Demographics of Ukraine

The demographics of Ukraine include statistics on population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population of Ukraine.

Demographics of Ukraine
Population of Ukraine (in millions) from 1950-2019.
Population42,386,403 (1 January 2018: excluding Crimea and Sevastopol)[1]
Growth rate−8.4 people/1,000 population (2015)
Birth rate10.3 births/1,000 population (2016)
Death rate14.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016)
Life expectancy71.68 years (2016)
  male66.73 years
  female76.46 years
Fertility rate1.47 children born/woman (2016)
Infant mortality rate7.4 deaths/1,000 infants (2016)
Net migration rate−5.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015)
Age structure
0–14 years 15.4%
15–64 years 68.4%
65 and over 16.2% (2017)
Sex ratio
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
Under 151.06 male(s)/female
15–64 years0.92 male(s)/female
65 and over0.51 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Ukrainian(s) adjective: Ukrainian
Major ethnicUkrainians (77.8%) 2001[2]
Minor ethnicRussians (17.3%) 2001[2]
Language
OfficialUkrainian
SpokenUkrainian, Russian, others

The data in this article are based on the 2001 Ukrainian census which is the most recent,[3] the CIA World Factbook, and the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. The next census is scheduled to take place in 2020.[4][5]

The total population of 42,386,403[1] depicted here excludes the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol which were annexed by Russia in 2014. (The total population including those territories is 44,727,181[6])

Historical data

There were roughly four million Ukrainians at the end of the 17th century.[7] The majority of the historical information is sourced from Demoscope.ru.[8] The territory of modern Ukraine at the times listed above varied greatly. The western regions of Ukraine, west of Zbruch river, until 1939 for most of time were part of the Kingdom of Galicia and later the Polish Republic. The detailed information for those territories is missing, for more information see Demographics of Poland. The Crimean peninsula changed hands as well, in 1897 it was a part of the Taurida Governorate, but after the October Revolution became part of the Russian SFSR, and later was turned under the administration of the Ukrainian SSR.

The territory of Budjak (southern Bessarabia) became a part of the Ukrainian SSR in June 1940. The censuses of 1926 through 1989 were taken in the Ukrainian SSR. The census of 1897 is taken with the correspondence to nine gubernias that included in the territory of today's Ukraine. The statistics of 1906 records are taken from www.statoids.com which provides a broad degree of historical explanation on the situation in the Imperial Russia. The census statistics of 1931 was estimated by Ukrainian professor Zenon Kuzela (1882–1952)[9] from Berlin. His calculations are as of 1 January 1931. This ethnographer is mentioned in the encyclopedia of Ukraine as one of the sources only available due to lack of the official census.[10][11]

The 2001 census was the first official census of the independent republic of Ukraine. Its data is given as on 1 January. The 2003–2009 stats were taken from the official website of Ukrstat and represent the data as of February of each year for the real population.

Famines and migration

The famines of the 1930s, followed by the devastation of World War II, created a demographic disaster. Life expectancy at birth fell to a level as low as ten years for females and seven for males in 1933 and plateaued around 25 for females and 15 for males in the period 1941–44.[12] According to The Oxford companion to World War II, "Over 7 million inhabitants of Ukraine, more than one-sixth of the pre-war population, were killed during the Second World War."[13]

Significant migration took place in the first years of Ukrainian independence. More than one million people moved into Ukraine in 1991–92, mostly from the other former Soviet republics. In total, between 1991 and 2004, 2.2 million immigrated to Ukraine (among them, 2 million came from the other former Soviet Union states), and 2.5 million emigrated from Ukraine (among them, 1.9 million moved to other former Soviet Union republics).[14] As of 2015, immigrants constituted an estimated 11.4% of the total population, or 4.8 million people.[15] In 2006, there were an estimated 1.2 million Canadians of Ukrainian ancestry,[16] giving Canada the world's third-largest Ukrainian population behind Ukraine itself and Russia. There are also large Ukrainian immigrant communities in the United States, Poland, Australia, Brazil and Argentina.

Since about 2015 there has been a growing number of Ukrainians working in the European Union, particularly Poland. Eurostat reported that 662,000 Ukrainians received EU residence permits in 2017, with 585,439 being to Poland. World Bank statistics show that money remittances back to Ukraine have roughly doubled from 2015 to 2018, worth about 4% of GDP.[17][18] However this emigration is not represented in Ukrainian migration data, measuring registrations at the State Migration Service which is usually only done by Ukrainians obtaining foreign citizenship. It is unclear if those moving to work in the EU intend this to be temporary or permanent.[19]

Population decline

Ukraine's population (excluding Crimea) in 2017 was estimated at 42,418,235.[22] The country's population has been declining since the 1990s because of a high emigration rate, coupled with high death rates and low birth rates. The population has been shrinking by an average of over 300,000 annually since 1993.

In 2007, the country's rate of population decline was the fourth highest in the world.[23]

Life expectancy is falling, and Ukraine suffers a high mortality rate from environmental pollution, poor diets, widespread smoking, extensive alcoholism and deteriorating medical care.[24][25]

During the years 2008 to 2010, more than 1.5 million children were born in Ukraine, compared to fewer than 1.2 million during 1999–2001. In 2008 Ukraine posted record-breaking birth rates since its 1991 independence. Infant mortality rates have also dropped from 10.4 deaths to 8.3 per 1,000 children under one year of age. This is lower than in 153 countries of the world.[26]

Fertility and natalist policies

The current birth rate in Ukraine, as of 2010, is 10.8 births/1,000 population, and the death rate is 15.2 deaths/1,000 population (see Ukraine demographic tables).

The phenomenon of lowest-low fertility, defined as total fertility below 1.3, is emerging throughout Europe and is attributed by many to postponement of the initiation of childbearing. Ukraine, where total fertility (a very low 1.1 in 2001), was one of the world's lowest, shows that there is more than one pathway to lowest-low fertility. Although Ukraine has undergone immense political and economic transformations during 1991–2004, it has maintained a young age at first birth and nearly universal childbearing. Analysis of official national statistics and the Ukrainian Reproductive Health Survey show that fertility declined to very low levels without a transition to a later pattern of childbearing. Findings from focus group interviews suggest explanations of the early fertility pattern. These findings include the persistence of traditional norms for childbearing and the roles of men and women, concerns about medical complications and infertility at a later age, and the link between early fertility and early marriage.[27] Ukraine subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 40.8 years.[28]

To help mitigate the declining population, the government continues to increase child support payments. Thus it provides one-time payments of 12,250 hryvnias for the first child, 25,000 Hryvnias for the second and 50,000 Hryvnias for the third and fourth, along with monthly payments of 154 hryvnias per child.[29][30] The demographic trend is showing signs of improvement, as the birth rate has been steadily growing since 2001.[31] Net population growth over the first nine months of 2007 was registered in five provinces of the country (out of 24), and population shrinkage was showing signs of stabilising nationwide. In 2007 the highest birth rates were in the western oblasts.[32] In 2008, Ukraine emerged from lowest-low fertility, and the upward trend has continued to 2012. In 2014 the strong decline in births was re-established, with 2018 having fewer than half the number of births as in 1989.(see demographic tables)

Vital statistics

Ukrainian provinces of the Russian Empire

The figures below refer to the nine governorates of the Russian Empire (Volhynia, Yekaterinoslav, Kiev, Podolia, Poltava, Taurida, Kharkov, Kherson and Chernigov) with a Ukrainian majority.[33]

