County of Nassau

The County of Nassau was a German state within the Holy Roman Empire and later part of the German Confederation. Its ruling dynasty, the male line of which is now extinct, was the House of Nassau.

(Princely) County of Nassau
Principalities of Nassau

(Gefürsteter) Grafschaft Nassau  (German)
Fürstentümer Nassau  (German)
1125–1806
Coat of arms
County of Nassau in 1547
StatusCounty
CapitalNassau
Common languagesGerman (Rhine Franconian dialects, Moselle Franconian dialects)
GovernmentCounty
Historical eraMiddle Ages
 City founded
915
 Rupert I claims title of count
1125
 Comital title acknowledged
1159
 Partitioned multiple times
1255–1806
 Remaining parts unified to form duchy
1806
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Bishopric of Worms
Duchy of Nassau
Today part of Germany

Origins

Nassau, originally a county, developed on the lower Lahn river in what is known today as Rhineland-Palatinate. The town of Nassau was founded in 915.[1] Dudo of Laurenburg held Nassau as a fiefdom as granted by the Bishopric of Worms. His son, Rupert, built the Nassau Castle there around 1125, declaring himself "Count of Nassau". This title was not officially acknowledged by the Bishop of Worms until 1159 under the rule of Rupert's son, Walram. By 1159, the County of Nassau effectively claimed rights of taxation, toll collection, and justice, at which point it can be considered to become a state.[1]

The Nassauers held the territory between the Taunus and the Westerwald at the lower and middle Lahn. By 1128, they acquired the bailiwick of the Bishopric of Worms, which had numerous rights in the area, and thus created a link between their heritage at the lower Lahn and their possessions near Siegen. In the middle of the 12th century, this relationship was strengthened by the acquisition of parts of the Hesse-Thüringen feudal kingdom, namely the Herborner Mark, the Kalenberger Zent and the Court of Heimau (Löhnberg). Closely linked to this was the "Lordship of Westerwald", also in Nassau's possession at the time. At the end of the 12th century, the House acquired the Reichshof Wiesbaden, an important base in the southwest.

In 1255, after the Counts of Nassau acquired the estates of Weilburg, the sons of Count Henry II divided Nassau for the first time. Walram II received the county of Nassau-Weilburg. From 1328 on, his younger brother, Otto I, held the estates north of the Lahn river, namely the County of Nassau-Siegen and Nassau-Dillenburg. The boundary line was essentially the Lahn, with Otto receiving the northern part of the county with the cities of Siegen, Dillenburg, Herborn and Haiger and Walram retaining the section south of the river, including the cities of Weilburg and Idstein.

County of Nassau-Weilburg

Walram's son Adolf became King of Germany in 1292. His son Count Gerlach abdicated in 1344 and the County was divided under his sons in 1355

  • County of Nassau-Weilburg, again divided from 1442 to 1574
  • County of Nassau-Wiesbaden, again divided from 1480 to 1509
    • County of Nassau-Idstein
    • County of Nassau-Wiesbaden

     fell back to Nassau-Weilburg in 1605

  • County of Nassau-Sonnenberg, partitioned among Nassau-Wiesbaden and Nassau-Weilburg in 1405

In 1605, all parts of Nassau-Weilburg were again unified under Count Louis II; however, after his death in 1627, his sons divided the county again

  • County of Nassau-Idstein, fell to Nassau-Ottweiler in 1721
  • County of Nassau-Saarbrücken (Younger), divided again in 1640
    • County of Nassau-Saarbrücken, fell to Nassau-Ottweiler in 1723
    • County of Nassau-Ottweiler, fell to Nassau-Usingen in 1728
    • County of Nassau-Usingen, Principality in 1688
  • County of Nassau-Weilburg (Younger)

After Nassau-Usingen had inherited Nassau-Ottweiler with former Nassau-Idstein and Nassau-Saarbrücken, it was reunified with Nassau-Weilburg and raised to the Duchy of Nassau in 1806.

County of Nassau-Dillenburg

After the death of Count Otto I, his country was divided between his sons in 1303:

  • County of Nassau-Dillenburg, fell to Nassau-Siegen in 1328
  • County of Nassau-Hadamar (Elder), fell to Nassau-Dillenburg in 1394
  • County of Nassau-Siegen, called Nassau-Dillenburg from 1328 on, again got divided from 1341 to 1561:
    • County of Nassau-Beilstein (Elder)
    • County of Nassau-Dillenburg (Elder)–1606)

In 1504, Henry III of Nassau-Dillenburg inherited the County's estates at Breda in the Duchy of Brabant, while his younger brother William became Count of Nassau-Dillenburg in 1516. After the son of Henry III, René of Châlon died in 1544, Count William's eldest son William the Silent became Prince of Orange and Lord of Breda, Stadtholder in the Low Countries from 1559 on. His younger brother, John VI, again reunited all Nassau-Dillenburg possessions in 1561, though the County was again divided after his death in 1606.

