Dam failure

A dam failure or dam burst is a catastrophic type of failure characterized by the sudden, rapid, and uncontrolled release of impounded water or the likelihood of such an uncontrolled release.[1] Between the years 2000 and 2009 more than 200 notable dam failures happened worldwide[2].

A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs,that directs or slows down the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundments. Most dams have a section called a spillway or weir over or through which water flows, either intermittently or continuously, and some have hydroelectric power generation systems installed.

Dams are considered "installations containing dangerous forces" under International humanitarian law due to the massive impact of a possible destruction on the civilian population and the environment. Dam failures are comparatively rare, but can cause immense damage and loss of life when they occur. In 1975 the failure of the Banqiao Reservoir Dam and other dams in Henan Province, China caused more casualties than any other dam failure in history. The disaster killed an estimated 171,000 people[3] and 11 million people lost their homes.

Main causes of dam failures

Common causes of dam failure include:

Deliberate breaching

A notable case of deliberate dam breaching (prior to the Humanitarian Law rulings) was the British Royal Air Force Dambusters raid on Germany in World War II (codenamed "Operation Chastise"), in which six German dams were selected to be breached in order to impact German infrastructure and manufacturing and power capabilities deriving from the Ruhr and Eder rivers. This raid later became the basis for several films.

Other cases include the Chinese bombing of multiple dams during Typhoon Nina (1975) in an attempt to drain them before their reservoirs overflowed. The typhoon produced what is now considered a 1-in-2000 years flood, which few if any of these dams were designed to survive.

