Delaware Valley

The Delaware Valley is the valley through which the Delaware River flows. By extension, this toponym is commonly used to refer to Greater Philadelphia or Philadelphia metropolitan area ("the [Lower] Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area"). The Delaware Valley is coterminous with a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) and broader combined statistical area (CSA), and is composed of counties located in Southeastern Pennsylvania, South Jersey, Delaware, and the Eastern Shore of Maryland. As of the 2010 Census, the MSA has a population of over 6 million, while the CSA has a population of over 7.1 million.

Delaware Valley
Greater Philadelphia
Southeastern Pennsylvania

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD MSA
Map of the Lower Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area. In addition to the shaded area, other parts of South Jersey are often considered to be part of the Delaware Valley.
Country United States
State - Pennsylvania
 - New Jersey
 - Delaware
 - Maryland
Principal citiesPhiladelphia
Trenton[lower-alpha 1]
Atlantic City
Upper Darby
1,981.4 sq mi (5,131.7 km2)
5,118 sq mi (13,256 km2)
Elevation0 - 1,080 ft (0 - 329 m)
 (2013 est.)
  Density2,746.32/sq mi (1,060.36/km2)
5,441,567 (5th)
6,096,372 (8th)
7,146,706 (8th)
 MSA/CSA = 2013, Urban = 2010
Time zoneUTC-5 (EST)
  Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EST)

Philadelphia is by far the largest municipality in the Delaware Valley, and serves as the region's major commercial, cultural, and industrial center. Other municipalities in the MSA include Camden, New Jersey and Wilmington, Delaware, while the larger CSA also includes municipalities such as Reading, Pennsylvania and Atlantic City, New Jersey. The Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area is located in the Northeastern United States and forms part of a larger urbanized area known as the Northeast megalopolis. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia metropolitan area has a gross domestic product of $431 billion, the ninth-largest among U.S. metropolitan areas. 2016 Census Bureau estimates rank the Delaware Valley CSA as the ninth-largest CSA in the United States.

The Delaware Valley has been influential in American history and industry; its citizens have become leaders in higher education, biotechnology, medicine, tourism, and other fields. The area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture, history, and politics. Philadelphia is sometimes known as "The Birthplace of America",[3] as both the Declaration of Independence and Constitution were drafted and signed in Philadelphia. The Delaware Valley was home to many other instrumental moments in the American Revolution, and Philadelphia served as the capital of the United States for much of the 18th century. Today, The area is home to a number of nationally known universities, such as the University of Pennsylvania, Drexel University, Villanova University, Saint Joseph's University, University of Delaware, and Temple University.[4]


In geology and geography, a strict sense of the term would incorporate the Delaware River's main drainage basin, and so encompass major tributaries such as the Schuylkill River and Lehigh River and their valleys or sub-basins. These extensions also apply culturally with decreasing degree gradually decreased by proximal distance because the ease of land travel enables a great deal of daily interaction; for example, the large number of commuters who travel daily 45–90 minutes creates cultural blends and parallel values.

Definitions of the metropolitan area

In the course of their work, U.S. government agencies have reached various definitions of the Delaware Valley and the Greater Philadelphia Area.

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines metropolitan statistical area (MSAs), which are regions with relatively high population densities at their cores and close economic ties throughout their respective areas. MSAs are further combined into CSAs (combined statistical areas), reflecting commuting patterns. Neither is a formal administrative division.

Metropolitan statistical area (MSA)

Philadelphia is located in the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes:[5]

Combined statistical area (CSA)

The Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area includes [5]

Counties not in the Philadelphia metropolitan area

Some counties to the north of the Philadelphia MSA and CSA, such as Hunterdon County, New Jersey, lie partly in the Delaware Valley as a geographic concept, that is, the drainage basin of the Delaware River. Local businesses and the Delaware Valley Regional High School carry the name. However, Hunterdon County does not belong to the Philadelphia CSA, but rather to the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), part of the larger New York-Newark Combined Statistical Area (CSA).[5]

Regional Planning Commission

The Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC) serves all the counties of the MSA above, except for the counties in the Wilmington, DE-MD-NJ Metropolitan Division. However the DVRPC does include, additionally, Mercer County, New Jersey, which the OMB classifies as the Trenton-Princeton, NJ MSA, part of the larger New York-Newark CSA.[6]

