Cyber force

A cyber force is a military branch devoted to cyberwarfare, cybersecurity, and counter-cyberwarfare. Its responsibilities could also include operations to combat cyberterrorism[1] and to establish cyber power projection.[2] A cyber force can be part of a military branch or a combined command. Presently, it has no official definition although the United States Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated terms provided relevant concepts that indicate cyber force could be constituted by personnel who conduct cyberspace operations in cyberspace and the activities include computer network operations (and its three subordinate constructs, which is attack, defense, and exploitation), and the routine operation and defense of cyberspace.[3]

From an international legal perspective, the use of cyber force or a force of an armed nature in the technical sense during a cyber conflict could be established under the framework of self-defense prescribed in Article 51 of the United Nations Charter.[4]

United States

In 2009, the United States Cyber Command was created at the National Security Agency and was elevated to the status of a full and independent unified combatant command on May 4, 2018.[5] It has been reported that this branch carried out cyber attacks that damaged Iran's nuclear research facilities using Stuxnet.[6]

Retired United States Navy Admiral and Supreme Allied Commander Europe James G. Stavridis, retired United States Army General Keith B. Alexander, Director of the National Security Agency and commander of United States Cyber Command, and other United States military officers have called for the creation of a United States Cyber Force.[7][8][9][10][11]

Current Cyber Forces and military cyber commands

There are now existing cyber forces in several countries such as the case of Norwegian Cyber Defence Force. One of its notable activities involved an incident in 2017 when it announced that it responded to a cyber attack carried out by "Fancy Bear", a cyber espionage group associated with Russian interests.[12] Recently formed cyber forces include the Dutch Ministry of Defense's Defense Cyber Command (DCC). Its first commandant, Brig. Gen. Hans Folmer, outlined the branch's goal and how cyber capabilities form an integral part of Dutch military action in an article called "Defense Cyber Command: a New Branch to the Defense Tree".[13]

The following list outlines the cyber forces currently in operation around the world:

See also


  1. Broadurst, Rod; Grabosky, Peter (2005). Cyber-Crime: The Challenge in Asia. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. p. 175. ISBN 9622097359.
  2. Koch, Robert; Rodosek, Gabi (2016). ECCWS2016-Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security. Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing Ltd. p. 191. ISBN 9781910810934.
  3. Paul, Christopher; Porche III, Isac; Axelband, Elliot (2014). The Other Quiet Professionals: Lessons for Future Cyber Forces from the Evolution of Special Forces. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. p. 24. ISBN 9780833059734.
  4. Information Resources Management Association (2018). Cyber Security and Threats: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. p. 1565. ISBN 9781522556343.
  5. Ferdinando, Lisa (May 3, 2018). "Cybercom to Elevate to Combatant Command". U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  6. Gallagher, Sean (June 13, 2017). "Facing limits of remote hacking, Army cybers up the battlefield". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  7. Why the nation needs a US Cyber Force
  8. U.S. Military Cyber Chief Calls For Cyber Force
  9. Costa, Robert (April 2002). "SUPPORTING THE INFORMATION-CENTRIC 2001 QUADRENNIAL DEFENSE REVIEW:THE CASE FOR AN INFORMATION SERVICE". Air University. United States Government: 261. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  10. Conti, Gregory; Surdu, John "Buck" (Spring 2009). "Army, Navy, Air Force, Cyber: Is it Time for a Cyberwarfare Branch of the Military?" (PDF). Information Assurance Newsletter. 12 (1): 14–18. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  11. Venable, David (June 21, 2017). Vişoianu, Corneliu; Anghelache, Adina (eds.). "Time For A Cyber Force?". Strategikon Annual Book 2017: 170–176. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  12. "'Fancy Bear' also growls at Norway". January 16, 2017. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  13. Stover, Steven (May 23, 2017). "Partnership between Dutch and Army Cyber Brigade Benefits Both Nations". Retrieved 2018-10-11.
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