  • County of Nassau-Hadamar (Younger), Principality in 1650, fell to Nassau-Diez in 1743
  • County of Nassau-Siegen, (1607–23), again got divided from 1623 to 1734:
    • County of Nassau-Siegen (Protestant), Principality in 1664, became extinct in 1734
    • County of Nassau-Siegen (Catholic), Principality, fell to Nassau-Diez in 1743
  • County of Nassau-Dillenburg, fell to Nassau-Beilstein in 1620
  • County of Nassau-Beilstein (Younger), called Nassau-Dillenburg (Younger) from 1620 on, Principality in 1652, fell to Nassau-Dietz in 1739
  • County of Nassau-Dietz, fell to Joachim Murat's Grand Duchy of Berg after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806

The Counts of Nassau-Dietz, descendants of William Frederick were stadtholders of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe and Princes of Orange from 1702 on. When they lost their Dutch possessions during the Napoleonic Wars, they were compensated with the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda. Though they lost their German possessions in 1806, the House of Orange-Nassau, through female succession, was the reigning house of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg until 1890 and is still the royal house of the Netherlands.

Rulers

House of Nassau

Partitions of Nassau under House of Nassau rule

County of Nassau
(1123-1255)

Northern Nassau
(Ottonian Line)
(1255-1303)

Southern Nassau
(Walramian Line)
(1255-1355)
Nassau-Siegen
(1st creation)
(1303-1328)
Nassau-Dillenburg
(1st creation)
(1303-1328)
Nassau-Hadamar
(1st creation)
(1303-1394)
      
Nassau-Beilstein
(1343-1561)
Nassau-Siegen-Dillenburg
(1328-1606)
       Nassau-Sonnenberg
(1355-1390)
       Nassau-Idstein
(1st creation)
(1355-1605)
       Nassau-Weilburg
(1st creation)
(1355-1605)
             
              Nassau-Saarbrücken
(1st creation)
(1429-1574)
       Nassau-Breda and Orange-Nassau
(1538-1702)
      
             
             
       Southern Nassau (Nassau-Weilburg)
(1605-1627)
       Nassau-Siegen
(2nd creation)
(1606-1734)
Nassau-Dietz
(1606-1702)
Nassau-Hadamar
(2nd creation)
(1620-1711)
      
Nassau-Dillenburg
(2nd creation)
(1606-1739)
Nassau-Weilburg
(2nd creation)
(1627-1806)
Nassau-Saarbrücken
(2nd creation)
(1627-1728)
Nassau-Idstein
(2nd creation)
(1627-1721)
              Nassau-Ottweiler
(1659-1721)
      
                           
                           
       Nassau-Dietz and
Orange-Nassau
(1st creation)
(1702-1806)
Nassau-Usingen
(1659-1806)
      
                           
                    
                    
             
              Nassau-Saarbrücken
(3rd creation)
(1741-1797)
              Annexed by France
      
Nassau-Dietz and Orange-Nassau
(2nd creation)
(1813-1815)
Duchy of Nassau
(1806-1866)
      
Annexed by Prussia

Table of rulers

(Note: Here the numbering of the counts and princes is the same for all principalities, as all were titled Counts of Nassau, despite of the different parts of land and its particular numbering of the rulers, who here are numbered in a single counting, according to the year of succession.)

