Cultural references to Hamlet

Numerous cultural references to Hamlet (in film, literature, arts, etc.) reflect the continued influence of this play. Hamlet is one of the most popular of Shakespeare's plays, topping the list at the Royal Shakespeare Company since 1879, as of 2004.[1]


The following list of plays including references to Hamlet is ordered alphabetically.

Film and television


The following list is ordered alphabetically.

  • Egyptian director Youssef Chahine has included elements from Hamlet in his films. Alexandria... Why? (1978) feature performances of soliloquies from the play. In Alexandria Again and Forever (1990), Hamlet appears as a film within the film.[12][13]
  • Shakespeare has been used as a base for pornographic parody film. One example is Luca Damiano's Hamlet: For the Love of Ophelia Parts 1 and 2 (1996).[14][15]
  • The 2006 Chinese film The Banquet (also known as Legend of the Black Scorpion) has a storyline loosely based on the story of Hamlet.[16]
  • In the Star Wars film The Empire Strikes Back, Chewbacca tries to reassemble the body of the robot C-3PO. At one point, he holds C-3PO's head in much the same way that Hamlet is traditionally depicted as holding Yorick's skull. This reference was intentional on the part of the director.[17][18]
  • In Ingmar Bergman's Fanny and Alexander, Hamlet is strongly alluded to. The children's father is rehearsing the part of the Ghost for a production of the play when he dies, and then appears to Alexander later in the film as an actual ghost. The play's plot is also referenced in other ways, including Alexander's hatred for and confrontation with his new stepfather. A character explicitly tells Alexander that he is not Hamlet.[19][20]
  • In the 2008 comedy Hamlet 2 a teacher creates a sequel to Hamlet in an effort to save his school's drama program. Apart from some of the names of his characters, there are very few similarities to the original.[21]
  • The plot of the 2012 Indian Malayalam drama Karmayogi ("The Warrior") is adapted from Hamlet.[22] According to Shakespeare scholar[23] Poonam Trivedi, Shakespeare "has many affinities with an Indian 'classical vision of art'..."[24]
  • Themes and plot elements from the Disney's The Lion King are inspired by Hamlet.[25][26]
  • The horror movie A Nightmare on Elm Street alludes to Hamlet in connection with the protagonist Nancy.[27][28]
  • In the psychological drama The Ninth Configuration, characters discuss Hamlet at length, and asylum-inmates intends to do a production of the play with dogs.[29]
  • In both the musical and the 2005 film adaptation of The Producers, Max Bialystock's musical version of Hamlet, Funny Boy, closes on opening night, one of his many failures.[30]
  • Hamlet features prominently in Renaissance Man, in which a reluctant teacher uses its plot and characters to introduce a group of under-achieving soldiers to critical thinking.[31][32]
  • Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Undead is a 2009 American independent vampire film. The film's title refers to a play-within-the-movie, which is a comic reinterpretation of Shakespeare’s Hamlet and its aftermath.[33][34]
  • In Soapdish, Jeffrey Anderson (Kevin Kline) expresses his desire to perform a One-Man Hamlet, which he justifies by saying the whole thing is happening in Hamlet's head, so you only need one actor.[35]
  • The title for Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991) is a reference to the soliloquy in Act 3, Scene 1. The Klingons Gorkon and Chang are Shakespeare aficionados, and opines that Shakespearian works are best experienced in the 'original' Klingon. Shakespeare's plays are liberally quoted throughout the film.[36][37] In 1996, The Klingon Hamlet, a translation of the play into the constructed Klingon language was published, and parts of it have been performed by the Washington Shakespeare Company.[38]
  • The 1983 comedy Strange Brew is loosely based on Hamlet. Prince Hamlet is represented by Pam, daughter of a murdered brewery-owner who's spirit haunts the brewery's electrical system.[39]
  • Both film versions of To Be or Not to Be (Ernst Lubitsch's in 1942 and Mel Brooks' in 1983) heavily alludes to the play.[40]
  • The cult British comedy Withnail and I quotes and alludes to the play.[41]
  • The title and elements in Alfred Hitchcock's 1959 North by Northwest has been seen as references to the play.[42][43]
  • Hamlet Goes Business (Hamlet liikemaailmassa) (1987), written and directed by Aki Kaurismäki, is a comic reworking of the story as a power struggle in a rubber duck factory.[44]
  • In the 2009 children's film "Coraline" Hamlet's "What a piece of work is man" soliloquy is recited as part of a circus act.[45][46]