Average population (thousands) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates
1900 24,969 1,203,334660,723542,611 48.226.521.7
1901 25,505 1,123,519657,883465,636 44.125.818.3
1902 25,935 1,207,512681,580525,932 46.626.320.3
1903 26,449 1,188,404663,067525,337 44.925.119.9
1904 26,961 1,228,116682,068546,048 45.625.320.3
1905 27,210 1,160,308779,107381,201 41.127.613.5
1906 27,949 1,225,951724,045501,906 43.925.918.0
1907 28,418 1,279,027701,451577,576 45.024.720.3
1908 29,069 1,232,862692,624540,238 42.423.818.6
1909 29,700 1,226,155744,818481,337 41.325.116.2
1910 30,297 1,225,658839,491386,167 40.527.712.7
1911 30,858 1,240,985670,742570,243 40.221.718.5
1912 30,580 1,245,358654,157591,201 40.721.419.3
1913 31,142 1,222,277715,924506,353 39.223.016.36.00
1914 30,973 1,240,114716,875523,239 40.023.116.9

Between WWI and WWII

Average population (thousands) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
1924 27,400 1,150,577484,880665,697 42.017.724.3
1925 28,000 1,185,028531,819653,209 42.319.023.3 5.39
1926 28,700 1,207,907518,656689,251 42.118.124.0
1927 29,589 1,184,400522,600661,700 40.017.722.4
1928 30,251 1,139,300495,700643,600 37.716.421.3
1929 30,894 1,081,000538,700542,300 35.017.417.6
1930 31,436 1,023,000578,100484,900 32.518.414.2
1931 31,882 975,300514,700460,600 30.616.114.4
1932 32,342 782,000668,200113,800 24.220.73.5
1933 32,456 564,0002,104,000-1,540,000 17.464.8-47.4
1934 30,916 551,500462,00089,500 17.814.92.9
1935 31,006 759,100341,900417,200 24.511.013.5
1936 31,423 893,100359,500533,500 28.411.417.0
1937 31,957 1,214,000428,400785,600 38.013.424.6
1938 32,742 1,113,500430,800682,600 34.013.220.9
1939 33,425 1,073,500412,600660,900 32.112.319.8
1940 (b) 40,649 1,100,000 27.3 3.80

(a) Information is given for Ukraine's territory within its old boundaries up to 17 September 1939 (b) Information is given for Ukraine's territory within its present-day boundaries, after the annexation of Eastern Galicia and Volhynia in September 1939

After WW II

Average population
(thousands)
Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates Urban fertility Rural fertility Abortions, reported
1946 753,493
1947 712,994
1948 757,783
1949 911,641
1950 36,905 844,585 315,300 529,300 22.9 8.5 14.3 2.81
1951 37,569 858,052 327,500 530,600 22.8 8.7 14.1
1952 38,141 846,434 325,700 520,700 22.2 8.5 13.7
1953 38,678 795,652 326,800 468,900 20.6 8.4 12.1
1954 39,131 845,128 318,500 526,600 21.6 8.1 13.5
1955 39,506 792,696 296,200 496,500 20.1 7.5 12.6 2.70
1956 40,082 822,569 293,000 529,600 20.5 7.3 13.2
1957 40,800 847,781 304,800 543,000 20.8 7.5 13.3
1958 41,512 873,483 286,700 586,800 21.0 6.9 14.1 2.30
1959 42,155 880,552 316,800 563,800 20.9 7.5 13.4 2.29
1960 42,469 878,768 296,171 582,597 20.7 7.0 13.7 2.24
1961 43,097 843,482 304,346 539,136 19.6 7.1 12.5 2.17
1962 43,559 823,151 331,454 491,697 18.9 7.6 11.3 2.14
1963 44,088 794,969 323,556 471,413 17.9 7.3 10.6 2.06
1964 44,664 741,668 315,340 426,328 16.5 7.0 9.5 1.96
1965 45,133 692,153 342,717 349,436 15.3 7.6 7.7 1.99
1966 45,548 713,492 344,850 368,642 15.6 7.5 8.1 2.02
1967 45,997 699,381 368,573 330,808 15.1 8.0 7.2 2.01
1968 46,408 693,064 374,440 318,624 14.9 8.0 6.8 1.99
1969 46,778 687,991 404,151 283,840 14.7 8.6 6.0 2.04
1970 47,127 719,213 418,679 300,534 15.2 8.9 6.4 2.10 1,130,315
1971 47,507 736,691 424,717 311,974 15.4 8.9 6.5 2.12
1972 47,903 745,696 443,038 302,658 15.5 9.2 6.3 2.08
1973 48,274 719,560 449,351 270,209 14.9 9.3 5.6 2.04
1974 48,571 736,616 455,970 280,646 15.1 9.4 5.8 2.04
1975 48,881 738,857 489,550 249,307 15.1 10.0 5.1 2.02 1,110,223
1976 49,151 747,069 500,584 246,485 15.2 10.2 5.0 1.99
1977 49,388 726,217 517,967 208,250 14.7 10.5 4.2 1.94
1978 49,578 732,187 529,681 202,506 14.7 10.7 4.1 1.96
1979 49,755 735,188 552,019 183,169 14.7 11.1 3.7 1.96
1980 50,044 742,489 568,243 174,246 14.8 11.4 3.5 1.95 1,197,000
1981 50,222 733,183 568,789 164,394 14.6 11.3 3.3 1.93 1,112,734
1982 50,388 745,591 568,231 177,360 14.8 11.3 3.5 1.94 1,131,437
1983 50,573 807,111 583,496 223,615 16.0 11.6 4.4 2.11 1,125,686
1984 50,768 792,035 610,338 181,697 15.6 12.0 3.6 2.08 1,127,627
1985 50,941 762,775 617,548 145,227 15.0 12.1 2.9 2.02 1,179,000
1986 51,143 792,574 565,150 227,424 15.5 11.1 4.4 2.13 1,166,039
1987 51,373 760,851 586,387 174,464 14.8 11.4 3.4 2.07 1,168,136
1988 51,593 744,056 600,725 143,331 14.4 11.6 2.8 2.04 1,080,029
1989 51,770 690,981 600,590 90,391 13.3 11.6 1.7 1.92 1.78 2.33 1,058,414
1990 51,838 657,202 629,602 27,600 12.7 12.1 0.6 1.84 1.69 2.27 1,019,038
1991 51,944 630,813 669,960 −39,147 12.1 12.9 −0.8 1.77 1.61 2.33 957,022
1992 52,056 596,785 697,110 −100,325 11.4 13.4 −2.0 1.67 1.48 2.19 932,272
1993 52,244 557,467 741,662 −184,195 10.7 14.2 −3.5 1.56 1.37 2.07 860,996
1994 52,114 521,545 764,669 −243,124 10.0 14.7 −4.7 1.47 1.28 1.97 798,538
1995 51,728 492,861 792,587 −299,726 9.6 15.4 −5.8 1.40 1.22 1.86 740,172
1996 51,297 467,211 776,717 −309,506 9.2 15.2 −6.1 1.33 1.16 1.77 687,035
1997 50,818 442,581 754,151 −311,570 8.7 14.9 −6.2 1.27 1.11 1.68 596,740
1998 50,370 419,238 719,954 −300,716 8.4 14.4 −6.0 1.20 1.04 1.62 525,329
1999 49,918 389,208 739,170 −349,962 7.8 14.9 −7.0 1.12 0.97 1.51 495,760
2000 49,429 385,126 758,082 −372,956 7.8 15.4 −7.6 1.11 0.96 1.49 434,223
2001 48,923 376,479 745,953 −369,474 7.7 15.3 −7.6 1.085 0.96 1.41 369,750
2002 48,457 390,687 754,911 −364,224 8.1 15.7 −7.6 1.12 1.03 1.47 345,967
2003 48,003 408,591 765,408 −356,817 8.5 16.0 −7.5 1.17 1.09 1.48 315,835
2004 47,622 427,259 761,263 −334,004 9.0 16.0 −7.0 1.21 1.12 1.53 289,065
2005 47,280 426,085 781,964 −355,879 9.0 16.6 −7.6 1.21 1.16 1.48 263,950
2006 46,929 460,368 758,093 −297,725 9.8 16.2 −6.4 1.31 1.21 1.61 229,618
2007 46,646 472,657 762,877 −290,220 10.2 16.4 −6.2 1.34 1.28 1.69 210,454
2008 46,372 510,588 754,462 −243,874 11.0 16.3 −5.3 1.46 1.31 1.72 201,087
2009 46,143 512,526 706,740 −194,214 11.1 15.3 −4.2 1.46 1.33 1.77 194,845
2010 45,962 497,689 698,235 −200,546 10.8 15.2 −4.4 1.44 1.31 1.78 176,774
2011 45,778 502,595 664,588 −161,993 11.0 14.5 −3.5 1.46 1.32 1.80 156,193
2012 45,633 520,704663,139−142,435 11.414.5−3.1 1.53 1.39 1.87 141,396
2013 45,553 503,656 662,368 −158,712 11.1 14.6 −3.5 1.51 1.37 1.83
2014 43,001 465,882 632,296 −166,414 10.8 14.7 −3.9 1.50 1.35 1.83
2015 42,844 411,783 594,795 −183,012 9.6 13.9 −4.3 1.51 1.39 1.71
2016 42,672 397,039 583,631 −186,592 9.3 13.6 −4.3 1.47 1.36 1.64
2017 42,386 363,987 574,123 −210,136 8.6 13.5 −5.0 1.37 1.28 1.52
2018 42,153.201 335,874 587,665 –251,791 8.0 14.0 –6.0

