), pp. 17 and 20.
  28. Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  29. Schachter and Reid (2008)
  30. Kleine (2003), p. 263
  31. Merrill (2008), p. 109.
  32. Recasens & Pallarès (1995), p. 288.
  33. L.F. Brosnahan, Outlines of the phonology of the Gokana dialect of Ogoni (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-03, retrieved 2013-11-24
  34. Mangold (2005), p. 53
  35. For example, Ladefoged (1971).
  36. Dankovičová (1999), pp. 70–71
  37. Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 228–230 and 233
  38. Lodge (2009), p. 46.
  39. Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 226
  40. Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  41. Gwary polskie - Frykatywne rż (ř),, archived from the original on 2013-03-13, retrieved 2013-11-06
  42. Grønnum (2005), p. 157
  43. Dąbrowska (2004), p. ?
  44. Dudášová-Kriššáková (1995), pp. 98.


  • "Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia)", Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, May 16, 2012, retrieved 22 October 2013
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics, 8: 97–208, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv, archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-11
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2010), "A (brief) review of Cypriot Phonetics and Phonology" (PDF), The Greek Language in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Present Day, University of Athens, pp. 107–124, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-23
  • Chaubal, Tanay V.; Dixit, Mala Baburaj (2011), "Ankyloglossia and its Management", Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, 15 (3): 270–272, doi:10.4103/0972-124X.85673, PMC 3200025, PMID 22028516
  • Dąbrowska, Anna (2004), Język polski, Wrocław: wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, ISBN 978-83-7384-063-8
  • Dankovičová, Jana (1999), "Czech", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 70–74, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
  • Dudášová-Kriššáková, Júlia (1995), "Goralské nárečia (poznámky na okraj hesla v Encyklopédii jazykovedy)" (PDF), Slovenská Reč, 60 (2): 92–102
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Greenberg, Mark L. (2006), A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene, Kansas: University of Kansas
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 978-87-500-3865-8
  • Pultrová, Lucie (2013), ON THE PHONETIC NATURE OF THE LATIN R (PDF), p. 22
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Kara, Dávid Somfai (2003), Kyrgyz, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3895868436
  • Kleine, Ane (2003), "Standard Yiddish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 261–265, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001385
  • Kordić, Snježana (2006), Serbo-Croatian, Languages of the World/Materials; 148, Munich & Newcastle: Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-89586-161-1
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
  • Lass, Roger (1987), "Intradiphthongal Dependencies", in Anderson, John; Durand, Jacques (eds.), Explorations in Dependency Phonology, Dordrecht: Foris Publications Holland, pp. 109–131, ISBN 978-9067652971
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2
  • Mangold, Max (2005) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (6th ed.), Mannheim: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Nau, Nicole (1998), Latvian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-89586-228-1
  • Pretnar, Tone; Tokarz, Emil (1980), Slovenščina za Poljake: Kurs podstawowy języka słoweńskiego, Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski
  • Recasens, Daniel; Pallarès, Maria Dolors (2001), De la fonètica a la fonologia: les consonants i assimilacions consonàntiques del català, Barcelona: Editorial Ariel, ISBN 978-84-344-2884-3
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Šimáčková, Šárka; Podlipský, Václav Jonáš; Chládková, Kateřina (2012), "Czech spoken in Bohemia and Moravia" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (2): 225–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000102
  • Siptár, Péter; Törkenczy, Miklós (2000), The Phonology of Hungarian, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823841-6
  • Skalozub, Larisa (1963), Palatogrammy i Rentgenogrammy Soglasnyx Fonem Russkogo Literaturnogo Jazyka, Izdatelstvo Kievskogo Universiteta
  • Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, 23, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
  • Szende, Tamás (1999), "Hungarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 104–107, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
  • Torp, Arne (2001), "Retroflex consonants and dorsal /r/: mutually excluding innovations? On the diffusion of dorsal /r/ in Scandinavian", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland (eds.), 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 75–90, ISSN 0777-3692
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.