Comedy and cartoons

Sitcoms alluding to Hamlet include Gilligan's Island,[47] Happy Days,[48] Skins,[49] Mystery Science Theater 3000[50] and Upstart Crow.[51]

Cartoons include The Simpsons,[52][53] South Park,[54] Animaniacs[55] and The Brak Show.[49]



  • In the 1991 Tales from the Crypt episode "Top Billing", a struggling actor commits murder for the role of Hamlet, only to realize he was actually auditioning for the role of Yorick.[58][59]

Mystery and detective shows

  • The British detective drama Lewis has referenced Shakespeare, including Hamlet, more than once.[60][61]
  • A 2008 episode of the anime-series Black Butler features a production of Hamlet.[62][63]

Science fiction

  • An episode of the original Star Trek series, entitled "The Conscience of the King" (1966) features a production of Hamlet, and alludes to the play in other aspects.[64]
  • In an episode of Star Trek The Next Generation entitled "Hide and Q" (1987), the god-like entity Q is quoting Shakespeare to Captain Picard to justify his tormenting of humanity, and Picard counters him with an earnest quotation of Hamlet's "What a piece of work is man" speech.[65]
  • Hamlet has been referenced in Doctor Who. In The Chase (1965), the Doctor and his companions watch as Francis Bacon gives Shakespeare the idea to write a play about Hamlet.[66] In City of Death (1979), the Doctor claims to have written down Shakespeare's original draft of Hamlet due to the Bard's sprained wrist, but criticises the mixed metaphor "To take arms against a sea of troubles."[67] In The Shakespeare Code (2007), the Doctor meets Shakespeare and quotes the play, saying "the play's the thing." Later on, Shakespeare coins the phrase "to be or not to be." The Doctor suggests he write it down, but Shakespeare remarks that it is "too pretentious."[68]




  • The ninth chapter of James Joyce's Ulysses, commonly referred to as Scylla and Charybdis, is almost entirely devoted to a rambling discourse by Stephen Daedalus on Shakespeare, centering on the character Hamlet. As a character predicts more or less accurately in the very first chapter, "[Daedalus] proves by algebra that Hamlet's grandson is Shakespeare's grandfather and that he himself is the ghost of his own father."[70]
  • Gertrude and Claudius, a John Updike novel, serves as a prequel to the events of the play. It follows Gertrude from her wedding to King Hamlet, through an affair with Claudius, and its murderous results, up until the very beginning of the play.[71]
  • The Dead Fathers Club, a novel by Matt Haig, retells the story of Hamlet from the point of view of an 11-year-old boy in modern England.[72]
  • Anton Chekhov wrote a feuilleton titled I am a Moscow Hamlet (1891), the mutterings of a gossip-mongering actor who contemplates suicide out of sheer boredom.[73]
  • Jasper Fforde's novel Something Rotten includes Hamlet – transplanted from the BookWorld into reality – as a major character. This version of Hamlet frets about how audiences perceive him, complains about the performances of actors who have portrayed him, and at one point resolves to go back and change the play by killing Claudius in the beginning and marrying Ophelia.[74]
  • In Kurt Vonnegut's 1965 novel, God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater, the protagonist, Eliot Rosewater, writes a letter to his wife while pretending to be Hamlet.[75]
  • David Bergantino's novel Hamlet II: Ophelia's Revenge, set in modern Denmark, portrays Ophelia rising from the dead to get revenge on Hamlet.[76]
  • Nick O'Donohoe's 1989 science fiction novel Too Too Solid Flesh portrays a troupe of android actors designed specifically to perform Hamlet; when the androids' designer is murdered, the Hamlet android decides to investigate.[77]
  • In Kyle Baker's 1996 graphic novel The Cowboy Wally Show, Cowboy Wally's masterpiece is the film Cowboy Wally's HAMLET, a modernized version produced in secret while Wally was in prison. He had planned to film Hamlet professionally, but was jailed for an unspecified offense, before he could cast actors, and so used his cell-mates for the cast.[78]
  • David Foster Wallace's novel Infinite Jest takes its name from Hamlet's speech about Yorick, and features a main character struggling with his uncle's influence following the suspicious death of his father.[79][80]
  • The plot of David Wroblewski's novel The Story of Edgar Sawtelle closely follows the story line of Hamlet, and several of the novel's main characters have names similar to their corresponding characters in the play.[81]
  • John Marsden's Hamlet: A Novel is a reinterpretation of the original for young adults. It is set in Denmark and the characters keep their names, their personalities and their functions in the story.[82]
  • In A Christmas Carol, Charles Dickens underscores Jacob Marley's death by an analogy to Hamlet:

    There is no doubt that Marley was dead. This must be distinctly understood, or nothing wonderful can come of the story I am going to relate. If we were not perfectly convinced that Hamlet's Father died before the play began, there would be nothing more remarkable in his taking a stroll at night, in an easterly wind, upon his own ramparts, than there would be in any other middle-aged gentleman rashly turning out after dark in a breezy spot … literally to astonish his son's weak mind.


Short stories

  • In the short story "Much Ado About (Censored)" by Connie Willis, a pair of high school students volunteer to help their teacher edit the play in a satire on political correctness.[94]
  • "In the Halls of Elsinore", a short story by Brad C. Hodson, takes place in an Elsinore occupied by Fortinbras. Told from Horatio's point of view, the story is about a malignant presence that resides in Elsinore – the same presence that appeared to young Hamlet as his father.[95]
  • Margaret Atwood's 1992 collection Good Bones and Simple Murders includes "Gertrude Talks Back," in which Hamlet's mother responds to Hamlet's harsh criticism during Act III, Scene 4, and reveals that it wasn't Claudius who killed his father: "It was me."[96]



Several operas have been written based on Hamlet, including:


Instrumental works based on Hamlet include:


Contemporary popular music mentions include:

  • Hair: The Tribal Love-Rock Musical (1967) by James Rado and Jerome Ragni, contains the song "What A Piece of Work Is Man", which is taken completely from Hamlet and set to music by Galt McDermott.[115]
  • "Cruel to Be Kind" is a 1979 single by Nick Lowe. The title of the song is taken from Hamlet, Act III, Scene 4: "I must be cruel only to be kind. Thus bad begins and worse remains behind."[116]
  • Steampunk band Abney Park recorded a song entitled "Dear Ophelia", in which the vocalist sings as Prince Hamlet, and apologizes to Ophelia for all the things he had done, even telling the story of his father, who died when "his brother crept out, and poured poison in his ear"[117]
  • The title track of the album Elsinore by Swedish musician Björn Afzelius is about a prince locked up in the castle of Elsinore.[118]
  • The title track off of the 2017 album To Kill a King, by American heavy metal band Manilla Road is based on Hamlet.
  • The Birthday Party recorded a song called "Hamlet (Pow Pow Pow)" on the Junkyard album.[119]
  • The Dream Theater song "Pull Me Under" is influenced by, and makes reference to, Hamlet.[120]
  • "Hey There Ophelia" is the thirteenth track off the album, This Gigantic Robot Kills by MC Lars. It features lyrics about Ophelia, Claudius, and Hamlet's father's ghost from Hamlet's point of view.[121]
  • The Serbian hard rock band, Riblja Čorba, released an album entitled Ostalo je ćutanje (trans. "The Rest Is Silence") in 1996. Album features a track entitled "Nešto je trulo u državi Danskoj" (trans. "Something's Rotten in the State of Denmark"), the song itself referring to Serbia. Album cover features band's frontman Bora Đorđević holding a skull.
  • Richard Thompson, British singer/songwriter, sings a live version of the story of Hamlet on "The Life And Music Of – CD 4 – The Songs Pour Down Like Silver". The interpretation is not terribly serious ("Like a hole in the head, Denmark needed that prince").
  • Suicide is Painless from the film and tv-series M*A*S*H, written by Mike Altman, contains contains the line "Is it to be, or not to be?"[122]