Population and economy

According to 2016 estimates from the United States Census Bureau, the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area ranks as the seventh-largest MSA in the United States with 6,070,500 people.[7] According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington MSA had a gross domestic product of $431 billion, the ninth-largest among U.S. metropolitan areas.[8] 2016 Census Bureau estimates rank the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area as the ninth-largest CSA in the United States, with 7,179,357 people.[9]

The Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area's population of roughly 6 million people is comparable to that of countries such as Lebanon, Denmark, and Nicaragua. The MSA's nominal gross domestic product of $431 billion is comparable to countries such as Belgium, Iran, and Thailand. The MSA also ranks as the second most populous in the Northeastern United States after the New York metropolitan area, while the CSA is third-largest in the Northeast after the New York and Boston metropolitan areas. The Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, which is part of Northeast Megalopolis but is considered part of the Southeastern United States under Census Bureau definitions, is also larger than the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Philadelphia itself is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the third-most populous U.S. city east of the Mississippi River, after New York City and Chicago. Philadelphia's media market ranks fourth, behind New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago, in Nielsen Media Market size rankings.[10]

Such educational institutions as Delaware Valley Regional High School in Alexandria Township and Delaware Valley College in Doylestown Township are named after the region. Likewise, Frenchtown's now defunct newspaper The Delaware Valley News was another example of the usage.


Sixteen counties in four states constitute the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area. The five Pennsylvania counties in the MSA are collectively known as Southeastern Pennsylvania, and the four suburban counties from this region are sometimes called the "collar counties."[11] Aside from Philadelphia, major municipalities in Southeastern Pennsylvania include the inner suburbs of Upper Darby Township and Bensalem Township. Berks County, which forms its own MSA and contains the CSA's second largest city, Reading, is generally not considered to be part of Southeastern Pennsylvania and is sometimes assigned to South Central Pennsylvania.

The seven New Jersey counties in the CSA form South Jersey, although Ocean County, which is part of the New York CSA, is also sometimes considered to be part of South Jersey.[12] Atlantic County, Cape May County, and Cumberland County each form their own respective metropolitan statistical areas. Atlantic City, Cape May County, and the southern Jersey Shore (including Margate City, Ventnor City, the Wildwoods, and Sea Isle City) are major tourist destinations for people from inside and outside of the Delaware Valley. Other major municipalities in South Jersey include Cherry Hill and Camden, which is across the Delaware River from Philadelphia.

The two counties of Delaware in the CSA constitute a majority of Delaware's land mass and population. Wilmington is the most populous city in Delaware and the fifth-most populous municipality in the Delaware Valley. The lone Maryland county in the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area is part of the region known as the Eastern Shore of Maryland.

Although Mercer County in Central Jersey is often considered part of the Delaware Valley from a cultural perspective, it is classified as part of New York's CSA by the OMB. Mercer County and three counties in Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley, Carbon County, Lehigh County and Northampton County, are part of the Philadelphia media market. Caroline County, Maryland is also part of the Philadelphia media market, and other counties within the Philadelphia media market include Monroe County, Pennsylvania, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and Ocean County, New Jersey.[13]

List of counties

County State Seat 2010 Pop.[14] 2016 Pop.[14] Pop. Change Area[15] MSA[16] Map
Kent DE Dover 162,310 174,827 7.7% 279.4 mi2 Dover MSA
New Castle DE Wilmington 538,479 556,987 3.4% 426.3 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA
Cecil MD Elkton 101,108 102,603 1.5% 348.2 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA
Atlantic NJ Mays Landing 274,549 270,991 -1.3% 561.2 mi2 Atlantic City-Hammonton MSA
Burlington NJ Mount Holly 448,734 449,284 0.1% 804.8 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA
Camden NJ Camden 513,657 510,150 -0.7% 222.3 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA
Cape May NJ Cape May Court House 97,265 94,430 -2.9% 255.2 mi2 Ocean City MSA
Cumberland NJ Bridgeton 156,898 153,797 -2% 489.3 mi2 Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton MSA
Gloucester NJ Woodbury 288,288 292,330 1.4% 324.9 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA
Salem NJ Salem 66,083 63,436 -4% 337.8 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA
Berks PA Reading 411,442 414,812 0.8% 859.2 mi2 Reading MSA
Bucks PA Doylestown 625,249 626,399 0.2% 607.6 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA
Chester PA West Chester 498,886 516,312 3.5% 756 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA
Delaware PA Media 558,979 563,402 0.8% 184.2 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA
Montgomery PA Norristown 799,874 821,725 2.7% 781 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA
Philadelphia PA Philadelphia 1,526,006 1,576,872 3.3% 135.1 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA
Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA 5,965,343 6,079,500 1.8% 4928.2 mi2 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington MSA -
Philadelphia–Reading–Camden CSA 7,067,807 7,179,357 1.6% 7372.5 mi2 N/A -

List of largest municipalities

These municipalities are all within the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area.

