D battery

A D battery (D cell or IEC R20) is a size of dry cell. A D cell is cylindrical with an electrical contact at each end; the positive end has a nub or bump. D cells are typically used in high current drain applications, such as in large flashlights, radio receivers and transmitters and other devices that require an extended running time. A D cell may be either rechargeable or non-rechargeable. Its terminal voltage and capacity depend upon its cell chemistry.

The National Carbon Company introduced the first D cell in 1898. Before smaller cells became more common, D cells were widely known as flashlight batteries. The U.S. military designation for this battery has been BA-30 since sometime before World War II.[1] During World War II it was designated the Type C battery by the Navy leading to confusion with the smaller C cell battery (BA-42).

In 2007, D batteries accounted for 8% of alkaline primary battery sales (numerically) in the US. In 2008, Swiss purchases of D batteries amounted to 3.4% of primary and 1.4% of secondary sales.[2][3]

Dimensions and capacity

 Zinc–carbonAlkalineLi-FeS2NiCdNiMH
IEC nameR20LR20FR20KR20HR20
Alternative nameB006
ANSI/NEDA name13D13A13LF  
Typical capacity8000 mAh

[12 Wh]

12000-18000 mAh

[18-27 Wh]

2000-5500 mAh

[2.5-6.9 Wh]

2200–12000 mAh 

[2.75-15 Wh]

Nominal voltage1.5 V1.5 V1.5 V1.25 V1.25 V
RechargeableNoSpecial type onlyNoYesYes

A battery's capacity depends upon its cell chemistry and current draw. Energizer brand rates its alkaline D cell at approximately 20,000mAh at 25mA draw, but estimates performance closer to about 10,000mAh at 500mA draw.[4] This effect is generally less pronounced in cells with NiCd and NiMH chemistries; see Peukert's law. Many commonly available size D rechargeable cells are actually sub-C cells in a D-sized holder.

D batteries have:
Nominal diameter of 33.2 ± 1 millimeters (1.3 inches).
Overall length of 61.5 millimeters (2.42 inches). [5]

Other common names

  • HP2 / SP2 / U2 (In Britain until the 1980s)
  • Flashlight Battery
  • MN1300
  • MX1300
  • Mono
  • Goliath
  • Góliátelem (Hungary)
  • Torcia (Italy)
  • Type 373 (Soviet Union/Russia)
  • BA-30 (US Military Spec World War II–1980s)
  • UM 1 (JIS)
  • #1 (China)
  • 6135-99-464-1938 (NSN)(carbon-zinc)
  • 6135-99-109-9428 (NSN)(alkaline)
  • Pilhão (Brazil)
  • Pila Grande (Argentina)
  • Kalın pil (Turkey)
  • Monočlánek / "Buřt" (Czech republic)

See also

References

  1. "U.S. Army Flashlight".
  2. Life Cycle Impacts of Alkaline Batteries with a Focus on End-of-Life - EPBA-EU Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  3. "Absatzzahlen 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2012. INOBAT 2008 statistics.
  4. "MN1300 Size: D (LR20) Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide Battery" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2012.
  5. IEC 60086-2 §7.1.4
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