Demographics of Senegal

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Senegal, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

About 42% of Senegal's population is rural. In rural areas, population density varies from about 77 per square kilometer (200/mile²) in the west-central region to 2 per square kilometer (5/mile²) in the arid eastern section. The average population density for the country is 68 people per square kilometer (169/sq mi).[1] French is the official language but is used regularly only by the literate minority. Almost all Senegalese speak an indigenous language, of which Wolof has the largest usage. Many Senegalese live in Europe, particularly in France, Italy and Spain.

Population

According to the 2018 revision of the World Population Review[1] the total population was 16,302,789 in May 2018, compared to only 2,416,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2017 was 41.5%, between 15 and 54 years of age was 31.1%, while 55 years or older was 6.9%. .[2]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 2,416,00041.655.03.4
1955 2,684,00041.555.62.9
1960 3,048,00041.955.52.6
1965 3,505,00043.054.62.4
1970 4,096,00044.353.52.3
1975 4,786,00045.352.52.2
1980 5,414,00047.250.52.2
1985 6,232,00047.750.02.3
1990 7,242,00047.250.42.4
1995 8,369,00046.251.32.5
2000 9,506,00045.452.12.5
2005 10,872,00044.453.12.5
2010 12,434,00043.753.92.4
2017 14,668,52241.555.52.9

Vital statistics

Registration of vital events in Senegal is not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[2]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950–1955115,00068,00047,00045.226.818.46.05131
1955–1960137,00073,00064,00047.725.422.36.42128
1960–1965163,00082,00081,00049.724.924.86.85123
1965–1970193,00092,000101,00050.824.226.67.25117
1970–1975224,000100,000125,00050.522.428.17.45108
1975–1980251,00099,000153,00049.319.329.97.5099
1980–1985274,00093,000181,00047.116.031.07.2889
1985–1990303,00092,000211,00045.013.631.46.9080
1990–1995335,00098,000237,00042.912.530.36.3672
1995–2000365,000104,000261,00040.811.629.25.7766
2000–2005405,000108,000297,00039.810.629.25.3660
2005–2010450,000111,000339,00038.69.529.15.0355
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths [3]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2009 498 714 138 182 360 532 41,0 11,4 29,6 4,91
2010 456 212 132 218 323 994 36,5 10,6 25,9 4,86
2011 464 464 134 450 330 014 36,2 10,5 25,7
2012 471 629 135 468 336 161 35,7 10,3 25,5
2013 12 874 000 478 898 136 460 342 438 35,3 10,1 25,2

Fertility and births

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[4]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1980-82 7,4 6,3 7,9
1983-85 6,6 5,4 7,1
1992-93 40,8 6,03 (5,1) 37,4 5,06 (3,8) 42,9 6,74 (5,9)
1997 37 5,67 (4,6) 31 4,29 (3,2) 42 6,74 (5,6)
1999 36 5,2 30 3,9 40 6,1
2005 39,3 5,3 (4,5) 33,4 4,1 (3,3) 44,0 6,4 (5,7)
2008–2009 37,3 4,9 33,4 4,0 40,1 5,8
2010–2011 37,4 5,0 (3,2) 32,3 3,9 (2,6) 41,6 6,0 (3,8)
2012–2013 38,6 5,3 32,9 4,1 42,7 6,3
2014 37,6 5,0 (3,7) 33,4 4,0 (3,1) 41,6 6,3 (4,4)
2015 35.7 4.9 (4.3) 28.1 3.5 (3.1) 41.5 6.1 (5.4)
2016 34.6 4.7 (4.2) 27.2 3.5 (3.1) 40.8 5.9 (5.2)
2017 33.7 4.6 (4.0) 27.1 3.4 (3.0) 39.2 5.9 (5.1)

Life expectancy

Period Life expectancy in
Years[5]
1950–1955 35.47
1955–1960 37.49
1960–1965 38.62
1965–1970 38.41
1970–1975 40.91
1975–1980 46.50
1980–1985 51.27
1985–1990 56.05
1990–1995 57.59
1995–2000 57.25
2000–2005 58.93
2005–2010 62.41
2010–2015 65.71