(e) estimate

Urban live births Urban deaths Urban natural change Urban crude birth rate (per 1,000) Urban crude death rate (per 1,000) Urban natural change (per 1,000) Rural live births Rural deaths Rural natural change Rural crude birth rate (per 1,000) Rural crude death rate (per 1,000) Rural natural change (per 1,000)
1990 442,869 357,114 85,755 12.7 10.2 2.5 214,333 272,488 −58,155 12.7 16.1 −3.4
1991 419,205 380,988 38,917 11.9 10.8 1.1 211,608 288,972 −77,364 12.6 17.2 −4.6
1992 387,696 401,849 −14,153 11.0 11.4 −0.4 209,089 295,261 −86,172 12.5 17.6 −5.1
1993 356,833 432,462 −75,629 10.1 12.2 −2.1 200,634 309,200 −108,566 12.0 18.5 −6.5
1994 328,522 450,823 −122,301 9.3 12.8 −3.5 193,023 313,846 −120,823 11.6 18.8 −7.2
1995 308,408 476,434 −168,026 8.8 13.6 −4.8 184,453 316,153 −131,700 11.1 19.1 −8.0
1996 291,121 460,805 −169,684 8.4 13.3 −4.9 176,090 315,912 −139,822 10.7 19.2 −8.5
1997 274,961 444,446 −169,485 8.0 13.0 −5.0 167,620 309,705 −142,805 10.2 18.9 −8.7
1998 258,724 425,521 −166,797 7.6 12.6 −5.0 160,514 294,433 −133,919 9.9 18.1 −8.2
1999 239,408 439,986 −200,578 7.1 13.1 −6.0 149,800 299,184 −149,384 9.3 18.5 −9.2
2000 238,014 457,069 −219,055 7.2 13.8 −6.6 147,112 301,013 −153,901 9.2 18.8 −9.6
2001 237,228 450,329 −213,101 7.2 13.8 −6.6 139,250 295,623 −156,373 8.7 18.6 −9.9
2002 248,877 454,406 −205,529 7.7 14.0 −6.3 141,811 300,505 −158,694 9.0 19.1 −10.1
2003 266,415 459,965 −193,550 8.3 14.3 −6.0 142,174 305,443 −163,269 9.1 19.6 −10.5
2004 284,361 460,492 −176,131 8.9 14.4 −5.5 142,898 300,769 −157,871 9.3 19.6 −10.3
2005 284,257 471,561 −187,304 8.9 14.8 −5.9 141,829 310,400 −168,571 9.4 20.5 −11.1
2006 306,635 461,774 −155,139 9.6 14.5 −4.9 153,733 296,318 −142,585 10.3 19.8 −9.5
2007 314,065 466,253 −152,188 9.9 14.7 −4.8 158,592 296,624 −138,032 10.7 20.1 −9.4
2008 340,594 462,897 −122,303 10.8 14.6 −3.8 169,995 291,563 −121,568 11.6 19.9 −8.3
2009 339,497 432,294 −92,797 10.8 13.7 −2.9 173,028 274,445 −101,417 11.9 18.9 −7.0
2010 326,587 431,130 −104,543 10.4 13.7 −3.3 171,102 267,105 −96,003 11.9 18.6 −6.7
2011 328,934 411,025 −82,091 10.5 13.1 −2.3 173,661 253,563 −79,902 12.1 17.7 −5.6
2012 341,599 411,787 −70,788 10.9 13.1 −2.2 179,106 251,352 −72,246 12.6 17.7 −5.1
2013 330,284412,552−82,268 10.513.1−2.6 173,372 249,816 −76,444 12.3 17.7 −5.4
2014 304,190391,739−87,549 10.213.2−3.0 161,692 240,557 −78,865 12.2 18.1 −5.9
2015 266,082358,749−92,667 10.413.2−2.8 145,699 236,047 −90,348 11.3 18.0 −6.7
2016 258,688354,634−95,946 10.013.2−3.2 138,349 228,997 −90,648 10.8 17.6 −6.8

Note: Data excludes Crimea starting in 2014.[34]

Current vital statistics

  • Number of births for January–September 2019 = 233,222
  • Number of deaths for January–September 2019 = 436,533
  • Natural increase from January–September 2019 = -203,311

Note: Starting 2014 territories of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the city of Sevastopol and part of the anti-terrorist operation zone are not included in Demographics of Ukraine. These territories are included to the Demographics of Russia. All data from State Statistics Service of Ukraine.[38]

Life expectancy at birth

  • total population: 71.37 years
  • male: 66.34 years
  • female: 76.22 years (2013 official)

Average life expectancy at age 0 of the total population.[39]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 61.83
1955–1960 67.11
1960–1965 69.69
1965–1970 70.66
1970–1975 70.57
1975–1980 69.65
1980–1985 69.15
1985–1990 70.55
1990–1995 68.72
1995–2000 67.36
2000–2005 67.46
2005–2010 67.89
2010–2015 71.12

Total fertility rate

  • 6.00 children born/woman (1913 est.)
  • 5.39 children born/woman (1925 est.)
  • 1.08 children born/woman (2001)
  • 1.46 children born/woman (2011)
  • 1.53 children born/woman (2012)
  • 1.51 children born/woman (2013)

In 2001 Ukraine recorded the lowest fertility rate ever recorded in Europe for an independent country: 1.08 child/woman. During this year the number of children born was less than half of that born in 1987 and less than a quarter of that born in 1937. Lower rates were recorded only in former East Germany, which registered 0.77 child/woman in 1994, as well as Taiwan (from 2008 to 2010), South Korea in 2018 and both Hong Kong and Macau (from about 2000 to 2010). After neglect by the Kuchma administration, both the Yushchenko and the Yanukovych governments have made increasing the birth rate a priority.

