Demographics of the Gambia

The demographic characteristics of the population of The Gambia are known through national censuses, conducted in ten-year intervals and analyzed by The Gambian Bureau of Statistics (GBOS) since 1963. The latest census was conducted in 2013. The population of The Gambia at the 2013 census was 1.8 million. The population density is 176.1 per square kilometer, and the overall life expectancy in The Gambia is 64.1 years. Since the first census of 1963, the population of The Gambia has increased every ten years by an average of 43.2 percent. Since 1950s, the birth rate has constantly exceeded the death rate; the natural growth rate is positive. The Gambia is in the second stage of demographic transition. In terms of age structure, The Gambia is dominated by 15- to 64-year-old segment (57.6%). The median age of the population is 19.9 years, and the gender ratio of the total population is 0.98 males per female.

Demographics of The Gambia
Scatter plot of the population of The Gambia (in thousands) from 1963–2013
Population2,157,846 (2018)
Density176.1/sq km (2013)
Growth rate38.3%
Birth rate29.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Life expectancy65.1 (2017 est.)
  male62.8 (2017 est.)
  female67.5 (2017 est.)
Fertility rate3.52 children born/woman (2017 est.)
Infant mortality rate60.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years37.44% (2017 est.)
65 and over3.48% (2017 est.)
Sex ratio
Total0.98 (2013)
At birth1.03 (2013 est.)
Under 151.01 (2013 est.)
15–64 years0.96 (2013 est.)
65 and over0.90 (2013 est.)
Nationality
NationalityNoun: Gambian
Major ethnicAfrican (99%) (2003)
Minor ethnicNon-African (1%) (2003)
Language
OfficialEnglish
SpokenMandinka, Wolof, Fula

Population

Historical population of The Gambia
YearPop.±%
1963 315,486    
1973 493,499+56.4%
1983 687,817+39.4%
1993 1,038,145+50.9%
2003 1,360,681+31.1%
2013 1,882,450+38.3%
Source: The Gambia Bureau of Statistics[1]

With a population of 1.88 million in 2013, The Gambia ranks 149th in the world by population.[1] Its population density is 176.1 inhabitants per square kilometer (456.1 inhabitants per square mile).[2] The overall life expectancy in The Gambia is 64.1 years.[3] The total fertility rate of 3.98 is one of the highest in the world.[4] Since 1950, the United Nations (UN) estimated the birth rate exceeds the death rate.[5] The Gambia Bureau of Statistics (GBOS) estimates the population of The Gambia is expected to reach 3.6 million in 20 years.[1] The population of The Gambia has increased each census, starting with 315 thousand in 1963 to 1.8 million in 2013.[1] The GBOS predicted the reason for the increase from 2003 to 2013 was more coverage in the latter census compared to the former's.[6]

Vital statistics

Registration of vital events is in the Gambia not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[7]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-195513,0009,0004,00043.731.312.45.29221
1955-196016,00010,0006,00048.330.617.85.46210
1960-196520,00012,0008,00050.229.720.55.70199
1965-197022,00012,00010,00050.828.222.65.96185
1970-197526,00012,00014,00052.023.928.16.20164
1975-198031,00012,00019,00052.620.132.66.34140
1980-198535,00011,00024,00050.516.434.16.29117
1985-199042,00012,00030,00048.113.734.46.14101
1990-199549,00014,00035,00046.513.133.46.0393
1995-200054,00015,00039,00044.712.232.65.8086
2000-200559,00015,00044,00042.410.931.55.4680
2005-201064,00016,00048,00039.39.829.55.1074
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey) [8]

Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2013 40.5 5.6 (4.7) 37.7 4.7 (4.1) 43.4 6.8 (5.6)

Structure of the population (DHS 2013) (males 23,904, females 25,649, total 49,553) :

Age Group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0–4 18.5 16.4 17.4
5–9 16.6 15.3 15.9
10–14 12.8 12.5 12.6
15–19 10.3 10.4 10.3
20–24 8.5 9.1 8.8
25–29 6.8 8.0 7.4
30–34 5.5 6.5 6.0
35–39 4.5 4.7 4.6
40–44 3.8 3.3 3.5
45–49 2.9 2.4 2.6
50–54 2.1 4.1 3.1
55–59 1.5 1.9 1.7
60–64 2.3 1.9 2.1
65–69 1.5 1.2 1.3
70–74 1.0 0.9 1.0
75–79 0.7 0.5 0.6
80+ 0.8 1.0 0.9
Age group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0–14 47.9 44.2 45.9
15–64 48.1 52.2 50.3
65+ 4.0 3.6 3.8

Fertility data as of 2013 (DHS Program):[9]

Local Government Area Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15–49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40–49
Banjul3.95.84.3
Kanifing4.05.95.1
Brikama5.67.75.9
Mansakonko6.09.17.0
Kerewan6.38.86.9
Kuntaur7.211.56.6
Janjanbureh6.89.26.5
Basse7.010.96.2

Life expectancy

Period Life expectancy in
Years[10]
1950–1955 30.24
1955–1960 31.52
1960–1965 32.79
1965–1970 35.78
1970–1975 40.04
1975–1980 44.21
1980–1985 48.20
1985–1990 51.33
1990–1995 52.85
1995–2000 54.91
2000–2005 56.92
2005–2010 58.83
2010–2015 60.31

Other demographic statistics

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[11]

  • One birth every 6 minutes
  • One death every 31 minutes
  • One net migrant every 206 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 8 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook.[12]

Population

2,092,731 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 36.97% (male 388,615 /female 385,172)
15-24 years: 20.31% (male 210,217 /female 214,807)
25-54 years: 34.9% (male 357,934 /female 372,428)
55-64 years: 4.26% (male 42,655 /female 46,591)
65 years and over: 3.55% (male 34,328 /female 39,984) (2018 est.)

Birth rate

28.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 43rd

Death rate

6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 132nd

Total fertility rate

3.42 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 44th

Median age

total: 21.3 years. Country comparison to the world: 184th
male: 20.9 years
female: 21.6 years (2018 est.)

Population growth rate

1.99% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 48th

Mother's mean age at first birth

20.9 years (2013 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate

9% (2013)

Net migration rate

-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 158th

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 92.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 87.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 22.3 (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 61.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 65.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 63 years (2018 est.)
female: 67.8 years (2018 est.)

Religions

Muslim 95.7%, Christian 4.2%, none 0.1%, no response 0.1% (2013 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 55.5% (2015 est.)
male: 63.9% (2015 est.)
female: 47.6% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years (2010)
male: 9 years (2010)
female: 9 years (2010)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 13.1% (2012 est.)
male: 9.1% (2012 est.)
female: 17.2% (2012 est.)

See also

References

References

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