RulerBornReignDeathRuling partConsortNotes
Rupert Ic.10901123-1154c.1154County of NassauBeatrice of Limburg
before 1135
four children
Eldest son of Dudo of Laurenburg; Founder of the family and the county.
Waleran Ic.11461154-11981 February 1198County of NassauKunigunde of Ziegenhain
before 1135
four children
Sons of Rupert I, ruled together. In 1159, after the death of his brother, Waleran co-ruled with his nephews, sons of his brother Arnold of Laurenburg or either of his previous co-ruler Rupert II. Waleran would become the first legalized Count of Nassau in 1193.
Rupert IIc.11371154-1159c.1159County of NassauUnmarried
Henry Ibefore 11591159-1167August 1167County of NassauUnmarried
Rupert III the Bellicosebefore 11591159-119123/28 December 1191County of NassauElisabeth of Leiningen
1169
two children
Henry II the Richc.11801198-125126 April 1251County of NassauMatilda of Guelders
before 1221
eleven children
Sons of Waleran I, ruled together.
Rupert IVc.11801198-1240c.1240County of NassauGertrude of Kleeberg
c. 11 December 1215
no children
Waleran IIc.1220 1251-125524 January 1276County of NassauAdelaide of Katzenelnbogen
before 1250
seven children
Sons of Henry II, ruled together until 17 December 1255, when they divided the county in two halves.
Otto Ic.1220between 3 May 1289 and 19 March 1290County of NassauAgnes of Leiningen
five children
Henry II's sons, Waleran II and Otto I, split the Nassau possessions on 17 December 1255, by a treaty called Prima divisio, which determined the Lahn river as border of the two halves: to the south, called Southern Nassau, was ruled by Waleran and his descendants, who became known as the Walramian Line, which became important in the County of Nassau and Luxembourg; to the north, called Northern Nassau the county was ruled by Otto and his descendants, who became known as the Ottonian Line, which would inherit parts of Nassau, France and the Netherlands.
Otto Ic.12201255-1289/90between 3 May 1289 and 19 March 1290Northern NassauAgnes of Leiningen
five children
Son of Henry II, received the land to the north of Lahn river.
Waleran IIc.12201255-127624 January 1276Southern NassauAdelaide of Katzenelnbogen
before 1250
seven children
Son of Henry II, received the land to the south of Lahn river.
Adolph Ic.12551276-12982 July 1298Southern NassauImagina of Isenburg-Limburg
1270
eight children
In 1292 was crowned King of Germany.
Emicho I before 1289 1289/90-1303 7 June 1334 Northern Nassau Anna of Nuremberg
before 1297
eight children
Sons of Otto I, ruled together until 1303, when they divided the land: Henry received Nassau-Siegen, Emicho received Nassau-Hadamar and John received Nassau-Dillenburg. However, after the childless death of John, Nassau-Dillenburg fell to Nassau-Siegen, which adopted the name Nassau-Dillenburg (named in this table as Nassau-Siegen-Dillenburg). Siegen and Dillenburg were united until 1606.
1303-1334Nassau-Hadamar
John I c.1290 1289/90-1303 10 August 1328 Northern Nassau Unmarried
1303-1328Nassau-Dillenburg
Henry III before 1288 1289/90-1303 July/August 1343 Northern Nassau Adelaide of Sponheim-Heinsberg
1302
five children
1303-1328Nassau-Siegen
1328-1343Nassau-Siegen-Dillenburg
Nassau-Dillenburg was annexed to Nassau-Siegen, which adopted the name Nassau-Dillenburg
Rupert Vc.12801298-13042 November 1304Southern NassauUnmarriedLeft no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother, Gerlach.
Gerlach Ic.12851304-13557 January 1361Southern NassauAgnes of Hesse
1307
seven children

Irmgard of Hohenlohe-Weikersheim
before 4 January 1337
two children
Brothers of Rupert V, ruled jointly for a brief period (1312-1316). In 1355 Gerlach abdicated to his sons, who divided the land.
Waleran IIIc.12941312-131622 December 1324Southern NassauUnmarried
John IIafter 13021334-136520 January 1365Nassau-HadamarElisabeth of Waldeck
1331
ten children
Sons of Emicho I, ruled jointly.
Emicho IIafter 13021334-13591 March 1359Nassau-HadamarUnmarried
Otto IIc.13051343-13516 January 1351Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgAdelaide of Vianden
23 December 1331
four children
Henry IV11 June 13231343-137828 October 1378Nassau-BeilsteinImagina of Westerburg
1339
three children
Son of Henry III, inherited Beilstein, partitioned from Nassau-Siegen-Dillenburg.
John IIIc.13401351-14164 September 1416Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgMargaretha of the Marck
30 November 1357
six children
Crato Ic.13401355-13561356Nassau-SonnenbergUnmarriedSon of Gerlach I, inherited Sonnenberg. Died with no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother Rupert.
John IVc.13091355-137120 September 1371Nassau-WeilburgGertrude of Merenberg
1333
one child

Johanna of Saarbrücken
1353
seven children
Son of Gerlach I, inherited Weilburg.
Adolph IIc.13071355-137017 January 1370Nassau-IdsteinMargaret of Nuremberg
1322
fourteen children
Son of Gerlach I, inherited Idstein.
Rupert VI the Bellicosec.13401356-13904 September 1390Nassau-SonnenbergAnna of Nassau-Hadamar
1362
no children
Died with no descendants. His land was annexed to Nassau-Weilburg.
Nassau-Sonnenberg was annexed to Nassau-Weilburg
Henry Vafter 13311365-13681368Nassau-Hadamar UnmarriedLeft no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
Emicho IIIafter 13311368-13941394Nassau-HadamarBrother of Henry, left no descendants. The land was annexed to Nassau-Dillenburg.
Nassau-Hadamar was annexed to Nassau-Dillenburg
Gerlach II13331370-13861386Nassau-IdsteinAgnes of Veldenz
c.1360
no children
Son of Gerlach I, inherited Idstein.
Johanna of Saarbrücken (regent)c.13301371-1381October 1381Nassau-WeilburgJohn IV
1353
seven children
Regent on behalf of her son, passing to him, at her death, the County of Saarbrücken.
Frederick of Blankenheim, Bishop of Strasbourg (regent)c.13551381-13829 October 1423Nassau-WeilburgUnmarriedRegent on behalf of count Philip I, after the death of his mother.
Philip I13681382-14292 July 1429Nassau-WeilburgAnna of Hohenlohe-Weikersheim
1385
one child