Demographic statistics

Birth data by oblast

Note: Recent data for Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts has been affected by the War in Donbass, and may only include births within the government-held parts of the oblasts.[40]

Number of births by oblast for January–NovemberBirth/2016Birth/2015Death/2016Death/2015
Kyiv City33416 32382 27772 27767
 Dnipropetrovsk Oblast28473 30620 47934 49258
 Lviv Oblast25708 25007 29247 30010
 Odessa Oblast24246 25182 30479 31512
 Kharkiv Oblast21992 22864 38502 38965
 Donetsk Oblast17772 15608 33464 36883
 Kiev Oblast17559 18485 25623 26046
 Zakarpattia Oblast14862 15525 13880 14164
 Rivne Oblast14454 14809 13261 13426
 Zaporizhia Oblast14430 15140 25533 25657
 Vinnytsia Oblast14153 15126 22521 23237
 Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast13547 14412 15616 16144
 Volyn Oblast12047 12307 12311 12602
 Zhytomyr Oblast11958 12526 18301 19085
 Khmelnytskyi Oblast11793 12768 18097 18702
 Poltava Oblast11503 12381 22084 22440
 Mykolaiv Oblast9904 10626 15834 16316
 Kherson Oblast9877 10476 14891 15055
 Cherkasy Oblast9721 10560 18437 18315
 Chernivtsi Oblast9461 9851 10399 10738
 Ternopil Oblast9177 9912 13584 13962
 Kirovohrad Oblast8189 8662 14810 14809
 Sumy Oblast8169 8959 16982 17322
 Chernihiv Oblast7816 8359 17515 18199
 Luhansk Oblast5960 4978 12689 13401
Number of births by oblastBirth/2014Birth/2013Birth/2012Birth/2011Death/2014Death/2013Death/2012Death/2011
 Dnipropetrovsk Oblast36497 36134 37087 36116 52722 51134 51486 52106
 Donetsk Oblast35595 41034 42839 41720 71799 69345 70496 71042
Kyiv City34821 33305 33887 32068 29992 28003 27840 27050
 Lviv Oblast30270 29542 30220 28904 32450 31666 31667 31162
 Odessa Oblast29465 29075 30384 29225 34155 33523 33648 33688
 Kharkiv Oblast27690 26700 27244 26317 41891 39465 40130 40079
 Kiev Oblast20900 20511 20966 20083 28264 27198 27161 26847
 Zaporizhia Oblast18713 18134 18882 18198 27773 26498 26406 27033
 Zakarpattia Oblast18377 18490 18968 18460 14808 14801 14813 14588
 Vinnytsia Oblast17547 17437 18339 17894 25567 25453 25158 25376
 Rivne Oblast17169 17445 18316 17697 14714 14556 14302 14168
 Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast16886 16716 17101 16497 17670 17358 16801 16657
 Zhytomyr Oblast15115 15001 15486 15154 21185 20859 20685 20417
 Volyn Oblast14668 14700 15346 14620 13748 13666 13710 13842
 Khmelnytskyi Oblast14631 14548 14881 14492 20408 20581 20362 20116
 Poltava Oblast14504 14296 14635 14167 24784 24358 24223 24384
 Mykolaiv Oblast13076 13043 13515 13029 17750 17353 17277 17441
 Cherkasy Oblast12351 12100 12798 12473 20800 20477 20667 20848
 Kherson Oblast12308 12300 12643 12085 16141 16048 15904 15828
 Ternopil Oblast11717 11807 12202 11964 15180 14682 14838 14829
 Chernivtsi Oblast11679 11465 11592 11281 11619 11520 11321 11192
 Luhansk Oblast11442 20531 21743 21320 22755 35822 36316 37256
 Kirovohrad Oblast10576 10562 11029 10578 16716 16513 16521 16697
 Sumy Oblast10344 10411 11093 10473 19452 19219 19002 18833
 Chernihiv Oblast9552 9852 10222 10134 20324 19909 20208 20179
Birth rate by oblastBirth/2014Birth/2013Birth/2012Birth/2011Death/2014Death/2013Death/2012Death/2011
 Rivne Oblast14.8 15.1 15.9 15.3 12.7 12.6 12.4 12.3
 Zakarpattia Oblast14.6 14.7 15.1 14.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.7
 Volyn Oblast14.1 14.1 14.8 14.1 13.2 13.1 13.2 13.3
 Chernivtsi Oblast12.9 12.6 12.8 12.5 12.8 12.7 12.5 12.4
 Odessa Oblast12.3 12.1 12.7 12.2 14.3 14.0 14.1 14.1
 Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast12.2 12.1 12.4 12.0 12.8 12.6 12.2 12.1
 Kiev Oblast12.1 11.9 12.2 11.7 16.4 15.8 15.8 15.6
Kyiv City12.1 11.7 12.0 11.4 10.4 9.8 9.8 9.6
 Zhytomyr Oblast12.0 11.9 12.2 11.9 16.8 16.5 16.3 16.0
 Lviv Oblast11.9 11.6 11.9 11.4 12.8 12.4 12.5 12.3
 Kherson Oblast11.5 11.4 11.7 11.1 15.1 14.9 14.7 14.6
 Mykolaiv Oblast11.2 11.1 11.5 11.0 15.2 14.8 14.7 14.8
 Khmelnytskyi Oblast11.2 11.1 11.3 11.0 15.6 15.7 15.5 15.2
 Dnipropetrovsk Oblast11.1 11.0 11.2 10.9 16.0 15.5 15.5 15.7
 Vinnytsia Oblast10.9 10.8 11.2 10.9 15.9 15.7 15.4 15.5
 Ternopil Oblast10.9 11.0 11.3 11.1 14.2 13.7 13.8 13.7
 Kirovohrad Oblast10.8 10.7 11.0 10.5 17.0 16.7 16.5 16.6
 Zaporizhia Oblast10.6 10.2 10.6 10.1 15.7 14.9 14.8 15.0
 Kharkiv Oblast10.1 9.8 9.9 9.6 15.3 14.4 14.6 14.6
 Poltava Oblast10.0 9.8 9.9 9.5 17.1 16.7 16.5 16.4
 Cherkasy Oblast9.8 9.6 10.1 9.8 16.5 16.2 16.2 16.3
 Sumy Oblast9.2 9.2 9.7 9.1 17.2 16.9 16.6 16.3
 Chernihiv Oblast9.0 9.2 9.4 9.3 19.2 18.6 18.7 18.5
 Donetsk Oblast8.2 9.4 9.8 9.5 16.6 15.9 16.1 16.1
 Luhansk Oblast5.1 9.1 9.6 9.3 10.2 15.9 16.0 16.3

Year in review 2013

Compared to 2012, amount of attrition increased by 16,278 persons, or 3.1 to 3.5 persons per 1,000 inhabitants real. Natural decrease was observed in 23 oblasts of the country, while natural increases were recorded only in the capital Kiev, Zakarpattya, Rivne and Volyn oblast (respectively 5,302, 3,689, 2,889 and 1,034 people).

Some regions registered a low natural decline, such as Chernivtsi, Ivano-Frankivsk, Sevastopol, Lviv, Ternopil, Crimea, Kherson and Odessa (respectively, −55, −642, −863, −2,124, −2,875, −2,974, −3,748 and −4,448 people). The largest declines were recorded in Donetsk, Luhansk, Dnipro, Kharkiv, Poltava and Chernihiv (respectively −28,311, −15,291, −15,007, −12,765, −10,062 and −10,057), regions which have in common a low birth rate and high mortality of a large urban population and a strong rural population aging.

Net migration rate

−5.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015).