Video games

  • Hamlet, a 2003 interactive text game by Robin Johnson[123][124]
  • Hamlet!, a 2010 point-and-click adventure game by Denis Galanin[125]
  • To Be or Not to Be, a 2015 video game adaptation of the book of the same name[126]
  • Elsinore, a 2019 time travel game by Golden Glitch[127]


The play has contributed many phrases to common English vernacular, including the famous "To be, or not to be".

It (as well as the Shakespearean canon as a whole) is frequently given as an example of a text which would be reproduced under the conditions of the infinite monkey theorem.[128]

Artworks inspired by the play includes works by Eugène Delacroix, Henrietta Rae and William Blake.


  1. (Crystal, David, & Ben Crystal, The Shakespeare Miscellany. New York, 2005)
  2. "3 actors, all 37 Shakespeare plays, 97 minutes". 5 June 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  3. DRAKE, SYLVIE (25 June 1991). "STAGE REVIEW : La Jolla 'Fortinbras' Played for Laughs". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  4. Stephenson, Andrea. "BWW Review: I HATE HAMLET at Oyster Mill Playhouse". Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  5. Gilbert, William Schwenck (1982). Plays by W. S. Gilbert: The Palace of the Truth, Sweethearts, Princess Toto, Engaged, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-28056-3. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  6. "Daniel Radcliffe to play Rosencrantz". BBC News. 6 October 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  7. Witt, Mary Ann Frese (26 October 2012). Metatheater and Modernity: Baroque and Neobaroque. Fairleigh Dickinson. p. 139. ISBN 9781611475395. Retrieved 12 November 2018 via Google Books.
  8. Stroud, T. A. (11 November 2018). "Hamlet and The Seagull". Shakespeare Quarterly. 9 (3): 367–372. doi:10.2307/2867341. JSTOR 2867341.
  9. Chekhov, Anton (2016). The Cherry Orchard: A Comedy in Four Acts. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 9781350013605.
  10. Burnett, Mark Thornton (12 October 2011). Edinburgh Companion to Shakespeare and the Arts. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 242–243. ISBN 9780748649341. Retrieved 11 November 2018 via Google Books.
  11. "Review | What if 'Hamlet' had showgirls? 'Something Rotten!' hits and misses". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  12. Beyad, Maryam; Salami, Ali (25 November 2015). "Culture-blind Shakespeare: Multiculturalism and Diversity". Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 148. Retrieved 11 November 2018 via Google Books.
  13. Litvin, Margaret (3 October 2011). "Hamlet's Arab Journey: Shakespeare's Prince and Nasser's Ghost". Princeton University Press. p. 56. Retrieved 11 November 2018 via Google Books.
  14. Shakespeare, William (2006). Hamlet: Third Series. Cengage Learning EMEA. p. 121. ISBN 9781904271321.
  15. NA, NA (2016). Unspeakable ShaXXXspeares, Revised Edition: Queer Theory and American Kiddie Culture. Springer. pp. 79–80. ISBN 9781137078674.
  16. "The Banquet".
  17. Irvin Kershner, Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back DVD Commentary.
  18. Hutcheon, Linda (11 November 2018). "A Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-century Art Forms". University of Illinois Press. p. 27 via Google Books.
  19. Burt, Richard; Boose, Lynda E. (24 February 2004). "Shakespeare, The Movie II: Popularizing the Plays on Film, TV, Video and DVD". Routledge. p. 256. Retrieved 12 November 2018 via Google Books.
  20. "Fanny & Alexander, review: Penelope Wilton is superb as the grandmother". Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  21. Ebert, Roger. "Hamlet 2 Movie Review & Film Summary (2008) - Roger Ebert". Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  22. "Hamlets of India". 4 October 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  23. "Shakespeare and India - OUPblog". 13 March 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  24. Keilen, Sean; Moschovakis, Nick (31 March 2017). "The Routledge Research Companion to Shakespeare and Classical Literature". Taylor & Francis. p. 268. Retrieved 21 November 2018 via Google Books.