List of major dam failures

Dam/incident Date Location Fatalities Details
Marib Dam 575 Sheba, Yemen Unknown Unknown causes, possibly neglect. The consequent failure of the irrigation system provoked the migration of up to 50,000 people from Yemen.
Puentes Dam 1802 Lorca, Spain 608 1,800 houses and 40,000 trees destroyed.[6]
Bilberry reservoir 1852-02-05 Holme Valley, United Kingdom 81 Failed due to heavy rain.
Dale Dike Reservoir 1864-03-11 South Yorkshire, United Kingdom 244 Defective construction, small leak in wall grew until dam failed. More than 600 houses were damaged or destroyed.
Iruka Lake Dam 1868 Inuyama, Aichi Prefecture
(then Owari Province), Japan
941 Under the influence of heavy rain from late April, this soil dam collapsed on May 13. Water accumulated in Lake Iruka overflowed downstream, causing severe damage to Inuyama, Iwakura, Kasugai, Tsushima Yatomi, and to Komaki. 807 houses were destroyed, with another 11709 flooded.
Mill River Dam 1874 Williamsburg, Massachusetts, United States 139 Lax regulations and cost cutting led to an insufficient design, which fell apart when the reservoir was full. 600 million gallons of water were released, wiping out 4 towns and making national headlines. This dam break led to increased regulation of dam construction.
South Fork Dam 1889-05-31 Johnstown, Pennsylvania, United States 2 208[4] Blamed on poor maintenance by owners, who lowered crest by a meter or more[4]; court deemed it an "Act of God". Followed exceptionally heavy rainfall. Caused Johnstown flood. 1,600 homes were destroyed.
Walnut Grove Dam 1890 Wickenburg, Arizona, United States 100 Heavy snow and rain following public calls by the dam's chief engineer to strengthen the earthen structure.[7]
Gohna Lake dam 1894-08-25 Garhwal, India 1 Failure of a landslide dam. Authorities had been able to evacuate the valley.
Austin Dam 1900-04-07 Austin, Texas, United States 8 Extreme current caused failure.
Hauser Dam 1908-04-14 Helena, Montana, United States 0 Heavy flooding coupled with poor foundation quality. Workers managed to warn people downstream.
Broken Down Dam 1908-09-24 Fergus Falls, Minnesota, United States 0 Design flaw. Four downstream dams and bridge destroyed. Mills, homes and farms flooded. No fatalities.
Sweetwater Dam 1916-01-27 San Diego County, California, United States 0 Over-topped from flooding; partial failure.
Lake Toxaway Dam 1916-08-13 Transylvania County, North Carolina, United States 0 Heavy rains caused the dam to give way. Dam was later rebuilt in the 1960s
Austin Dam 1911-09-11 Austin, Pennsylvania, United States 78 Poor design, use of dynamite to remedy structural problems. Destroyed paper mill and much of the town of Austin.
Desná Dam 1916 Czech Republic
(then Desná, Austria-Hungary)
62 Construction flaws caused the dam failure.
Lower Otay Dam 1916 San Diego County, California, United States 14 Over-topped from flooding.
Tigra Dam 1917-08-19 Gwalior, India 1 000 Failed due to water infiltrating through foundation. Possibly more fatalities.
Gleno Dam 1923-12-01 Province of Bergamo, Italy 356 Poor construction and design.
Llyn Eigiau dam and Coedty reservoir 1925-11-02 Dolgarrog, United Kingdom 17 The outflow from Llyn Eigiau destroyed Coedty reservoir. Contractor blamed cost-cutting in construction but 25" of rain had fallen in preceding 5 days.
St. Francis Dam 1928-03-12 Santa Clarita, California, United States 600 Geological instability of canyon wall.
Castlewood Dam 1933 Franktown, Colorado, United States of America 2 Bad design and maintenance, with proximate cause of heavy rain. Dam failed at 1 am on 3 August 1933, with dam waters just 15 miles from the City of Denver. Warnings to the city by 4 am allowed most people to move out of the way of the flood waters.[8][9][10]
Granadillar Dam 1934 Canary Islands, Spain 8 Bad design and foundation.
Secondary Dam of Sella Zerbino 1935 Molare, Italy 111 Geological unstable base combined with flood.
Horonai Dam 1941 Ōmu, Hokkaido, Japan 60 A torrential rain struck around Horonai River area. This is the dam collapse in the wake, and according to official confirmed, the lost houses reached to 32.
Nant-y-Gro dam 1942 Elan Valley, United Kingdom 0 Destroyed during preparation for Operation Chastise in World War II.
Edersee Dam 1943-05-17 Hesse, Germany 70 Destroyed by bombing during Operation Chastise in World War II. Widespread destruction.
Möhne Dam 1943-05-17 Ruhr, Germany 1 579 Destroyed by bombing during Operation Chastise in World War II. 11 factories were destroyed, 114 seriously damaged.
Xuriguera Dam 1944 Barcelona, Spain 8 Heavy rain.
