Dedekind psi function

In number theory, the Dedekind psi function is the multiplicative function on the positive integers defined by

where the product is taken over all primes dividing (by convention, is the empty product and so has value 1). The function was introduced by Richard Dedekind in connection with modular functions.

The value of for the first few integers is:

1, 3, 4, 6, 6, 12, 8, 12, 12, 18, 12, 24 ... (sequence A001615 in the OEIS).

The function is greater than for all greater than 1, and is even for all greater than 2. If is a square-free number then , where is the divisor function.

The function can also be defined by setting for powers of any prime , and then extending the definition to all integers by multiplicativity. This also leads to a proof of the generating function in terms of the Riemann zeta function, which is

This is also a consequence of the fact that we can write as a Dirichlet convolution of .

Higher orders

The generalization to higher orders via ratios of Jordan's totient is

with Dirichlet series


It is also the Dirichlet convolution of a power and the square of the Möbius function,



is the characteristic function of the squares, another Dirichlet convolution leads to the generalized σ-function,



  • Goro Shimura (1971). Introduction to the Arithmetic Theory of Automorphic Functions. Princeton. (page 25, equation (1))
  • Carella, N. A. (2010). "Squarefree Integers And Extreme Values Of Some Arithmetic Functions". arXiv:1012.4817.
  • Mathar, Richard J. (2011). "Survey of Dirichlet series of multiplicative arithmetic functions". arXiv:1106.4038. Section 3.13.2
  • OEIS: A065958 is ψ2, OEIS: A065959 is ψ3, and OEIS: A065960 is ψ4
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