City Pop.[17] County State
Philadelphia 1,567,872 Philadelphia PA
Reading 87,575 Berks PA
Upper Darby Township 82,765 Delaware PA
Camden 74,420 Camden NJ
Wilmington 71,502 New Castle DE
Cherry Hill 70,976 Camden NJ
Gloucester Township 64,049 Camden NJ
Vineland 60,876 Cumberland NJ
Bensalem Township 60,354 Bucks PA
Lower Merion Township 58,220 Montgomery PA
Abington Township 55,640 Montgomery PA
Bristol Township 54,170 Bucks PA
Haverford Township 48,893 Delaware PA
Washington Township 48,301 Gloucester NJ
Evesham Township 45,578 Burlington NJ
Middletown Township 45,318 Bucks PA
Egg Harbor Township 43,747 Atlantic NJ
Mount Laurel 41,849 Burlington NJ
Northampton Township 39,562 Bucks PA
Winslow Township 39,417 Camden NJ
Historical population (estimates)
Year Pop. ±%
1850 405,000 -
1860 608,000 50.12%
1870 747,000 22.86%
1880 949,000 27.04%
1890 1,180,000 24.34%
1900 1,454,000 10.44%
1910 1,746,000 8.26%
1920 2,072,000 18.67%
1930 2,264,000 9.27%
1940 2,538,000 12.10%
1950 3,297,000 29.90%
1960 4,419,000 34.09%
1970 5,323,000 20.46%
1980 5,239,000 -1.57%
1990 5,435,000 3.74%
2000 5,687,000 4.66%
2010 5,965,000 4.89%
2017 6,029,312 1.07%
Populations for the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area


Statistical history

When metropolitan areas were originally defined in 1950, most of the area now in the Delaware Valley was split between four metropolitan areas, or "standard metropolitan areas," as they were called. The Philadelphia SMA comprised Philadelphia, Bucks, Chester, Delaware and Montgomery counties in Pennsylvania and Burlington, Camden and Gloucester counties in New Jersey. The Wilmington SMA comprised New Castle County in Delaware and Salem County in New Jersey, while Berks County was the Reading SMA and Atlantic County was the Atlantic City SMA.

In 1960, Cecil County was added to what was now the Wilmington Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1980, Cumberland County was defined as the Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton SMSA.

In 1990, the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton SMSAs were merged with the Trenton SMSA as the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Trenton Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area. At the same time, Cape May County was added to the Atlantic City SMSA. "Philadelphia-Wilmington-Trenton" became obsolete one census later, with Trenton moving to the New York-Newark-Bridgeport CSA, and the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Vineland CSA consisting only of the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Camden MSA and the Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton MSA.[18] Kent County became the Dover MSA in 2000, and it and Atlantic City were added to the Philadelphia CSA in 2010, for a total of six MSA components; as a result of new 2010 definitions based on a threshold of 15% labor interchange between MSAs, two more MSAs were added to the CSA, for a total of six. With Ocean City, NJ, and Reading, PA, the CSA is now known as Philadelphia-Reading-Camden.[19]


The Delaware Valley is home to extensive populations of Irish Americans, German Americans, English Americans, Ukrainian Americans, Italian Americans, Swedish-Americans (which have a museum located at FDR Park in South Philadelphia), Polish Americans, Scottish Americans, Ulster Scot or "Scotch-Irish" Americans, Welsh Americans, Jewish Americans, Greek Americans, African Americans, Chinese Americans, Indian Americans, Russian Americans, Korean Americans, Vietnamese Americans, Armenian Americans, Arab Americans, Turkish Americans, Pakistani Americans, Israeli Americans, various African immigrant groups, particularly from West African; various West Indian American groups, including Jamaican Americans; and Hispanic Americans. Within the Hispanic population, the vast majority are Puerto Ricans, though other significant groups include Dominican Americans and Mexican Americans, as well as significant populations from Central America.[21] There is even a small Native American community known as Lenapehoking for Lenni-Lenape Indians of West Philadelphia.