Elisabeth of Lorraine-Vaudémont
1412
four children
Divided the land for his sons: the eldest received Nassau-Weilbirg; the youngest, the county of Saarbrücken.
Henry VI29 September 13741378-141212 October 1412Nassau-BeilsteinCatherine of Randerode
1383
four children
Sons of Henry IV, ruled jointly.
Rainhard13741378-1414/18between 30 December 1414 and 17 April 1418Nassau-BeilsteinUnmarried
Waleran IV13541386-13937 November 1393Nassau-IdsteinBertha of Westerburg
1374
two children
Adolph III13861393-142616 July 1426Nassau-IdsteinMargaret of Baden-Baden
March 1418
six children
John VAfter 13831414/18-14731473Nassau-BeilsteinMatilda of Isenburg
1415
four children

Johanna von Gemen
1477
one child
Sons of Henry IV, ruled jointly.
Henry VII14181414/18-147712 September 1477Nassau-BeilsteinUnmarried
Adolph IV13621416-142012 June 1420Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgJudith of Dietz
1376
one child
Sons of John III, ruled jointly, as Tetrarchs.
John VI the Elder13651416-1443May 1443Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgUnmarried
Engelbert I13701416-14423 May 1442Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgJohanna van Polanen
1 August 1403
Breda
six children
John VII the Younger13621416-1429/301429/30Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgUnmarried
John VIII14191426-14809 May 1480Nassau-IdsteinMaria of Nassau-Dillenburg
17 June 1437
Breda
six children
Elisabeth of Lorraine-Vaudémont (regent)13951429-143817 January 1456Nassau-WeilburgPhilip I
1412
four children
Regent in name of her children
Philip II12 March 14181438-149219 March 1492Nassau-WeilburgMargaret of Loon-Heinsberg
25 September 1440
two children
Eldest son of Philip I, received Nassau-Weilburg.
John IX4 April 14231438-147215 July 1472Nassau-SaarbrückenJohanna of Loon-Heinsberg
30 November 1456
two children

Elisabeth of Württemberg-Urach
30 October 1470
one child
Second son of Philip I, received Saarbrücken.
John X1 August 14101442-14753 February 1475Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgMaria of Loon-Heinsberg
7 February 1440
six children
Sons of Engelbert I, ruled jointly.
Henry VIII7 July 14141442-14518 June 1451Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgGenoveva of Virneburg
1435
one child

Irmgard of Schleiden-Junkerath
after 1437
no children
Elisabeth of Württemberg-Urach (regent)4 October 14471472-14743 June 1505Nassau-SaarbrückenJohn IX
30 October 1470
one child

Henry, Count of Stolberg
30 October 1470
no children
Regent on behalf of her son, until her second marriage.
Philip II, Count of Nassau-Weilburg (regent)12 March 1418 1474-149019 March 1492Nassau-SaarbrückenMargaret of Loon-Heinsberg
25 September 1440
two children
Regents on behalf of count John Louis.
Eberhard I, Duke of Württemberg (regent)11 December 144524 February 1496Nassau-SaarbrückenBarbara Gonzaga
12 April/4 July 1474
one child
John Louis I19 October 14721490-15454 June 1545Nassau-SaarbrückenElisabeth of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
29 January 1492
Saarbrücken
six children

Catharina van Meurs-Saarwerden
14 February 1507
nine children
Engelbert II the Valorious17 May 14511475-150431 May 1504Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgCymburgis of Baden-Baden
19 December 1468
Koblenz
no children
Also Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands. Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
Henry IX14491477-149926 May 1499Nassau-BeilsteinEva of Sayn
1464
ten children
Adolph V10 November 14431480-15116 July 1511Nassau-IdsteinMargaret of Hanau-Lichtenberg
20 June 1484
four children
Philip III14501480-150916 June 1509Nassau-IdsteinMargaret of Zweibrücken-Veldenz
1470
no children
Louis I14731492-152328 May 1523Nassau-WeilburgMaria Margaretha of Nassau-Idstein
19 April 1501
six children
John XI14751499-151318 August 1513Nassau-BeilsteinMaria of Solms
1492
four children

Anna of Lippe
1510
no children
John XII9 November 14551504-151630 July 1516Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgElisabeth of Hesse-Marburg
11 February 1481
six children
Philip IV the Elder26 April 14921511-15586 June 1558Nassau-IdsteinAdriana of Glymes
24 August 1514
Bergen op Zoom
six children
John XIII17 November 14951513-156113 December 1561Nassau-BeilsteinAnna of Nassau-Weilburg
1523
no children
Sons of John, ruled jointly.
Henry XAfter 14951513-152525 February 1525Nassau-BeilsteinUnmarried
Bernard1479/851513-155610 May 1556Nassau-BeilsteinUnmarriedBrother of John (II), ruled jointly with his nephews.
Nassau-Beilstein merged again in Nassau-Dillenburg
Henry XI12 January 14831516-153814 September 1538Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgLouise-Françoise of Savoy
3 August 1503
no children