Infant mortality rate

  • 9.1 deaths/1,000 infants live births for 4,564 deaths. (2010)
  • 9.0 deaths/1,000 infants live births for 4,511 deaths. (2011)
  • 8.4 deaths/1,000 infants live births for 4,371 deaths. (2012)
  • 8.0 deaths/1,000 infants live births for 4,030 deaths. (2013)
  • 8.9 deaths/1,000 infants live births for 2,193 death for January–June 2011
  • 8.6 deaths/1,000 infants live births for 2,190 death for January–June 2012
  • 7.8 deaths/1,000 infants live births for 1,993 deaths for January–June 2013[41]
Infant mortality by oblastDeath/2012Death/2011Death/2010Death/2009
 Donetsk Oblast540 473 497 533
 Dnipropetrovsk Oblast370 343 347 329
 Odessa Oblast267 268 263 280
Kyiv City262 255 233 244
 Lviv Oblast233 272 266 238
 Kharkiv Oblast203 234 243 252
 Zakarpattia Oblast168 195 199 238
 Vinnytsia Oblast166 186 148 149
 Luhansk Oblast165 188 199 252
 Zaporizhia Oblast154 169 182 174
 Rivne Oblast147 156 158 164
 Khmelnytskyi Oblast134 89 109 174
 Zhytomyr Oblast124 134 135 127
 Cherkasy Oblast122 101 125 132
 Kiev Oblast119 143 140 146
 Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast109 145 170 157
 Volyn Oblast106 116 123 118
 Kirovohrad Oblast103 139 112 119
 Kherson Oblast100 120 116 136
 Mykolaiv Oblast97 97 104 112
 Ternopil Oblast97 96 98 93
 Chernihiv Oblast94 80 82 103
 Chernivtsi Oblast92 96 90 91
 Poltava Oblast85 86 87 105
 Sumy Oblast76 78 97 91
Infant mortality per 1,000 by OblastDeath/2012Death/2011Death/2010Death/2009
 Donetsk Oblast12.7 11.4 12.0 12.3
 Dnipropetrovsk Oblast10.0 9.5 9.7 8.8
 Cherkasy Oblast9.6 8.1 10.0 10.5
 Kirovohrad Oblast9.4 13.2 10.6 10.9
 Chernihiv Oblast9.2 7.9 8.1 9.9
 Vinnytsia Oblast9.1 10.4 8.4 8.3
 Khmelnytskyi Oblast9.0 6.2 7.5 11.8
 Zakarpattia Oblast8.9 10.6 10.9 13.1
 Odessa Oblast8.8 9.2 9.2 9.7
 Zaporizhia Oblast8.2 9.3 10.1 9.4
 Rivne Oblast8.1 8.9 9.2 9.4
 Kherson Oblast8.0 9.9 9.4 11.0
 Zhytomyr Oblast8.0 8.9 9.1 8.5
 Chernivtsi Oblast8.0 8.5 8.2 8.2
 Ternopil Oblast8.0 8.0 8.2 7.5
 Lviv Oblast7.8 9.4 9.2 8.0
Kyiv City7.8 8.0 7.3 7.5
 Luhansk Oblast7.6 8.8 9.4 11.6
 Kharkiv Oblast7.5 8.9 9.2 9.3
 Mykolaiv Oblast7.3 7.5 8.1 8.5
 Volyn Oblast7.0 7.9 8.2 7.7
 Sumy Oblast6.9 7.5 9.3 8.5
 Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast6.4 8.8 10.3 9.1
 Poltava Oblast5.8 6.1 6.1 7.1
 Kiev Oblast5.7 7.2 7.0 7.1

Total fertility rate by oblast

Although none of the oblasts in 2013 has recorded a higher fertility rate 2.10 children per woman. However, the rate has been in rural areas in the Rivne Oblast (2.50) and the Volyn Oblast (2.20). While a very close generational renewal rate was achieved in the Odessa Oblast (2.04), Zakarpattia Oblast (2.00), Mykolaiv Oblast (1.95), Chernivtsi Oblast (1.93) and Zhytomyr Oblast (1.91) weaker when they have been recorded in the Luhansk oblast (1.41), Sumy oblast (1.47) and Cherkasy Oblast (1.53).

The fertility rate of the highest urban areas were recorded in the Zakarpattia Oblast (1.80), the city of Sevastopol (1.57), Volyn Oblast (1.56), Kiev Oblast (1.56) and the Rivne Oblast (1.54). The lowest rates were recorded in the Sumy Oblast (1.23), Kharkiv Oblast (1.26), Cherkasy Oblast (1.28), Chernihiv Oblast (1.28), Chernivtsi Oblast (1.28), Luhansk oblast (1.28), Poltava oblast (1.29), Donetsk oblast (1.29) and Zaporizhia Oblast (1.32).

Children born per woman by oblastTotal fertility rate/2013Total fertility rate/2012Total fertility rate/2011Total fertility rate/2010
 Rivne Oblast2.00 2.08 1.99 1.93
 Zakarpattia Oblast1.93 1.95 1.90 1.83
 Volyn Oblast1.86 1.92 1.81 1.85
 Zhytomyr Oblast1.68 1.71 1.65 1.61
 Odessa Oblast1.65 1.71 1.62 1.58
 Kiev Oblast1.64 1.67 1.58 1.58
 Chernivtsi Oblast1.63 1.64 1.58 1.53
 Khmelnytskyi Oblast1.61 1.62 1.56 1.55
 Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast1.60 1.63 1.55 1.58
 Kherson Oblast1.60 1.61 1.51 1.51
 Kirovohrad Oblast1.57 1.61 1.51 1.50
 Lviv Oblast1.55 1.58 1.49 1.50
 Mykolaiv Oblast1.55 1.57 1.47 1.44
 Vinnytsia Oblast1.53 1.59 1.53 1.50
 Ukraine1.51 1.53 1.46 1.45
 Dnipropetrovsk Oblast1.51 1.52 1.44 1.43
 Ternopil Oblast1.48 1.50 1.45 1.46
 Zaporizhia Oblast1.43 1.46 1.37 1.34
 Poltava Oblast1.40 1.41 1.33 1.34
 Cherkasy Oblast1.38 1.43 1.37 1.36
 Chernihiv Oblast1.37 1.40 1.36 1.36
Kyiv City1.36 1.38 1.29 1.30
 Donetsk Oblast1.32 1.34 1.27 1.26
 Kharkiv Oblast1.32 1.32 1.25 1.24
 Sumy Oblast1.30 1.36 1.25 1.23
 Luhansk Oblast1.30 1.33 1.27 1.23

Other demographics statistics

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[42]

  • One birth every 1 minutes
  • One death every 48 seconds
  • Net loss of one person every 2 minutes
  • One net migrant every 30 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[28]

Population
43,952,299 (July 2018 est.)
44,033,874 (July 2017 est.)
45,426,249 (1 January 2013)[43]
Age structure
0-14 years: 15.95% (male 3,609,386 /female 3,400,349)
15-24 years: 9.57% (male 2,156,338 /female 2,047,821)
25-54 years: 44.03% (male 9,522,108 /female 9,831,924)
55-64 years: 13.96% (male 2,638,173 /female 3,499,718)
65 years and over: 16.49% (male 2,433,718 /female 4,812,764) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 15.76% (male 3,571,358/female 3,366,380)
15-24 years: 9.86% (male 2,226,142/female 2,114,853)
25-54 years: 44.29% (male 9,579,149/female 9,921,387)
55-64 years: 13.8% (male 2,605,849/female 3,469,246)
65 years and over: 16.3% (male 2,409,049/female 4,770,461) (2017 est.)
0–14 years: 15.1% = 6,449,171 (2015 official.)
15–64 years: 69.3% = 29,634,710
65 years and over: 15.6% = 6,675,780
0–14 years: 14.8% = 6,989,802
15–64 years: 69.2% = 32,603,475
65 years and over: 16.0% = 7,507,185 (2005 official.)
0–14 years: 21.6% = 11,101,469
15–64 years: 66.7% = 34,320,742
65 years and over: 11.7% = 6,022,934 (1989 official.)
Median age
total: 40.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 47th
male: 37.7 years
female: 43.9 years (2018 est.)
total: 40.6 years
male: 37.4 years
female: 43.7 years (2017 est.)
total: 39.8 years
male: 39.7 years
female: 40.1 years (2014 official)
total: 39.7 years
male: 39.5 years
female: 40.1 years (2013 official)
total: 34.8 years
male: 31.9 years
female: 37.7 years (1989 official)
Birth rate
10.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 190th
10.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate
14.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 6th
14.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.55 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 190th
1.54 children born/woman (2017 est.)
Net migration rate
4.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 29th
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
24.9 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate
0.04% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 187th
-0.41% (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 72.4 years. Country comparison to the world: 148th
male: 67.7 years
female: 77.4 years (2018 est.)
Ethnic groups

Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 est.)