Ethnic groups

Wolof 41.6%, Pular 28.1%, Serer 15.3%, Mandinka 5.4%, Jola 3.4%, Soninke 0.8%, Other 5.4% (includes 50,000 Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2010–2011 est.)[6]
About 50,000 Europeans -represents the 0.3% of the population of Senegal- (mostly French) and Lebanese and Vietnamese reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities.
Population of Senegal according to ethnic group in 1976 and 1988
Ethnic
group
census 1976 [7] census 1988[8]
Number % Number %
Wolof2,001,41641.02,890,40242.7
Serer716,91914.71,009,92114.9
Peul605,58412.4978,36614.4
Toucouleur528,49010.8631,8929.3
Diola265,3535.4357,6725.3
Mandingue179,0503.7245,6513.6
Soce42,7510.6
Sarakhole84,1021.7113,1841.7
Bambara65,0961.391,0711.3
Maure59,7841.267,7261.0
Mandjaag41,6280.966,6051.0
Lebou94,8371.956,7580.8
Balant33,9150.754,3980.8
Malinke202,4724.128,6430.4
Mancagne23,1800.3
Laobe18,2500.3
Bassari6,1950.1
Khassonke1,7520.0
Coniagui1,1190.0
Fula1080.0
Other87,7731.3
Total 4,879,103 6,773,417

Languages

French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Serer, Jola, Mandinka, Soninke

Religion

The religion beliefs of the 2016 population of Senegal are: Muslim 96.1% (mostly Sufi), Christian 3.6% (mostly Roman Catholic), animist 0.3%.[6]

Other general statistics

The following demographic statistics of Senegal are from the World Population Review.[1]

  • One birth every 56 seconds
  • One death every 6 minutes
  • One net migrant every 26 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 1 minutes

The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook[9] unless otherwise indicated.

Population

15,020,945 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 41.15% (male 3,106,942 /female 3,074,740)
15-24 years: 20.33% (male 1,521,868 /female 1,531,484)
25-54 years: 31.45% (male 2,176,052 /female 2,547,566)
55-64 years: 4.05% (male 261,682 /female 347,374)
65 years and over: 3.02% (male 200,079 /female 253,158) (2018 est.)

Median age

total: 19 years. Country comparison to the world: 205th
male: 18.1 years
female: 19.9 years (2018 est.)
Total: 18.8 years
Male: 18 years
Female: 19.7 years (2017 est.)

Birth rate

32.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 27th
33.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rate

7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 94th
8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Total fertility rate

4.2 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 30th

Population growth rate

2.36% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 30th
2.39% (2017 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

21.9 years (2017 est.)
21.5 years (2016 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate

25.1% (2016)

Net migration rate

-1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 151st

Dependency ratios

Total: 85.4
Youth: 79.8
Elderly: 5.6
Potential support ratio: 18 (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 47.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 62.5 years
male: 60.4 years
female: 64.7 years (2018 est.)
Total population: 62.1 years (2017 est.), 59.78 years (2011 est.), 59.25 years (2006 est.)
Male: 60 years (2017 est.), 57.85 years (2011 est.), 57.7 years (2006 est.)
Female: 64.3 years (2017 est.), 61.77 years (2011 est.), 60.85 years (2006 est.)

Religions

Muslim 95.9% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.1% (mostly Roman Catholic) (2016 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 47.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

315 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Drinking water source

improved
total: 78.5% of population
urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
unimproved
total: 21.5% of population
urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 32.7% of population (2015 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2017 est.) total population: 51.9% male: 64.8% female: 39.8% (2017 est.)

Total population: 57.7%
Male: 69.7%
Female: 46.6% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2017)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2015)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 5.3%
male: 5.2%
female: 5.5% (2015 est.)

Gender ratio

At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/females
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Emigration

Senegal aforetime was a destination country for neighboring economic migrants, but in recent decades West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa and also to illegally onward to Europe.[6] The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from Mauritania during the 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated from the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries to Libya and Mauritania, because of their booming oil industries, and to France, Italy and Spain.[6]

See also

References

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