Claudia of Chalon
May 1515
one child

Mencía de Mendoza
26 June 1524
one child
Philip V20 September 15041523-15594 October 1559Nassau-WeilburgElisabeth of Sayn-Hachenburg
2 March 1523
four children

Anna of Mansfeld-Hinterort
23 September 1536
one child

Amalia of Isenburg-Büdingen
17 August 1541
Büdingen
three children
William I the Rich10 April 14871538-15596 October 1559Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgWalburga of Egmont
29 October 1519
Koblenz
two children

Juliana of Stolberg
29 September 1531
Königstein
twelve children
Brother of Henry XI, inherited Nassau-Siegen-Dillenburg.
René5 February 15191538-154415 July 1544Nassau-Breda and Principality of OrangeAnna of Lorraine
22 August 1540
Bar-le-Duc
one child
Son of Henry XI, inherited Nassau-Breda from his father and the Principality of Orange from his mother. Left no descendants, and gave his patrimony to his cousin.
William II the Silent24 April 15331544-158410 July 1584Nassau-Breda
Orange-Nassau
Anna van Egmont
8 July 1551
Buren
three children

Anna of Saxony
24 August 1561
Leipzig
(annulled 14 December 1571)
five children

Charlotte of Bourbon
12 June 1575
Brielle
six children

Louise de Coligny
12 April 1583
Antwerp
one child
Eldest son of William the Rich, inherited his cousin's lands, and left his father's inheritance to his younger brothers. Murdered in 1584.
Philip VI25 July 15091545-155419 June 1554Nassau-SaarbrückenApollonia of Leiningen-Hartenburg
17 July 1535
no children
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
John XIV5 April 15111554-157423 November 1574Nassau-SaarbrückenUnmarriedLeft no descendants. The land was absorbed by Nassau-Weilburg
Nassau-Saarbrücken merged again in Nassau-Weilburg
Philip VII the Younger15161558-15663 January 1566Nassau-IdsteinUnmarriedLeft no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother Balthasar.
Albert I26 December 15371559-159311 November 1593Nassau-WeilburgAnna of Nassau-Dillenburg
23 September 1536
fourteen children
Sons of Philip V, ruled jointly. In 1574 annexed Nassau-Saarbrücken
Philip VIII14 October 15421559-160212 March 1602Nassau-WeilburgErica of Manderscheid-Blankenheim
9 April 1563
one child

Elisabeth of Nassau-Dillenburg
3 October 1583
no children
John XV the Elder22 November 15361559-16068 October 1606Nassau-Siegen-DillenburgElisabeth of Leuchtenberg
6 June 1559
Dillenburg
thirteen children

Kunigunde Jakobäa of Simmern
13 September 1580
Dillenburg
four children

Johannetta of Sayn-Wittgenstein
14 June 1586
Berleburg
seven children
Younger brother of William the Silent, inherited his father's domains, which were divided after his own death.
After John XV's death Nassau-Siegen-Dillenburg ceased to exist, as its lands became all ruled by different counts, all of them sons of the latter.
Balthasar15201566-156811 January 1568Nassau-IdsteinMargaret of Isenburg-Birstein
9 June/6 September 1564
one child
Margaret of Isenburg-Birstein (regent)14 December 15421568-c.15878 August 1613Nassau-IdsteinBalthasar
9 June/6 September 1564
one child

George I of Leiningen-Westerburg
24 May 1570
Büdingen
five children
Regent on behalf of her son.
John Louis II10 April 1567c.1587-159610 June 1596Nassau-IdsteinMaria of Nassau-Dillenburg
2 December 1588
Idstein
six children
Philip William19 December 15541584-161820 February 1618Nassau-Breda
Orange-Nassau
Éléonore de Bourbon
23 November 1606
Fontainebleau
no children
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his half-brother Maurice.
Maria of Nassau-Dillenburg (regent)12 November 1568 1596-160530 April 1632Nassau-IdsteinJohn Louis II
2 December 1588
Idstein
six children
Regent on behalf of her son.
John Louis III21 May 15969 June 1605Nassau-IdsteinUnmarriedDied as a minor. His lands were annexed to Nassau-Weilburg.
Nassau-Idstein merged again in Nassau-Weilburg
Louis II 9 August 1565 1602-1605 8 November 1627 Nassau-Weilburg Anna Maria of Hesse-Kassel
8 June 1589
Kassel
fourteen children
In 1605 reunited all Southern Nassau.However he divided it again after his death between his sons.
1605-1627Southern Nassau
William Louis I13 March 15601606-162013 July 1620Nassau-DillenburgAnna of Orange-Nassau
25 November 1587
Franeker
no children
Son of John XV, received Nassau-Dillenburg.
John XVI the Middle7 June 15611606-162327 September 1623Nassau-SiegenMagdalena of Waldeck
9 December 1581
Dillenburg
twelve children