  25. "An ode to the Bard: How Shakespeare's iconic works resonate subtly in cinema today". 23 April 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  26. "'The Lion King' stars look back on the making of the animated hit". Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  27. Rickels, Laurence A. (6 September 2016). "The Psycho Records". Columbia University Press. p. 171. Retrieved 21 November 2018 via Google Books.
  28. Muir, John Kenneth (1 January 2004). "Wes Craven: The Art of Horror". McFarland. p. 119. Retrieved 21 November 2018 via Google Books.
  29. Hodgdon, Barbara; Worthen, W. B. (15 April 2008). "A Companion to Shakespeare and Performance". John Wiley & Sons. pp. 448–451 via Google Books.
  30. "Get-Rich Scheme Goes Comically Awry in 'The Producers'". Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  31. Lehmann, Courtney; Starks, Lisa S. (21 November 2018). "Spectacular Shakespeare: Critical Theory and Popular Cinema". Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 175. Retrieved 21 November 2018 via Google Books.
  32. Ebert, Roger (5 February 2013). "I Hated, Hated, Hated This Movie". Andrews McMeel Publishing. Retrieved 21 November 2018 via Google Books.
  33. "'Undead': Shakespeare And Stoppard, All Fanged Up". Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  34. "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Undead -- Film Review". Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  35. Maslin, Janet. "Review/Film; Gossip as Juicy Off the Soap Opera Set as on It". Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  36. "'Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country' is a masterpiece until it's a franchise movie". Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  37. Coursen, Herbert R. (22 November 2018). "Shakespeare Translated: Derivatives on Film and TV". Peter Lang. pp. 81–82. Retrieved 22 November 2018 via Google Books.
  38. Marks, Peter (29 August 2010). "How the Washington Shakespeare Company came to offer Shakespeare in Klingon". Washington Post. Washington Post. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  39. Babiak, Peter E. S. (9 May 2016). "Shakespeare Films: A Re-evaluation of 100 Years of Adaptations". McFarland. p. 132. Retrieved 22 November 2018 via Google Books.
  40. Greenspoon, Leonard Jay (22 November 2018). "Jews and Humor". Purdue University Press. p. 207. Retrieved 22 November 2018 via Google Books.
  41. White, R. S. (10 September 2015). "Avant-Garde Hamlet: Text, Stage, Screen". Rowman & Littlefield. p. 161. Retrieved 22 November 2018 via Google Books.
  42. Yanal, Robert J. (31 May 2005). "Hitchcock as Philosopher". McFarland. p. 74. Retrieved 22 November 2018 via Google Books.
  43. Deutelbaum, Marshall; Poague, Leland (24 February 2009). "A Hitchcock Reader". John Wiley & Sons. p. 254. Retrieved 22 November 2018 via Google Books.
  44. Cochran, Peter (16 October 2014). "Small-Screen Shakespeare". Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 391. Retrieved 6 December 2018 via Google Books.
  45. "Coraline: How Awesome? So Awesome". Slant Magazine.
  46. "Review: Coraline's Stop-Motion Surrealism Dazzles, Terrifies". Wired.
  47. "7 worst failed rescues on 'Gilligan's Island'". Fox News. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  48. Eisner, Joel; Krinsky, David (1 March 1984). "Television comedy series: an episode guide to 153 TV sitcoms in syndication". McFarland. p. 336. Retrieved 6 December 2018 via Google Books.
  49. Kabatchnik, Amnon (20 June 2014). "Blood on the Stage, 480 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Milestone Plays of Murder, Mystery, and Mayhem". Rowman & Littlefield. p. 316. Retrieved 6 December 2018 via Google Books.
  50. Shaffer, R. L. (27 June 2011). "Mystery Science Theater 3000: Hamlet DVD Review". Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  51. "Upstart Crow - S1 - Episode 2: The Play's the Thing". Radio Times. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  52. Waltonen, Karma; Vernay, Denise Du (19 April 2010). "The Simpsons in the Classroom: Embiggening the Learning Experience with the Wisdom of Springfield". McFarland. p. 179. Retrieved 6 December 2018 via Google Books.