Languages

Ukrainian (official) 67.5%, Russian (regional language) 29.6%, other (includes small Crimean Tatar-, Moldovan/Romanian-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 2.9% (2001 est.)
Note: in February 2018, the Constitutional Court ruled that 2012 language legislation entitling a language spoken by at least 10% of an oblast's population to be given the status of "regional language" - allowing for its use in courts, schools, and other government institutions - was unconstitutional, thus making the law invalid; Ukrainian remains the country's only official nationwide

Religions

Orthodox (includes Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox (UAOC), Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP), Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP)), Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish
Note: Ukraine's population is overwhelmingly Christian; the vast majority - up to two-thirds - identify themselves as Orthodox, but many do not specify a particular branch; the UOC-KP and the UOC-MP each represent less than a quarter of the country's population, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church accounts for 8-10%, and the UAOC accounts for 1-2%; Muslim and Jewish adherents each compose less than 1% of the total population (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 44.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 21.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 23 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.3 (2015 est.)
note: data include Crimea
Urbanization
urban population: 69.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: -0.33% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 23%. Country comparison to the world: 53rd
male: 24%
female: 21.5% (2016 est.)

Statistic rate of regional capitals

Birth rate in

regional centers

Birth/2012Birth/2011Birth/2010Birth/2009Birth/2007Birth/2005Birth/2003
Simferopol 13.6 12.8 11.8 11.8 11.0 9.5 9.2
Lutsk 12.6 12.3 12.6 13.9 12.6 11.7 10.0
Rivne 12.6 12.0 11.8 12.3 10.9 10.1 9.4
Uzhhorod 12.1 11.9 12.0 12.4 12.8 12.6 10.8
Kiev 12.0 11.4 11.5 11.7 10.4 9.8 8.8
Khmelnytskyi 12.0 11.2 11.8 11.5 10.4 10.2 9.2
Sevastopol 12.0 11.1 11.0 11.2 10.5 9.6 8.7
Kherson 11.9 11.1 10.1 10.5 9.6 8.6 8.5
Ternopil 11.8 12.2 11.7 12.3 11.9 11.6 10.4
Ivano-Frankivsk 11.6 11.6 10.1 10.8 11.3 10.7 9.3
Vinnytsia 11.5 11.2 10.9 11.1 10.1 9.4 9.1
Kropyvnytskyi 11.5 11.1 10.5 11.3 10.5 8.9 8.4
Zhytomyr 11.4 11.5 10.8 11.7 10.6 9.5 8.7
Sumy 11.3 10.3 10.0 10.3 9.6 8.2 7.8
Lviv 11.0 10.4 10.0 10.5 9.7 9.3 9.0
Ukraine Urban 10.9 10.5 10.4 10.8 9.9 8.9 8.3
Dnipro 10.5 10.2 10.0 10.5 9.4 8.5 7.9
Luhansk 10.5 9.8 8.8 9.2 8.2 7.4 6.8
Chernivtsi 10.2 10.3 10.1 10.2 9.2 9.6 8.3
Odessa 10.1 9.8 9.6 9.9 9.0 8.3 7.5
Cherkasy 9.9 9.4 9.4 9.4 8.7 7.8 7.4
Poltava 9.9 9.1 8.8 9.7 8.4 7.8 7.3
Zaporizhia 9.5 9.2 9.2 9.3 8.9 8.2 7.5
Mykolaiv 9.4 9.3 9.1 9.4 8.7 8.0 7.9
Chernihiv 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.6 8.4 8.0 7.6
Kharkiv 9.2 8.9 8.8 9.2 8.4 7.6 7.1
Donetsk 9.1 8.7 8.6 9.0 8.2 7.5 6.6
Death rate in

regional centers

Death/2012Death/2011Death/2010Death/2009Death/2007Death/2005Death/2003
Kherson 15.2 15.6 14.0 14.2 14.9 14.8 14.5
Luhansk 14.2 14.3 13.6 13.4 13.8 14.2 14.1
Simferopol 14.0 14.8 13.6 13.8 15.3 15.3 15.2
Sevastopol 13.7 14.1 14.7 14.5 15.5 15.4 14.1
Kropyvnytskyi 13.7 13.7 13.8 14.0 14.4 14.1 14.1
Dnipro 13.5 13.7 14.1 13.8 15.1 15.1 16.0
Donetsk 13.4 13.5 14.0 13.9 15.2 15.4 14.7
Zaporizhia 13.2 13.4 14.2 13.8 15.0 14.7 14.2
Ukraine Urban 13.1 13.1 13.7 13.7 14.7 14.8 14.3
Mykolaiv 12.8 12.8 13.8 13.8 14.5 14.5 14.9
Poltava 12.8 12.6 13.2 13.0 13.7 13.6 13.6
Sumy 12.1 11.9 12.4 12.6 13.0 13.1 11.9
Kharkiv 12.0 11.8 12.4 12.2 13.1 13.1 13.0
Odessa 11.9 12.2 13.0 12.5 13.9 14.1 14.0
Cherkasy 11.2 10.7 11.3 11.2 11.7 11.7 11.0
Chernihiv 11.4 11.1 12.0 11.8 12.5 12.4 12.0
Lviv 11.0 10.8 10.5 10.8 11.5 11.4 11.5
Zhytomyr 10.7 10.9 11.2 11.1 12.0 12.2 11.4
Uzhhorod 10.3 10.2 10.5 11.3 12.0 12.4 10.3
Kiev 9.8 9.6 10.3 10.2 11.4 11.2 10.7
Lutsk 9.6 9.4 9.6 9.1 10.4 10.2 10.5
Chernivtsi 9.5 9.4 9.9 10.3 11.0 11.0 10.8
Khmelnytskyi 9.4 8.8 9.0 9.5 9.8 9.8 9.2
Vinnytsia 9.1 9.0 9.2 9.2 10.2 10.2 10.0
Ivano-Frankivsk 9.1 8.7 8.2 8.5 9.1 9.3 9.3
Ternopil 8.1 7.6 8.1 7.7 8.5 8.5 7.7
Rivne 7.9 7.8 8.7 8.6 9.0 9.2 8.8

Ethnic groups

In 2001, the ethnic composition was: Ukrainians 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Romanian 1.1% (including Moldovan 0.8%), Belarusian 0.6%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 1.0%, Pontic Greeks 0.2% and other 1.6% (including Muslim Bulgarians, otherwise known as Torbesh and a microcosm of Swedes of Gammalsvenskby).[44] It is also estimated that there are about 49,817 ethnic Koreans (0.12%) in Ukraine that belong to the Koryo-saram group. Their number may be as high as 100.000 as many ethnic Koreans were assimilated into the majority population.[45][46]

Before World War II

Population of the Ukrainian SSR according to ethnic group 1926–1939
Ethnic
group
census 19261 census 19392
Number % Number %
Ukrainians 23,218,860 80.0 23,667,509 76.5
Russians 2,677,166 9.2 4,175,299 13.5
Jews 1,574,428 5.4 1,532,776 5.0
Germans 393,924 1.4 392,458 1.3
Poles 476,435 1.6 357,710 1.2
Moldavians / Romanians 257,794 0.9 230,698 0.8
Belarusians 75,842 0.3 158,174 0.5
Pontic Greeks 104,666 0.4 107,047 0.4
Bulgarians 99,278 0.3 83,838 0.3
Tatars 22,281 0.1 55,456 0.2
Romani 13,578 0.0 10,443 0.0
Others 103,935 0.4 174,810 0.6
Total 29,018,187 30,946,218
1 Source: .