Margaret of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
27 August 1603
Dillenburg
thirteen children
John, as son of John XV, received Nassau-Siegen, which ruled jointly with his own son from his birth in 1623. Henry abdicated after his father's death.
Henry XII9 August 16111611-162327 October 1652Nassau-SiegenMaria Magdalene of Limburg-Stirum
9 April 1646
four children
Ernest Casimir I22 December 15731606-16322 June 1632Nassau-DietzSophia Hedwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg
8 June 1607
Dillenburg
two children
Son of John XV, received Nassau-Dietz.
Maurice14 November 15671618-162523 April 1625Nassau-Breda
Orange-Nassau
UnmarriedLeft no descendants. He was succeeded by his half-brother Frederick Henry.
John Louis IV6 August 15901620-165310 March 1653Nassau-HadamarUrsula of Lippe
1617
fourteen children
Son of John XIV, receiving Nassau-Hadamar, which was recreated in 1620, partitioned from Nassau-Dillenburg.
George1 September 15621620-16239 August 1623Nassau-DillenburgAnna Amalia van Nassau-Saarbrücken
1584
fourteen children

Amalia of Sayn-Wittgenstein
1605
one child
Son of John XV, succeeded his childess brother in Nassau-Dillenburg.
John XVII the Younger29 September 15831623-163827 July 1638Nassau-SiegenErnestine Yolande de Ligne
13 August 1618
Brussels
thirteen children
Son of John XV, received Nassau-Siegen.
Louis Henry9 May 15941623-166212 July 1662Nassau-DillenburgCatherine of Sayn-Wittgenstein
1615
twelve children

Elizabeth of Salm-Dhaun
1653
no children

Sophie of Nassau-Hadamar
1656
three children
Sons of George, ruled jointly.
Albert II1 November 15961623-162616 June 1626Nassau-DillenburgUnmarried
Frederick Henry29 January 15841625-164714 March 1647Nassau-Breda
Orange-Nassau
Amalia of Solms-Braunfels
4 April 1625
The Hague
nine children
William Louis II18 December 15901627-164022 August 1640Nassau-SaarbrückenAnna Amalia of Baden-Durlach
25 November 1615
Durlach
twelve children
Son of Louis II, received Nassau-Saarbrücken.
John XVIII24 November 16031627-167723 May 1677Nassau-IdsteinSibylla Magdalena of Baden-Durlach
6 June 1629
Strasbourg
nine children

Anna of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg
6 December 1646
Strasbourg
seventeen children
Son of Louis II, received Nassau-Idstein.
Ernest Casimir II15 November 16071627-165516 April 1655Nassau-WeilburgAnna Maria of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hachenburg
22 February 1634
Weilburg
six children
Son of Louis II, received Nassau-Weilburg.
Henry Casimir I21 January 16121632-164013 July 1640Nassau-DietzUnmarriedLeft no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
John Francis Desideratus28 July 16271638-169917 November 1699Nassau-SiegenJohanna Claudia of Königsegg-Rotenfels-Aulendorf
14 May 1651
Vienna
ten children

Marie Eleonore Sophie of Baden-Rodemachern
31 May 1665
Rodemachern
four children

Isabella Clara du Puget de la Serre
9 February 1669
Brussels
ten children
John Francis ruled with each of his uncles (George Frederick and John Maurice, sons of John XVI) and cousin (William Maurice, son of Henry XII) successively.
George Frederick23 Februy 16061638-16745 April 1674Nassau-SiegenMauritia Eleonora of Portugal
4 June 1647
The Hague
no children
John Maurice the Brazilian17 June 16041674-167920 December 1679Nassau-SiegenUnmarried
William Maurice18 January 16491679-169123 January 1691Nassau-SiegenErnestine Charlotte of Nassau-Schaumburg
6 February 1678
Schaumburg
two children
William Frederick7 August 16131640-166431 October 1664Nassau-DietzAlbertine Agnes of Orange-Nassau
2 May 1652
Kleve
three children
Crato II7 April 16211640-164225 July 1642Nassau-SaarbrückenUnmarried
John Louis V23 May 16251642-16599 February 1690Nassau-SaarbrückenDorothea Catherine of Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler
6 October 1649
Bischweiler
eight children
In 1659 divided the land with his other brothers.
William III27 May 16261647-16506 November 1650Nassau-Breda
Orange-Nassau
Mary of Great Britain
2 May 1641
London
one child
Mary of Great Britain (regent)4 November 16311650-166024 November 1660Nassau-Breda
Orange-Nassau
William III
2 May 1641
London
one child
Shared regency on behalf of William IV.
Amalia of Solms-Braunfels (regent)31 August 16021650-16728 September 1675Nassau-Breda
Orange-Nassau
Frederick Henry
4 April 1625
The Hague
no children
William IV4 November 16501672-17028 March 1702Nassau-Breda
Orange-Nassau
Mary II, Queen of Great Britain
4 November 1677
London
no children
Became King of England and Scotland (Great Britain) in 1688, jointly with his wife. Left no descendants, and his lands in Nassau and Holland reverted to Nassau-Dietz line.
Nassau-Breda and Orange-Nassau annexed to Nassau-Dietz