  53. Thaler, Engelbert (18 April 2016). "Teaching English Literature". UTB. p. 162. Retrieved 6 December 2018 via Google Books.
  54. Booker, M. Keith (6 December 2018). "Drawn to Television: Prime-time Animation from the Flintstones to Family Guy". Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 142. Retrieved 6 December 2018 via Google Books.
  55. Rohwedder, Kristie. "An 'Animaniacs' Reboot Is Officially Happening & It's A '90s Dream Come True". Bustle. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  56. Hornaday, Ann (16 March 2008). "Canadian Import 'Slings & Arrows': The Soul of Wit". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  57. Dunn, George A.; Eberl, Jason T. (2013). Sons of Anarchy and Philosophy: Brains Before Bullets. John Wiley & Sons. pp. Introduction, chapter 14. ISBN 9781118641668.
  58. Muir, John Kenneth (2013). Terror Television: American Series, 1970–1999. McFarland. ISBN 9781476604169.
  59. "15 Best 'Tales From the Crypt' Episodes". Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  60. Kabatchnik, Amnon (2014). Blood on the Stage, 480 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Milestone Plays of Murder, Mystery, and Mayhem. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442235489.
  61. Maxwell, Julie; Rumbold, Kate (2018). Shakespeare and Quotation. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781107134249.
  62. Clements, Jonathan; McCarthy, Helen (2015). The Anime Encyclopedia, 3rd Revised Edition: A Century of Japanese Animation. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 9781611729092. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  63. "In completely different forms, the Bard thrives in Asia". GMA News Online. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  64. Olivares-Merino, Eugenio M.; Olivares-Merino, Julio A. (2014). Peeping Through the Holes: Twenty-First Century Essays on Psycho. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 9781443867757.
  65. Sellars, Jeff (2012). Light Shining in a Dark Place: Discovering Theology through Film. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 136. ISBN 9781630875831.
  66. Parrill, Sue; Robison, William B. (2013). The Tudors on Film and Television. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 9781476600314.
  67. McAlpine, Fraser. "'Doctor Who': 10 Things You May Not Know About 'The Shakespeare Code'". BBC America. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  68. MacRury, Iain; Rustin, Michael (2018). The Inner World of Doctor Who: Psychoanalytic Reflections in Time and Space. Routledge. pp. chapter six. ISBN 9780429921094. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  69. "Alan Bennett contemporary Hamlet 'Denmark Hill' heading for Radio 4". Radio Times. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  70. Pelaschiar, Laura (2015). Joyce/Shakespeare. Syracuse University Press. p. 92. ISBN 9780815653127. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  71. "Gertrude and Claudius". Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  72. "'Dead Fathers Club' Puts Modern Twist on 'Hamlet'". Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  73. Gottlieb, Vera (1982). Chekhov and the Vaudeville: A Study of Chekhov's One-Act Plays. Cambridge University Press. p. 188. ISBN 9780521241700. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  74. Shaughnessy, Robert (2007). The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and Popular Culture. Cambridge University Press. p. 130. ISBN 9781107495029. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  75. Habermann, Ina; Witen, Michelle (2016). Shakespeare and Space: Theatrical Explorations of the Spatial Paradigm. Springer. p. 235. ISBN 9781137518354.
  76. Habermann, Ina; Witen, Michelle (2016). Shakespeare and Space: Theatrical Explorations of the Spatial Paradigm. Springer. p. 236. ISBN 9781137518354.
  77. Loftis, Sonya Freeman; Kellar, Allison; Ulevich, Lisa (2017). SHAKESPEARE’S HAMLET IN AN ERA OF TEXTUAL EXHAUSTION. Routledge. ISBN 9781351967457.