Heiwa Lake Dam 1951 Kameoka, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan 117 In heavy rain, it swallowed the muddy stream of the village of the downstream portion and collapse the peace pond of irrigation ponds, Kameoka and damage in the surrounding area of 80 houses damaged, according to local official confirmed.
Tangiwai disaster 1953-12-24 Whangaehu River, New Zealand 151 Failure of Mount Ruapehu's crater lake.
Taisho Lake Dam 1951 Ide, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan 108 Under the influence of heavy rain, outburst with a Ninotani Lake Dam.
Vega de Tera 1959-01-09 Ribadelago, Spain 144 According to dam workers testimonies, the grounds had serious structural deficiencies due to poor construction. On the night of January 9, a 150 meters long portion of the contention wall collapsed letting out nearly 8 million cubic meters of stored water.[11]
Malpasset dam 1959-12-02 Côte d'Azur, France 423 Geological fault possibly enhanced by explosives work during construction; initial geo-study was not thorough. Two villages were destroyed.
Kurenivka mudslide 1961-03-13 Kiev, Ukraine (then Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union) 1 500 Impoundment of the clay slurry reservoir (storing the waste of the local brick factories) failed after heavy rains, inundating the Kurenivka neighborhood with meters of mud, up to 2,000 fatalities.
Panshet Dam 1961-07-12 Pune, India 1 000 Dam wall burst due to pressure of accumulated rain water.[12]
Baldwin Hills Reservoir 1963-12-14 Los Angeles, United States 5 Subsidence caused by over-exploitation of local oil field. 277 homes destroyed.
Vajont Dam 1963-10-09 Monte Toc, Italy 2 000 Strictly not a dam failure, since the dam structure did not collapse and is still standing. Filling the reservoir caused geological failure in valley wall, leading to 110 km/h landslide into the lake; water escaped in a wave over the top of dam. Valley had been incorrectly assessed stable. Several villages completely wiped out.
Spaulding Pond Dam
(Mohegan Park)
1963-03-06 Norwich, United States 6 More than $6 million estimated damages.
Swift Dam 1964-06-10 Montana, United States 28 Caused by heavy rains.
Mina Plakalnitsa 1966-05-01 Vratsa, Bulgaria 107 A tailings dam at Plakalnitsa copper mine near the city of Vratsa failed. A total 450,000 cu m of mud and water inundated Vratsa and the nearby village of Zgorigrad, which suffered widespread damage. The official death toll is 107, but the unofficial estimate is around 500 killed.[13][14]
Sempor Dam 1967-11-29 Central Java Province, Republic of Indonesia 138 Flash floods over-topped the dam during construction.[15]
Certej dam failure 1971-10-30 Certej Mine, Romania 89 A tailings dam built too tall collapsed, flooding Certeju de Sus with toxic tailings.[16]
Buffalo Creek Flood 1972-02-26 West Virginia, United States 125 Unstable loose constructed dam created by local coal mining company, collapsed in heavy rain. 1,121 injured, 507 houses destroyed, over 4,000 left homeless.
Canyon Lake Dam 1972-06-09 South Dakota, United States 238 Flooding, dam outlets clogged with debris. 3,057 injuries, over 1,335 homes and 5,000 automobiles destroyed.
Banqiao and Shimantan Dams 1975-08-08 Zhumadian, China 171 000 Extreme rainfall, beyond the planned design capability of the dam, dumped on China by Typhoon Nina. 11 million people lost their homes. Dam would later be rebuilt between 1986 and 1993.
Teton Dam 1976-06-05 Idaho, United States 11 Water leakage through earthen wall, leading to dam failure. 13,000 head of cattle died.
Laurel Run Dam 1977-07-19 Johnstown, United States 40 Heavy rainfall and flooding that over-topped the dam. Six other dams failed the same day, killing five people.
Kelly Barnes Dam 1977-11-06 Georgia, United States 39 Unknown, possibly design error as dam was raised several times by owners to improve power generation.
Machchu-2 Dam 1979-08-11 Morbi, India 5 000 Heavy rain and flooding beyond spillway capacity. Old estimates were 1,800–25,000 but a 2011 book by Sandesara & Wooten refined the bracket to 5,000–10,000.[17]
Wadi Qattara Dam 1979 Benghazi, Libya 0 Flooding beyond discharge and storage capacity damaged the main dam and destroyed the secondary dam in the scheme.
Lawn Lake Dam 1982-07-15 Rocky Mountain National Park, United States 3 Outlet pipe erosion; dam under-maintained due to location.
Tous Dam 1982-10-20 Valencia, Spain 8 Heavy flooding coupled with poor quality of the dam wall, lack of qualified staff and negligence of a warning of heavy rain in the area. On the next day, newspapers reported possibly 40 fatalities and 25 disappeared but in the coming days the count went down to 8 or 9. One year later, LaVanguardia spoke of 25.
Val di Stava dam 1985-07-19 Tesero, Italy 268 Poor maintenance and low margin for error in design; outlet pipes failed leading to pressure on dam.