Philadelphia's suburbs contain a high concentration of malls, the two largest of which have at least 5,000,000 square feet (460,000 m2) of office space, and at least 600,000 square feet (56,000 m2) of retail. These are the King of Prussia mall in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, which is the largest in the United States (leasable sq. feet of retail space), and the Cherry Hill Mall in Cherry Hill, New Jersey, which was the first enclosed mall on the East Coast. Malls, office complexes, strip shopping plazas, expressways, and tract housing are common sights, and more and more continue to replace rolling countryside, farms, woods, and wetlands. However, due to strong opposition by residents and political officials, many acres of land have been preserved throughout the Delaware Valley. Older townships and large boroughs such as Cheltenham, Norristown, Jenkintown, Upper Darby and West Chester retain distinct community identities while engulfed in suburbia. The fastest-growing counties are Chester, Montgomery, Bucks, and Gloucester. Upper Darby, in Delaware County is the largest township in the United States. Sometimes Reading is included in the Delaware Valley Metro Area.

Mid-Atlantic American English and its subset, Philadelphia English, are two common dialects of American English in Philadelphia and the Delaware Valley.


The Delaware Valley has four distinct seasons with ample precipitation and is divided by the 0 °C (32 °F) January isotherm. Most of Philadelphia and the New Jersey portion of the area, almost all of the Delaware and Maryland portions, the majority of Delaware County, Bucks County SE of U.S. Route 1, a very small area of lowland southern Chester County, and some lowland areas of Montgomery County very close to Philadelphia have a humid subtropical climate (Cfa.) The remainder of the Delaware Valley has a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa.) Snow amounts may vary widely year-to-year and normally do vary widely within the Delaware Valley. The region has only two ski areas: Bear Creek Ski and Recreation Area in eastern Berks County and Spring Mountain in central Montgomery County.

Using the -3 °C January isotherm as a boundary, all of the Delaware Valley is humid subtropical except for portions of Berks County and higher areas of northern Chester County. The warm-summer humid continental climate (Dfb) only exists in higher areas of Berks where all monthly temperatures average below 22 °C. The hardiness zone in the region ranges from 6a in higher areas of Berks to 7b.

Climate data for Philadelphia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °F (°C) 41.8
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.2
Source: Weather Atlas [27]

Colonial history

The valley was the territory of the Susquehannock and Lenape, who are recalled in place names throughout the region. The region became part of the Dutch colony of New Netherland after the exploration of Delaware Bay in 1609. The Dutch called the Delaware River the Zuyd Rivier, or South River, and considered the lands along it banks and those of its bay to be the southern flank of its province of New Netherland. In 1638, it began to be settled by Swedes, Forest Finns, Dutch, and Walloons and became the colony of New Sweden, though this was not officially recognized by the Dutch Empire which re-asserted control in 1655. The area was taken by the English in 1664.[37] The name Delaware comes from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, who had arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1610, just as original settlers were about to abandon it, and thus maintaining the English foothold on the North American continent. In the early 1700s, Huguenot refugees from France by way of Germany and then England began settling in the Delaware River Valley. Specifically, they left their mark in Hunterdon County, New Jersey (Frenchtown) and Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.[38]


Many residents commute to jobs in Philadelphia, Camden, and Wilmington with the help of expressways and trains. Commutes from one suburb to another are also common, as office parks have sprung up in new commercial centers such as King of Prussia, Fort Washington, Cherry Hill, and Plymouth Meeting.


Commuter rail

Formerly, the region was served by the Delaware Valley Railway.

Intercity rail

Bus service

Major highways


New Jersey



Delaware River Bridges





The Cape May–Lewes Ferry crosses the mouth of the Delaware Bay between Cape May County, NJ and Sussex County, DE. U.S. Route 9 uses this ferry.

Colleges and universities

Parrish Hall at Swarthmore College and Cohen Hall, previously named Logan Hall, former home of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania; The Wharton School is consistently ranked as the best business school in the world[40]


New Jersey



Sports teams

Listing of the professional sports teams in the Delaware Valley


The two main newspapers are The Philadelphia Inquirer and the Philadelphia Daily News, owned by the Philadelphia Media Network. Local television channels include KYW-TV 3 (CBS), WPVI 6 (ABC), WCAU 10 (NBC), WHYY-TV 12 (PBS), WPHL-TV 17 (MyNetworkTV), WTXF 29 (FOX), WPSG 57 (CW), and WPPX 61 (Ion). Radio stations serving the area include: WRTI, WIOQ, WDAS (AM), and WTEL.