  78. Inc, CMJ Network (April 1996). "CMJ New Music Monthly". CMJ Network, Inc. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  79. Leith, Sam (26 February 2016). "Infinite Jest at 20: 20 things you need to know". The Guardian.
  80. Walsh (Jr.), James Jason (2014). American Hamlet: Shakespearean Epistemology in David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest. Cleveland State University. pp. Abstract.
  81. "American Hamlet". Washington Post. 8 June 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  82. reviewer, Oscar Kettle (5 September 2008). "Hamlet: A Novel". The Sydney Morning Herald. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  83. Dickens, Charles (2004). Hearn, Michael Patrick (ed.). The Annotated Christmas Carol: A Christmas Carol in Prose. W. W. Norton. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9780393051582.
  84. Edmondson, Paul (20 December 2010). "Shakespeare and A Christmas Carol". Blogging Shakespeare. Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  85. DuBose, Martha Hailey (2000). Women of Mystery: The Lives and Works of Notable Women Crime Novelists. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312276553. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  86. "Ngaio Marsh". NGAIO MARSH HOUSE & HERITAGE TRUST. Retrieved 11 January 2019. Alleyn thinks very frequently of Hamlet, perhaps his favourite Shakespearean play. When eaves-dropping on one occasion he observed wryly to Inspector Fox, "next stop, with Polonius behind the arras in a bedroom" (False Scent, Ch. VI), and when asked to give advice by one Miss Meade, Alleyn thinks of himself as "a mature Hamlet" (Killer Dolphin. Ch.9).
  87. Altmann, Anna E.; Vos, Gail De (2001). Tales, Then and Now: More Folktales as Literary Fictions for Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited. p. 132. ISBN 9781563088315.
  88. Flood, Alison (27 November 2012). "Hamlet rewritten as choose-your-own-adventure game book". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  89. Clanchy, Kate (27 August 2016). "Nutshell by Ian McEwan review – an elegiac masterpiece". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  90. Desmet, Christy; Loper, Natalie; Casey, Jim (2017). Shakespeare / Not Shakespeare. Springer. p. 154. ISBN 9783319633008. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  91. Booth, A. (2015). Reading The Waste Land from the Bottom Up. Springer. pp. Chapter "Line 172". ISBN 9781137482846. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  92. Crawford, Robert (10 January 2015). "TS Eliot: the poet who conquered the world, 50 years on". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  93. Newey, Vincent; Thompson, Ann (1991). Literature and Nationalism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 52. ISBN 9780389209546.
  94. Marx, Peter (2016). Hamlet-Handbuch: Stoffe, Aneignungen, Deutungen (in German). Springer-Verlag. p. 448. ISBN 9783476005168.
  95. Kabatchnik, Amnon (2014). Blood on the Stage, 480 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Milestone Plays of Murder, Mystery, and Mayhem. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 323. ISBN 9781442235489.
  96. Kabatchnik, Amnon (2014). Blood on the Stage, 480 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Milestone Plays of Murder, Mystery, and Mayhem. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 322. ISBN 9781442235489.
  97. Neill, Michael; Schalkwyk, David (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Shakespearean Tragedy. Oxford University Press. p. 676. ISBN 9780198724193.
  98. "Ambleto | Grove Music". doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-5000900112. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  99. Champlin, John Denison; Apthorp, William Foster (1899). Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians: Easter-Mystères. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 219. Retrieved 8 February 2019. Hamlet had been previously set to music, as Amleto, by Gasparini, Rome, 1705 ; Domenico Scarlatti, ib., 1715