After World War II

Population of Ukraine according to ethnic group 1959-2001
Ethnic
group
census 19591 census 19702 census 19793 census 19894 census 20015
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Ukrainians 32,158,493 76.8 35,283,857 74.9 36,488,951 73.6 37,419,053 72.7 37,541,693 77.5
Russians 7,090,813 16.9 9,126,331 19.4 10,471,602 21.1 11,355,582 22.1 8,334,141 17.2
Belarusians 290,890 0.7 385,847 0.8 406,098 0.8 440,045 0.9 275,763 0.6
Moldovans 241,650 0.8 265,902 0.8 293,576 0.8 324,525 0.9 258,619 0.8
Crimean Tatars 193 0.0 3,554 0.0 6,636 0.0 46,807 0.1 248,193 0.5
Bulgarians 219,419 0.5 234,390 0.5 238,217 0.5 233,800 0.5 204,574 0.4
Hungarians 149,229 0.4 157,731 0.3 164,373 0.3 163,111 0.3 156,566 0.3
Romanians 100,863 0.3 112,141 0.3 121,795 0.3 134,825 0.3 150,989 0.3
Poles 363,297 0.9 295,107 0.6 258,309 0.5 219,179 0.4 144,130 0.3
Jews 840,311 2.0 777,126 1.7 634,154 1.3 486,628 1.0 400,000 1.0
Armenians 28,024 0.1 33,439 0.1 38,646 0.1 54,200 0.1 99,894 0.2
Greeks 104,359 0.3 106,909 0.2 104,091 0.2 98,594 0.2 91,548 0.2
Tatars 61,334 0.2 72,658 0.2 83,906 0.2 86,875 0.2 73,304 0.2
Romani 22,515 0.1 30,091 0.1 34,411 0.1 47,917 0.1 47,587 0.1
Azerbaijanis 6,680 0.0 10,769 0.0 17,235 0.0 36,961 0.1 45,176 0.1
Georgians 11,574 0.0 14,650 0.0 16,301 0.0 23,540 0.1 34,199 0.1
Germans 23,243 0.1 29,871 0.1 34,139 0.1 37,849 0.1 33,302 0.1
Gagauzs 23,530 0.1 26,464 0.1 29,398 0.1 31,967 0.1 31,923 0.1
Karaites 3,301 0.0 2,596 0.0 1,845 0.0 1,404 0.0 1,196 0.0
Others 129,338 0.3 157,084 0.3 165,650 0.3 209,172 0.4 363,821 1.1
Total 41,869,046 47,126,517 49,609,333 51,452,034 48,240,902
1 Source: . 2 Source: . 3 Source: . 4 Source: . 5 Source: .

Ethnic Groups in Ukraine 2001[47]

  Ukrainian (77.8%)
  Russian (17.3%)
  Belarusian (0.6%)
  Moldovan (0.5%)
  Crimean Tatar (0.5%)
  Bulgarian (0.4%)
  Hungarian (0.3%)
  Romanian (0.3%)
  Polish (0.3%)
  Jewish (1.0%)
  Other (1.8%)

Languages

According to the latest census that took place, the following languages are common in Ukraine Ukrainian 67.5%, Russian 29.6%, Crimean Tatar, Urum (Turkic Greeks), Bulgarian, Moldovan/Romanian, Polish, Hungarian. The below table gives the total population of various ethnic groups in Ukraine and the primary language, according to the 2001 census.[44]

Primary language by ethnic group
Ethnic group Population Native Ukrainian Russian Other
Ukrainians 37,541,693 31,970,728 5,544,729 532
Russians 8,334,141 7,993,832 328,152 402
Moldovans 258,619 181,124 27,775 45,607 1242
Belarusians 275,763 54,573 48,202 172,251
Crimean Tatars 248,193 228,373 184 15,208 43
Bulgarians 204,574 131,237 10,277 62,067 9
Hungarians 156,566 149,431 5,367 1,513 14
Romanians 150,989 138,522 9,367 2,297 170
Poles 144,130 18,660 102,268 22,495 390
Jews 103,591 3,213 13,924 85,964 16
Armenians 99,894 50,363 5,798 43,105 11
Greeks 91,548 5,829 4,359 80,992 9
Tatars 73,304 25,770 3,310 43,060 6
Koreans 49,817 2,223 37,932 9,662 0
Romani people 47,587 21,266 10,039 6,378 6
Azerbaijanis 45,176 23,958 3,224 16,968 36
Georgians 34,199 12,539 2,818 18,589 15
Germans 33,302 4,056 7,360 21,549 20
Gagauzs 31,923 22,822 1,102 7,232 2
Uzbeks 12,353 3,604 1,818 5,996 0
Chuvash 10,593 2,268 564 7,636 1
Mordvinians 9,331 1,473 646 7,168 0
Turks 8,844 7,923 133 567 0
Lithuanians 7,207 1,932 1,029 4,182 4
Arabs 6,575 4,071 897 1,235 0
Slovaks 6,397 2,633 2,665 335 0
Czechs 5,917 1,190 2,503 2,144 2
Kazakhs 5,526 1,041 822 3,470 11
Latvians 5,079 957 872 3,188 1
Ossetians 4,834 1,150 401 3,110 4
Udmurts 4,712 729 380 3,515 0
Lezghinians 4,349 1,507 330 2,341 4
Tadjiks 4,255 1,521 488 1,983 0
Bashkirs 4,253 843 336 2,920 0
Mari people 4,130 1,059 264 2,758 7
Thai 3,850 3,641 29 164 0
Turkmens 3,709 719 1,079 1,392 0
Albanians 3,308 1,740 301 1,181 0
Assyrians 3,143 883 408 1,730 0
Chechens 2,877 1,581 212 977 0
Estonians 2,868 416 321 2,107 4
Chinese people 2,213 1,817 73 307 0
Kurds 2,088 1,173 236 396 0
Darghins 1,610 409 199 955 0
Komis 1,545 330 127 1,046 0
Karelians 1,522 96 145 1,244 1
Avars 1,496 582 121 761 0
India-Bangladesh-Pakistan 1,483 1,092 26 192 0
Abkhazians 1,458 317 268 797 0
Karaites 1,196 72 160 931 0
Komi-Permians 1,165 160 79 898 1
Kyrgyz people 1,128 208 221 617 19
Laks 1,019 199 271 514 13
Afghans 1,008 551 60 213 0
other 3,228 1,027 144 790 0
NA 188,639 0 1,108 1,844 1
Native languages according to 2001 census
Ukrainian Russian Romanian and Moldovan
Crimean Tatar Bulgarian Hungarian

Religion

A 2016 survey conducted by the Razumkov Centre found that 70% of the population declared themselves believers in any religion, while 6.3% declared themselves non-believers, and 2.7% declared to be atheists.[48] Of the total Ukrainian population, 81.9% declared to be Christians, comprising a 63.4% who declared to be Orthodox, 8.5% Greek Rite Catholics, 7.1% simply Christians, 1.9% Protestants, and 1.0% Latin Rite Catholics. Islam comprises 1.1% of the population, while Judaism and Hinduism were the religions of 0.2% of the population each. A further 16.3% of the population believed in some other religion not identifying in one of those listed hitherto; it may comprise Rodnovery and other faiths.[48]

Among those Ukrainians who declared to believe in Orthodoxy, 38.1% declared to be members of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kievan Patriarchate (a body that is not canonically recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church), while 23.0% declared to be members of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscovian Patriarchate (which is an autonomous Orthodox church under the Russian Orthodox Church). A further 2.7% were members of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, which, like the Kievan Patriarchate, is not recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church.[49] Among the remaining Orthodox Ukrainians, 32.3% declared to be "simply Orthodox", without affiliation to any patriarchate, while a further 3.1% declared that they "did not know" which patriarchate or Orthodox church they belonged to.[48]

Regional differences

Regional differences in population change

Between the Soviet census of 1989 and the Ukrainian census of 2001, Ukraine's population declined from 51,706,600 to 48,457,020,[50] a loss of 2,926,700 people or 5.7% of the 1989 population. However, this trend has been quite uneven and varied regionally. Two regions in western Ukraine Rivne and Zakarpattia, saw slight population increases of .3% and .5% respectively. A third western Ukrainian region, Volyn, lost less than .1% of its population between 1989 and 2001.[50] Collectively, between 1989 and 2001 the seven westernmost regions of Ukraine lost 167,500 people or 1.7% of their 1989 population. The total population of these regions in 2001 was 9,593,800.[50]