Area codes

  • 215/267: The City of Philadelphia and some of its northern suburbs
  • 610/484: Southeastern Pennsylvania outside Philadelphia, including the western suburbs, the Lehigh Valley, and most of Berks County
  • 856: Southwestern New Jersey, including Camden, Cherry Hill, and Vineland
  • 609: Central and Southeastern New Jersey, including Trenton, Atlantic City and the Jersey Shore
  • 302: Delaware
  • 410/443/667: Eastern half of Maryland, including Cecil County
  • 717: South Central Pennsylvania, including Western Berks County


Philadelphia itself is heavily Democratic, having voted for the Democratic candidate in every presidential election since 1936. The surrounding suburban counties are key political areas in Pennsylvania, which itself is an important swing state in federal politics.[41] South Jersey has consistently voted Democratic at the presidential level in recent years, although the region is slightly more Republican-leaning than North Jersey and has voted for Republicans at the state and local level.[42] New Castle County's Democratic lean and large share of Delaware's population has tended to make Delaware as a whole vote for Democrats, while the less populous Kent County is more competitive.[43] Recent well-known political figures from the Greater Philadelphia area include former Vice President Joe Biden and former Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell.

Congressional districts

The following congressional districts of the United States House of Representatives are located partly or entirely in the Delaware Valley CSA. Italicized counties are not part of the CSA.

District Incumbent
District PVI Incumbent Party Counties
DE-AL D+6 Lisa Blunt Rochester D Kent, New Castle, and Sussex
MD-1 R+14 Andy Harris R Baltimore, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Dorchester, Harford, Kent, Queen Anne's, Somerset, Talbot, Wicomico, and Worcester
NJ-1 D+13 Donald Norcross D Burlington, Camden, and Gloucester
NJ-2 R+1 Jeff Van Drew D Atlantic, Burlington, Camden, Cape May, Cumberland, Gloucester, Ocean, and Salem
NJ-3 R+2 Andy Kim D Burlington and Ocean
PA-1 R+1 Brian Fitzpatrick R Bucks and Montgomery
PA-2 D+25 Brendan Boyle D Philadelphia
PA-3 D+41 Dwight Evans D Philadelphia
PA-4 D+7 Madeleine Dean D Berks and Montgomery
PA-5 D+13 Mary Gay Scanlon D Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia
PA-6 D+2 Chrissy Houlahan D Berks and Chester
PA-9 R+14 Dan Meuser R Berks, Carbon, Columbia, Lebanon, Luzerne, Montour, Northumberland, and Schuylkill

Additionally, the Delaware Valley is represented in the United States Senate by the eight Senators from Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

Lexicon note

Some believe that the term "Delaware Valley" is not entirely a synonym for "Greater Philadelphia". "Greater Philadelphia" implies that the region is centered on the city in an economic and cultural context, while "Delaware Valley" is a more generic geographic term that does not imply that any part is of more consequence than any other. Several organizations, such as KYW Radio and the Greater Philadelphia Tourism Marketing Corporation, consciously use the term "Greater Philadelphia" to assert that Philadelphia is the center of the region, referring to the less urbanized areas as "Philadelphia's countryside".[44] Others note that the customary media usage of the term omits the majority of the length of the Delaware River's valley that is not in metropolitan Philadelphia.

WPVI-TV uses the slogan, "Delaware Valley's leading news program" for their Action News broadcast, since that program has led the ratings for news programs in the Philadelphia market for over 30 years.

See also


  1. May also be defined as part of the NYC Metropolitan Area
  2. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  3. Official temperature and precipitation measurements for Philadelphia were taken at the Weather Bureau Office in downtown from January 1872 to 19 June 1940, and at Philadelphia Int'l from 20 June 1940 to the present.[22] Snowfall and snow depth records date to 1 January 1884 and 1 October 1948, respectively.[23] In 2006, snowfall measurements were moved to National Park, New Jersey directly across the Delaware River from the airport.[24]
  4. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  5. The official climatology station for Atlantic City was at the Weather Bureau Office downtown from January 1874 to 15 June 1958 and Atlantic City Int'l (ACY) in Egg Harbor Township since 16 June 1958.[28] ACY's location in the Pine Barrens and distance away from the coast and urban heat island of downtown Atlantic City largely account for its markedly colder temperatures at night as compared to downtown; for example, from 1959 to 2013, there were 50 days with a low of 0 °F (−18 °C) or lower, while in the same period, the corresponding number of days at downtown was 2. The National Weather Service ceased regular snowfall observations at downtown after the winter of 1958–59.