Kantale Dam 1986-04-20 Kantale, Sri Lanka 180 Poor maintenance, leakage, and consequent failure. Destroyed over 1600 houses and 2000 acres of paddy fields.
Upriver Dam 1986-05-20 Spokane, United States 0 Lightning struck power system, turbines shut down. Water rose behind dam while trying to restart. Backup power systems failed, could not raise spillway gates in time. Dam overtopped(rebuilt).
Belci dam failiure 1991-07-29 Belci, Romania 0 The embankment dam, built between 1958 and 1962 for the Borzești Petrochemical Plant on the Tazlău river, collapsed after record rainfall firstly overtopped the structure, followed by its breach later onwards. As the event happened in the night, 250 houses were destroyed, killing 25 people in the process.
Peruća Dam detonation 1993-01-28 Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia 0 Not strictly a dam failure as there was a detonation of pre-positioned explosives by retreating Serb Forces.
Merriespruit tailings dam 1994-02-22 Free State, South Africa 17 Dam failed after a heavy thunderstorm. The dam was in an unacceptable condition prior to failure. Widespread devastation and environmental damage.
Meadow Pond Dam 1996-03-13 New Hampshire, United States 1 Design and construction deficiencies resulted in failure in heavy icing conditions.
Saguenay Flood 1996-07-19 Quebec, Canada 10 Problems started after two weeks of constant rain, which severely engorged soils, rivers and reservoirs. Post-flood enquiries discovered that the network of dikes and dams protecting the city was poorly maintained.
Opuha Dam 1997-02-06 Canterbury, New Zealand 0 Heavy rain during construction caused failure, dam was later completed.
Doñana disaster 1998-04-25 Andalusia, Spain 0 Over-steepened dam failed by sliding on weak clay foundation, releasing 4–5 million cubic metres of acidic mine tailings into the River Agrio, a tributary of the River Guadiamar, which is the main water source for the Doñana National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Shihgang Dam 1999-09-21 Taiwan 0 Caused by damage sustained during the 921 earthquake.
Martin County coal slurry spill 2000-10-11 Martin County, United States 0 Failure of a coal slurry impoundment. The water supply for over 27,000 residents was contaminated. The spill was 30 times larger than the Exxon Valdez oil spill and one of the worst environmental disasters ever in the southeastern United States
Vodní nádrž Soběnov 2002 Soběnov, Czech Republic 0 Extreme rainfall during the 2002 European floods.
Zeyzoun Dam 2002-06-04 Zeyzoun, Syria 22 2,000 individuals displaced and over 10,000 directly affected.[18][19]
Silver Lake Dam 2003-05-14 Michigan, United States 0 Heavy rains caused earthen dam and bank to wash away. 1,800 people evacuated.
Hope Mills Dam 2003-05-26 North Carolina, United States 0 Caused by heavy rains. 1,600 people evacuated.
Ringdijk Groot-Mijdrecht 2003-08-23 Wilnis, Netherlands 0 Strictly not a dam or dike failure. The original Peat soil surrounding a polder (where peat had subsidized due to oxidization) was pushed away by the water in the canal. The peat became lighter than water during the 2003 drought. The real cause was new wooden piling along the canal. This new piling was water tight and therefore the peat soil dried out. Around 1,500 residents had to be evacuated.
Big Bay Dam 2004-03-12 Mississippi, United States 0 A small hole in the dam grew and eventually led to failure. 104 buildings damaged or destroyed.
Camará Dam 2004-06-17 Paraiba, Brazil 3 Poor maintenance. 3000 people homeless. A second failure happened 11 days after.
Shakidor Dam 2005-02-10 Pasni, Pakistan 70 Sudden and extreme flooding caused by abnormally severe rain.
Taum Sauk reservoir 2005-12-14 Lesterville, United States 0 Computer/operator error; gauges intended to mark dam full were not respected; dam continued to fill. Minor leakages had also weakened the wall through piping. The dam of the lower reservoir withstood the onslaught of the flood.
Ka Loko Dam 2006-03-14 Kauai, United States 7 Heavy rain and flooding. Several possible specific factors to include poor maintenance, lack of inspection and illegal modifications.[20]
Campos Novos Dam 2006-06-20 Campos Novos, Brazil 0 Tunnel collapse.
Gusau Dam 2006-09-30 Gusau, Nigeria 40 Heavy flooding. Approximately 500 homes were destroyed, displacing 1,000 people.
Lake Delton 2008-06-09 Lake Delton, United States 0 Failure due to June 2008 Midwest floods.
Koshi Barrage 2008-08-18 Koshi Zone, Nepal 250 Neglection of barrage and the building of barrage itself. The region however saw weak monsoon and multi-year drought preceding the barrage failuire. The flood affected over 2.3 million people in the northern part of Bihar.