In 1702, the Nassau-Dietz branch followed the House of Orange that had become extinct with William III of England (d. 1702). The counts of Nassau-Dietz not only descended from William the Silent's brother, but in female line also from himself, as William Frederick, Prince of Nassau-Dietz, had married Countess Albertine Agnes of Nassau, the fifth daughter of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange in 1652.

Maurice Henry23 April 16261653-167924 January 1679Nassau-HadamarErnestine Charlotte of Nassau-Siegen
30 January 1650
Siegen
six children

Maria Leopoldine of Nassau-Siegen
12 August 1669
Siegen
three children

Anna Louise of Manderscheid-Blankenheim
24 October 1675
Hachenburg
six children
Frederick26 April 16401655-16758 September 1675Nassau-WeilburgChristiane Elisabeth von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Homburg
26 May 1663
three children
John Louis V23 May 16251659-16909 February 1690Nassau-OttweilerDorothea Catherine of Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler
6 October 1649
Bischweiler
eight children
Son of William Louis II, after the partition received Ottweiler.
Gustav Adolph27 March 16321659-16779 October 1677Nassau-SaarbrückenEleonore Klara of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
14 June 1662
seven children
Son of William Louis II, after the partition received Saarbrücken.
Waleran V25 February 16351659-170217 October 1702Nassau-UsingenCatherine Françoise of Croÿ-Roeulx
16 June 1678
Mechelen
three children

Magdalena Elizabeth of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort
1686
no children
Son of William Louis II, after the partition received Usingen.
Henry XIII28 August 16411662-170118 April 1701Nassau-DillenburgDorothea Elizabeth of Brzeg
13 October 1663
sixteen children
Grandson of Louis Henry, as son of George Louis, Heir of Nassau-Dillenburg.
Albertine Agnes of Orange-Nassau (regent)9 April 16341664-167726 May 1696Nassau-DietzWilliam Frederick
2 May 1652
Kleve
three children
Henry Casimir II18 January 16571677-169625 March 1696Nassau-DietzHenriëtte Amalia of Anhalt-Dessau
26 November 1683
Dessau
nine children
John XVIII, Count of Nassau-Idstein (regent)24 November 16031675-167723 May 1677Nassau-IdsteinSibylla Magdalena of Baden-Durlach
6 June 1629
Strasbourg
nine children

Anna of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg
6 December 1646
Strasbourg
seventeen children
Regents on behalf of John Ernest.
John Louis V, Count of Nassau-Ottweiler (regent)23 May 16251659-16909 February 1690Nassau-OttweilerDorothea Catherine of Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler
6 October 1649
Bischweiler
eight children
John Ernest13 June 1664c.1680-171927 February 1719Nassau-WeilburgMaria Polyxena of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hartenburg
3 April 1683
nine children
Louis Crato28 March 16631677-171314 February 1713Nassau-SaarbrückenPhilippine Henriette of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
25 April 1699
eight children
Left no male descendants. He was succeeded by his brother Charles Louis.
George August26 February 16651677-172126 October 1721Nassau-IdsteinHenriette Dorothea of Oettingen
22 September 1688
Kirchheim unter Teck
twelve children
Nassau-Idstein was annexed by Nassau-Saarbrücken
Francis Bernard of Nassau-Hadamar (regent)21 September 16371679-169415 September 1695Nassau-HadamarUnmarriedBrother of Maurice Henry, became regent on behalf of his nephew.
Francis Alexander27 January 16741694-171127 May 1711Nassau-HadamarElizabeth Catherine Felicitas of Hesse-Rotenburg
18 October 1695
Lovosice
(annulled 1705)
fourteen children
Left no surviving descendants, and his lands were divided by the neighbouring counties.
Nassau-Hadamar divided between Nassau-Dietz, Nassau-Dillenburg and Nassau-Siegen
Henriëtte Amalia of Anhalt-Dessau (regent)16 August 16661696-170818 April 1726Nassau-Dietz
Orange-Nassau
Henry Casimir II
26 November 1683
Dessau
nine children
Regent on behalf of her son. From 1702 ruled also over the lands of William IV, who died without descendants in 1702.
John William Friso14 August 16871708-171114 July 1711Nassau-Dietz
Orange-Nassau
Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel
26 April 1709
Kassel
two children
Became Stadholder in Friesland and Groningen, and in 1702 became the heir of William III of England and thus the founder of the younger House of Orange-Nassau and of the Dutch Royal Family. However, he had to split the Dutch properties with the King of Prussia who also descended from William I.
William Hyacinth3 April 16671699-174318 April 1743Nassau-SiegenMaria Francisca of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg
9 April 1687
Liège
three children