  1. "Welsh Mountain". Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  2. "MyTopo – Welsh Mountain area". Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  3. "Words and Their Stories: Nicknames for Philadelphia and Boston". Voice of America. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
  4. Tucker, Laura (November 25, 2014). "Philadelphia". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  5. (Note: Mercer County, NJ is NOT part of the Philadelphia CSA according to this original source.) "Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas", OMB Bulletin no. 18-04, The White House, Office of Management and Budget, September 4, 2018
  6. "Greater Philadelphia Economic Development Framework" (PDF). September 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  7. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
  8. Analysis, US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic. "Bureau of Economic Analysis". Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  9. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 - United States -- Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  10. "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). Nielsen. The Nielsen Company. September 24, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  11. Bond, Michaelle (November 7, 2017). "In historic win, Delco Dems take council seats". Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  12. Stirling, Steven (April 24, 2015). "Here are the North, Central and South Jersey borders as determined by you (INTERACTIVE)". Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  13. "PHILADELPHIA DESIGNATED MARKET DATA". TruckAds. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  14. "County Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2016". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 15, 2017. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  15. "Land Area, Population, and Density for States and Counties: 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  16. "OMB BULLETIN NO. 13-01" (PDF). Office of Management and Budget. February 28, 2013. p. 107. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  17. "Community Facts". American FactFidner. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  18. "Census 2000 PHC-T-29. Ranking Tables for Population of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, Combined Statistical Areas, New England City and Town Areas, and Combined New England City and Town Areas: 1990 and 2000" Table 7, released December 30, 2003. Accessed April 22, 2019.
  19. Office of Management and Budget Bulletin 13-01, 28 February 2013, accessed on 22 April 2019 at URL
  20. "Global Philadelphia". Global Philadelphia Association. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  21. "Dominicans in the Delaware Valley". Medgar Evers College. Archived from the original on February 16, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
  22. ThreadEx; search for location= "PA - Philadelphia", variable= "Station thread"
  23. "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
  24. Wood, Anthony R. "Snow total at airport gets a boost A new measuring station and technique likely contributed to two 8-inch-plus readings". The Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  25. "Station Name: PA PHILADELPHIA INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  26. "WMO Climate Normals for PHILADELPHIA/INT'L ARPT PA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
  27. "Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
  28. Threadex
  29. "Station Name: NJ ATLANTIC CITY". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  30. "Station Name: NJ ATLANTIC CITY INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  31. "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
  32. "WMO Climate Normals for ATLANTIC CITY, NJ 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
  33. Average weather for Doylestown Weather Channel Retrieved May 12, 2008
  34. "Climate Statistics for Reading, Pennsylvania". Retrieved March 10, 2012.
  35. "Station Name: DE DOVER". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
  36. "Station Name: DE WILMINGTON NEW CASTLE CO AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  37. Calvin, Claude (1945). The Calvin Families. University of Wisconsin. pp. 47–53, 57–71.
  38. "New Hope-Lambertville Route 202 Toll Bridge". Delaware River Joint Toll Brice Commission. Archived from the original on February 25, 2015.
  39. "The 50 best business schools in the world".
  40. Cohen, Micah (October 29, 2012). "In Pennsylvania, the Democratic Lean Is Slight, but Durable". New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  41. Cohen, Micah (July 14, 2012). "In Blue New Jersey, Red Spots May Be Sign of the Past". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  42. Cohen, Micah (August 31, 2012). "Delaware: A Small Example of a Larger Trend". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  43. Greater Philadelphia Tourism Marketing Corporation.

Further reading

  • Jean R. Soderlund, Lenape Country: Delaware Valley Society before William Penn. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.
  • Mark L. Thompson, The Contest for the Delaware Valley: Allegiance, Identity, and Empire in the Seventeenth Century. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2013.

Delaware Valley travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Delaware Valley at Wikimedia Commons

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