Kingston Fossil Plant
coal fly ash slurry spill
2008-12-22 Roane County, United States 0 Failure of a fly ash slurry pond.
Algodões Dam 2009-05-27 Piaui, Brazil 7 Heavy rain.[21] 80 people injured, 2000 homeless.
Situ Gintung Dam 2009-03-27 Tangerang, Indonesia 98 Poor maintenance and heavy monsoon rain.
Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam 2009-08-17 Sayanogorsk, Russia 75 Not a dam failure, but rather the power station accident where the turbine 2 broke apart violently due to the metal fatigue caused by overlooked vibrations, flooding the turbine hall and causing the ceiling to collapse. The dam itself was unaffected, and the power station rebuilt within 5 years.
Kyzyl-Agash Dam 2010-03-11 Qyzylaghash, Kazakhstan 43 Heavy rain and snowmelt. 300 people were injured and over 1000 evacuated from the village.
Hope Mills Dam 2010-06-16 North Carolina, United States 0 Sinkhole caused dam failure. Second failure of the dam, will be replaced.
Testalinda Dam 2010-06-13 Oliver, Canada 0 Heavy Rain, low maintenance. Destroyed at least 5 homes. Buried Highway 97.
Delhi Dam 2010-07-24 Iowa, United States 0 Heavy rain, flooding. Around 8,000 people had to be evacuated.
Niedow Dam 2010-08-07 Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland 1 Heavy rain, over-topped from flooding.[22]
Ajka alumina plant accident 2010-10-04 Ajka, Hungary 10 Failure of concrete impound wall on alumina plant tailings dam. One million cubic meters of red mud contaminated a large area, within days the mud had reached the Danube.
Kenmare Resources tailings dam 2010-10-04 Topuito, Mozambique 1 Failure of tailings dam at titanium mine. 300 homes had been rebuilt.
Fujinuma Dam 2011-03-11 Sukagawa, Japan 8 Failed after 2011 Tōhoku earthquake. 7 dead and 1 unknown. Japanese authorities state that the dam failure was caused by the earthquake, making these the first earthquake-caused dam failure fatalities since 1930, worldwide.[23]
Campos dos Goytacazes dam 2012-01-04 Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil 0 Failed after a period of flooding.[24] 4000 people displaced.
Ivanovo Dam 2012-02-06 Biser, Bulgaria 8 Failed after a period of heavy snowmelt. A crack in the dam went un-repaired for years. Eight people killed and several communities flooded.[25]
Köprü Dam 2012-02-24 Adana Province, Turkey 10 A gate in the diversion tunnel broke after a period of heavy rain during the reservoir's first filing. The accident killed ten workers.[26][27]
Dakrong 3 Dam 2012-10-07 Quảng Trị Province, Vietnam 0 Poor design, Typhoon Gaemi flood surge.
Tokwe Mukorsi Dam 2014-02-04 Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe 0 Downstream slope failure on a 90.3 m (296 ft) tall embankment dam, possibly as the reservoir was being filled. Residents evacuated upstream.
Mount Polley tailings dam failure 2014-08-04 British Columbia, Canada 0 Tailings dam collapse due to negligent operation; reservoir was overfilled beyond design parameters despite repeated warnings of the danger [28][29][30] combined with a minor dam breach a few months before[31] and fundamental design flaws.[32] Failure of due-diligence and the honourable discharge of duty-of-care obligations by the regulator has resulted in complete exoneration of Imperial Metals, the dam operator.
Mariana dam disaster 2015-11-05 Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brazil 19 Tailings dam collapsed. One village destroyed, 600 people evacuated. 60 million cubic meters of iron waste slurry polluted Doce River, and the sea near the river's mouth.
Maple Lake 2017-10-05 Paw Paw, Michigan 0 A heavy rainstorm caused a section of a dam to crumble because of the weight of a pond above, which happened around 5 a.m.[33]
Patel Dam 2018-05-10 Solai, Kenya 47 Failed after several days of heavy rain.
Panjshir Valley dam 2018-07-11 Panjshir Valley, Afghanistan 10 Dilapidated dam crumbled under heavy summer rains, 13 missing, 300 houses destroyed.
Xe-Pian Xe-Namnoy Dam 2018-07-23 Attapeu Province, Laos 36 Saddle dam under construction collapsed during rainstorms. 6600 people homeless, 98 missing.
Swar Chaung Dam 2018-08-19 Yedashe, Myanmar 4 Breach in the dam's spillway. 63,000 evacuated, 3 missing. 85 villages affected.
Sanford Dam, Patricia Lake 2018-09-15 Boiling Spring Lakes, North Carolina 0 Overtopping due to over 36" rainfall during landfall of Hurricane Florence.
Brumadinho dam disaster 2019-01-25 Brumadinho, Minas Gerais, Brazil 217 Tailings dam suffered a catastrophic failure releasing 12 million cubic meters of tailings slurry. 247 deaths. 23 people missing.
Spencer Dam Failure 2019-03-14 Near Spencer, Nebraska, United States
Tiware Dam 2019-07-02 Ratnagiri District, India 23 Heavy rains breached the dam.