  100. "Amleto (i) | Grove Music". doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-5000900296. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  101. "A forgotten 'Hamlet' opera reappears in Baltimore". Washington Post. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  102. Davis, Peter G. (12 March 2010). "In Defense of Ambroise Thomas's 'Hamlet'". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  103. "Classical Music: Music on Radio". The Independent. 14 June 1996. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  104. Senior, Evan (1968). Music and Musicians. Hansom Books. p. 24.
  105. Christiansen, Rupert (12 June 2017). "Brilliant music, rapturously received - Hamlet, Glyndebourne, review". The Telegraph. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  106. Wells, Stanley; Shaw, James (2005). A Dictionary of Shakespeare. Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 9780192806383.
  107. Huss, Fabian (2015). The Music of Frank Bridge. Boydell & Brewer. p. 167. ISBN 9781783270590.
  108. Shakespeare, William (2014). Hamlet: Third Series. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 567. ISBN 9781408142882.
  109. Hamilton, Katy; Loges, Natasha (2014). Brahms in the Home and the Concert Hall. Cambridge University Press. p. 166. ISBN 9781107042704.
  110. Le Guide Musical: Revue Internationale de la Musique Et de Theâtres Lyriques (in French). 1897. p. 99.
  111. Sadie, Stanley (1980). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Macmillan Publishers. p. 650. ISBN 9780333231111.
  112. "Hamlet, symphonic poem for… | Details". AllMusic. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  113. Porte, John F. (2018). Edward MacDowell. Seltzer Books. ISBN 9781455313464.
  114. Russell, Peter (2018). Delphi Masterworks of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Illustrated). Delphi Classics. ISBN 9781786561237. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  115. "Review: 'Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical' at City Theater Company in WiImington, DE". Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  116. "21 Everyday Phrases You'd Never Believe Were Invented By Shakespeare". Reader's Digest. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  117. Icons of Beauty: Art, Culture, and the Image of Women. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313081569. Retrieved 19 March 2019. Gothic band Abney Park has a song titled Dear Ophelia (2006), which is an imagined letter of apology from Hamlet to Ophelia.
  118. ""Min tro är något vackert – något jag står för"". Dagen. Retrieved 19 March 2019. I den absolut sista text som min hjälte Björn Afzelius skrev, sjunger han om Elsinore, slottet från Hamlet.
  119. Shakespeare and Popular Music. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 106–107. ISBN 9781441134257. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  120. "Complete Guide to Dream Theater 'Pull Me Under'". Ultimate Guitar. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  121. Singer-Songwriters: Music and Poetry in Language Teaching. Narr Francke Attempto Verlag. p. 94. ISBN 9783823392385.
  122. Avant-Garde Hamlet: Text, Stage, Screen. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 82. ISBN 9781611478563. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  123. Fazel, Valerie M.; Geddes, Louise (2017). The Shakespeare User: Critical and Creative Appropriations in a Networked Culture. Springer. p. 38. ISBN 9783319610153. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  124. Lien, Tracey (10 October 2012). "Shakespeare meets video games in 'Hamlet: The Text Adventure'". Polygon. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  125. ""To Play, or Not to Play?" Alawar Entertainment Releases Hamlet Video Game for PC - IGN". IGN. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  126. "Ryan North's To Be Or Not To Be". Pocket Gamer. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  127. "What to play: In the 'Hamlet' remix 'Elsinore,' Ophelia is caught in a time loop". Los Angeles Times. 9 August 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  128. Owen, Ruth J. (2013). The Hamlet Zone: Reworking Hamlet for European Cultures. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 182. ISBN 9781443845069.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.