Between 1989 and 2001, the population of Kiev City increased by .3%[50] due to positive net-migration. Outside the capital, the central, southern and eastern regions experienced a severe decline in population. Between 1989 and 2001, the Donetsk region lost 491,300 people or 9.2% of its 1989 population, and neighbouring Luhansk region lost 11% of its population.[50] Chernihiv region, in central Ukraine northeast of Kiev, lost 170,600 people or 12% of its 1989 population, the highest percentage loss in of any region in Ukraine. In southern Ukraine, Odessa region lost 173,600 people, or 6.6% of its 1989 population. By 2001, Crimea's population declined by 29,900 people, representing only 1.4% loss of the 1989 population.[50]

However, this was due to the influx of approximately 200,000 Crimean Tatars  a number equivalent to approximately 10% of Crimea's 1989 population – who arrived in Crimea after 1989 and whose population in that region increased by a factor of 6.4 from 38,000 to 243,400 between 1989 and 2001.[51] Collectively, the net population loss in the regions of Ukraine outside the westernmost regions was 2,759,200 people or 6.6% of the 1989 population. The total population of these regions in 2001 was 39,186,100.[50]

Thus, from 19892001 the pattern of population change was one of slight growth in Kiev, slight declines in western Ukraine, large declines in eastern, central and southern Ukraine and slight decline in Crimea due to a large influx of Crimean Tatars.

Natural population growth
All population, 2012 Urban population, 2009 Rural population, 2009

Regional differences in birth and fertility rates

Ukraine's total fertility rate is one of the lowest in Europe.[52][53] However, significant regional differences in birth rates may account for some of the demographic differences. In the third quarter of 2007, for instance, the highest birth rate among Ukrainian regions occurred in Volyn Oblast, with a birth rate of 13.4/1,000 people, compared to the Ukrainian country-wide average of 9.6/1,000 people.[54] Volyn's birthrate is higher than the average birth rate of any European country with the exceptions of Iceland and Albania.[55]

In 2007, for the first time since 1990, five Ukrainian regions (Zakarpattia Oblast, Rivne Oblast, Volyn Oblast, Lviv Oblast, and Kiev Oblast) experienced more births than deaths.[56] This demonstrates a positive trend of increasing birthrates in the last couple of years throughout Ukraine. The ratio of births to deaths in those regions in 2007 was 119%, 117%, 110%, 100.7%, and 108%, respectively.[56]

With the exception of Kiev region, all of the regions with more births than deaths were in the less industrially developed regions of western Ukraine. According to a spokesperson for Ukraine's Ministry of Justice, the overall ratio of births to deaths in Ukraine had improved from 1 to 1.7 in 2004–2005 to 1 to 1.4 in 2008. However, the worst birth to death ratios in the country were in the eastern and central oblasts of Donetsk, Luhansk, Cherkasy and Poltava. In these regions, for every birth there were 2.1 deaths.[57]

Notably, western Ukraine never experienced the Holodomor, as Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Romania ruled it at the time, helping to explain the better demographics there, as the rural population was never devastated. Specifically, during the time of the Holodomor, Poland ruled Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv, Rivne, Ternopil, and Volyn Oblasts, whereas Zakarpattia Oblast was under Czechoslovak rule, and Romania controlled Chernivtsi Oblast and the Budjak section of Odessa Oblast.

Abortion behavior in the North, South, East and Center regions of Ukraine are relatively homogeneous while the Western region differs greatly. Overall, the abortion rate in western Ukraine is three times lower than in other regions; however this is not due to an increased use of modern contraceptive methods in the West, but simply due to the fact that pregnant women in the Western regions are more likely to keep their babies.[58] Donetsk and Dniproptrovsk oblasts in eastern and central Ukraine have the country's highest rate of abortions.[59]

Regional differences and death rates and health

Death rates also vary widely by region; Eastern and southern Ukraine have the highest death rates in the country, and the life expectancy for children born in Chernihiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Kherson, Kropyvnytskyi, Luhansk, Mikolaiv, and Odessa regions is 1.5 years lower than the national average.[60]

Ukraine had a suicide rate of 29.6 per 100,000 population in 1998, a significant increase from the suicide rate of 19 per 100,000 in 1988. Suicides are more frequent in the industrially developed regions and in the rural areas of the country than in the cities; In western Ukraine, the suicide rate was lower than the national average at 11.1 per 100,000.[61]

The Southern and eastern Ukrainian regions also suffer from the highest rates of HIV and AIDS, which impacts life expectancy. In late 2000, 60% of all AIDS cases in Ukraine were concentrated in the Odessa, Dnipropetrovsk, and Donetsk regions.[62] A major reason for this is the fact that the urbanized and industrialized regions in the East and South of Ukraine suffered most from the economic crisis in the 1990s, which in turn led to the spread of unemployment, alcoholism, and drug abuse, thus setting the conditions for wider spread of the epidemic.[63]

Regional differences in income

The western and central regions of Ukraine had lower GDP per capita than Kiev and the industrialized eastern regions of Ukraine. In October 2019 the average monthly salary in Ukraine was 10,727 hryvnias. Chernivtsi oblast (western Ukraine) and Kherson Oblast (southern Ukraine), had the lowest monthly salary of 8,211 and 8,277 hryvnias, respectively. In contrast, the monthly wage in the city of Kiev was 15,862 hryvnias per month, and in Kiev oblast – 11,325 per month.[64] In 2013, outside of the capital city of Kiev, the wealthiest region was Donetsk Oblast with annual income 31,048 hryvnias. But as of 2017, Donetsk Oblast ranks as the second poorest after Luhansk Oblast with annual incomes 25,278 hryvnias and 16,416 hryvnias respectively. [65] Both are in the eastern Ukraine and have sustained direct losses as a consequence of military actions.

Ukraine recorded one of the sharpest declines in poverty of any transition economy in 2001-2016 years. The poverty rate, measured against an absolute poverty line (below $1.25 per day in dollars, based on World Bank) fell from a high of 32 percent in 2001 to 8 percent in 2005. In terms of poverty rates, the central and northern regions have the country's highest poverty rates - 10.0%. The western and southern regions - 9.1% and 9% respectively. Kyiv City had the lowest poverty rate - 1.4%.[66] Percent of population living under $5.50 a day was 19% in 2005 and dropped to 4.0 percent in 2018.[67]. [68]

Urbanization

Urbanization rate, 2011 Population density, 2011 Median population of rural settlements, 2011

Migration

Ukraine is the major source of migrants in Russia and many of the member states of the European Union. During the 1990s and early 2000s, Ukraine's sputtering economy and political instability contributed to rising emigration, especially to nearby Russia, Poland and Hungary, but also to other States such as Italy, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Israel, Russia and Canada. Although estimates vary, approximately two to three million Ukrainian citizens are currently working abroad, most of them illegally, in construction, service, housekeeping, and agriculture industries. Eastern Ukrainians are likely to immigrate to Russia while western Ukrainians are likely to move to the E.U.

Between 1991 and 2004, the government counted 2,537,400 individuals who emigrated; 1,897,500 moved to other post-Soviet states, and 639,900 moved to other, mainly Western, states.[69]

By the early 2000s, Ukrainian embassies reported that 300,000 Ukrainian citizens were working in Poland, 200,000 in Italy, approximately 200,000 in the Czech Republic, 150,000 in Portugal, 100,000 in Spain, 35,000 in Turkey, 20,000 in the United States and small significant numbers in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. The largest number of Ukrainian workers abroad, about one million, are in the Russian Federation. Since 1992, 232,072 persons born in Ukraine have emigrated to the US.

From the point of view of the economic impact on natives, more appropriate than the absolute numbers is the volume of immigration as a proportion of the native population. Russia have the highest rate of Ukrainian emigrants as a proportion of the native population, while the much larger Italy has the largest absolute confirmed number of Ukrainian emigrants (leaving aside Poland Portugal and the Czech Republic, for which there is conflicting data).

See also

General:

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