See also


  1. Souza, Leonardo; Sanjay Pandit, Grishma; Prakash Chanekar, Tanvi. "CASE STUDY AND FORENSIC INVESTIGATION OF FAILURE OF DAM ABOVE KEDARNATH" (PDF). International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  2. "Science Engineering & Sustainability: Dam break simulation with HEC-RAS: Chepete proposed dam". Science Engineering & Sustainability. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
  3. Osnos, Evan. "Faust, China, and Nuclear Power," The New Yorker, Wednesday October 12, 2011. Retrieved at http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/evanosnos/2011/10/faust-china-and-nuclear-power.html on October 12, 2011. Archived March 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  4. Coleman, Neil M. (2018). Johnstown’s Flood of 1889 - Power Over Truth and The Science Behind the Disaster. Springer International AG. ISBN 978-3-319-95215-4.
  5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yNShw5LsXbk&list=PLlOnFMm_a9Up7AiiI3d5uibkQ9xEgHKk8&index=4 | Seconds from disaster, Flood at Satava dam Italy
  6. "La rotura del pantano de Puentes - Región de Murcia Digital". www.regmurcia.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  7. "Arizona's 1890 dam disaster killed more than 100 people" The Daily Courier. "article ID 48987". Archived from the original on 2015-11-18. Retrieved 2015-01-30. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  8. Cherry Creek Flood, 1933, Denver Public Library, Western History and Genealogy Division, 2015.
  9. Castlewood Canyon State Park: A brief history, Colorado Parks and Wildlife, State of Colorado, 2007].
  10. Disaster Nearly Drowns Denver In 1933, Ion Colorado, 1 February 2019.
  11. 40 años de la tragedia de Ribadelago, en la que murieron 144 personas (in Spanish)
  12. "July 12, 1961 – Lest We Forget". sakaaltimes.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  13. "История на село Згориград – Згориград". Згориград. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  14. "Трагедиата". archive.org. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  15. "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 2019-08-24.
  16. "Certej 1971, tragedia uitată a 89 de vieţi îngropate sub 300 de mii de metri cubi de nămol". Adevărul. 31 August 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  17. "No One Had a Tongue to Speak". 12 May 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  18. "Syria – Collapse of Dam/floods OCHA Situation Report No. 4" (PDF). ReliefWeb. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  19. Chanson, Hubert Chanson Hubert (2009). "Embankment Overflow Protection Systems and Earth Dam Spillways" (PDF). Dams: Impacts, Stability and Design. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-02.
  20. "Kauai Dam Breach Killed 7 People Five Years Ago, But Criminal Charges Against Dam Owner Still Pending." Hawaii Reporter. http://www.hawaiireporter.com/kauai-dam-breach-killed-7-five-years-ago-but-criminal-charges-still-pending/123 Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  21. "Breaching of the Algodões dam and the threat of mega-projects". Movement of Dam Affected People. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  22. Öffentlichkeitsarbei, Referat Kommunikation und. "Ereignisanalyse Hochwasser im August und September 2010 und im Januar 2011 in Sachsen". publikationen.sachsen.de. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  23. "20110518". Archived from the original on 2012-05-11. Retrieved 2011-05-18. (JPN)
  24. "Brazil dam burst forces thousands from homes". BBC. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  25. "Bulgarian Dam Collapsed over Unrepaired Crack since 2003". NoVinite. 6 February 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  26. "Cover Kozan Dam Explosion" (in Turkish). Haberler. 8 March 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  27. "Holding Ozaltin conscience" (in Turkish). Emlak Kulisi. 10 March 2012. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  28. "Former tailings pond engineers for Mount Polley say they made warnings". CBC News. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  29. "Mount Polley mine tailings breach followed years of government warnings". CBC News. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  30. "First Nations chief: Warning about B.C. tailings pond 'ignored' - Macleans.ca". Macleans.ca. 2014-08-05. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  31. "Red flags raised years before B.C. mine-tailings spill, consultant says". Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  32. "Design failure caused Mount Polley tailings breach, expert panel concludes". Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  33. "Dam breach sends contaminated sediment downstream in Paw Paw". Retrieved 15 August 2018.
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