Maria Anna of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst
22 May 1698
Frankfurt
one child

Sophia of Starhemberg
28 July 1740
Vienna
no children
Son of John Francis Desideratus. Mismanaged the government of the principality and was deposed in 1707. He was replaced by his cousin.
William V28 August 16701701-172421 September 1724Nassau-DillenburgJohanna Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön-Norburg
13 January 1699
Harzgerode
two children
Left no surviving descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
William Henry I2 May 16841702-171814 February 1718Nassau-UsingenCharlotte Amalia of Nassau-Dillenburg
15 April 1706
Dillenburg
nine children
Frederick William I20 February 16801707-172213 February 1722Nassau-SiegenElisabeth of Hesse-Homburg
7 January 1702
five children

Amalie Louise of Courland
13 April 1708
eight children
Son of William Maurice.
Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel (regent)7 February 16881711-17299 April 1765Nassau-Dietz
Orange-Nassau
John William Friso
26 April 1709
Kassel
two children
Regent on behalf of her son.
William VI1 September 17111729-175122 October 1751Nassau-Dietz
Orange-Nassau
Anne of Great Britain
25 March 1734
London
three children
Inherited a number of Nassau territories besides his paternal Nassau-Dietz, namely Nassau-Hadamar in 1711, Nassau-Siegen in 1734, and Nassau-Dillenburg in 1739. In 1732, Frederick William I of Prussia left him his Dutch properties, including Huis ten Bosch palace and Het Loo Palace. William IV became stadtholder of the Netherlands in 1747 and reunited all of the Dutch and German possessions of his family (except for Nassau-Weilburg) in his hand, styling himself Prince of Orange and Nassau.
Charles Louis6 January 16651713-17236 December 1723Nassau-SaarbrückenChristiane Charlotte of Nassau-Ottweiler
22 April 1713
Saarbrücken
two children
Left no descendants. The land went to his cousin from Nassau-Ottweiler.
Charles August17 September 16851719-17539 November 1753Nassau-WeilburgAuguste Friederike of Nassau-Idstein
17 August 1723
Wiesbaden
seven children
Amalie Louise of Courland (regent)2 July 16871722-c.172618 January 1750Nassau-SiegenFrederick William I
13 April 1708
eight children
Regent in name of her stepson, Frederick William II.
Frederick William II11 November 1706c.1726-173411 November 1734Nassau-SiegenSophie Polyxena Concordia of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein
23 September 1728
five children
Left no surviving male descendants. After his death Nassau-Siegen were annexed to Nassau-Dietz.
Nassau-Siegen was annexed by Nassau-Dietz
Frederick Louis 13 November 1651 1690-1723 25 May 1728 Nassau-Ottweiler Christiane van Ahlefeldt
28 July 1680
eight children

Louise Sophie of Hanau-Lichtenberg
27 September 1697
no children
In 1723 inherited Saarbrücken, reuniting Ottweiler with the newly-inherited land.
1723-1728Nassau-Saarbrücken
Nassau-Ottweiler merged again in Nassau-Saarbrücken
Christian12 August 16881724-173928 August 1739Nassau-DillenburgIsabella Charlotte of Nassau-Dietz
1725
no children
Left no surviving descendants and his lands were annexed to Nassau-Dietz.
Nassau-Dillenburg was annexed by Nassau-Dietz
Charlotte Amalia of Nassau-Dillenburg (regent) 2 May 1684 1718-1728 14 February 1718 Nassau-Usingen William Henry
15 April 1706
Dillenburg
nine children
Regent in name of her son Charles. In 1728 inherited Nassau-Saarbrücken and all its lands.
1728-1734Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Saarbrücken
Charles 31 December 17121734-1741 21 June 1775Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Saarbrücken Christine Wilhelmine of Saxe-Eisenach
26 December 1734
four children

Magdalene Gross of Wiesbaden
after 1740
(morganatic)
four children
In 1741 gave Saarbrücken to his brother, and retained Usingen.
1741-1775Nassau-Usingen
William Henry II6 March 17181741-176824 July 1768Nassau-SaarbrückenSophie of Erbach-Erbach
28 February 1742
Erbach
five children
Received Nassau-Saarbrücken from his brother.
Anne of Great Britain (regent)2 November 17091751-175912 January 1759Nassau-Dietz
Orange-Nassau
William VI
25 March 1734
London
three children
Regents on behalf of William VII.
Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel (regent)7 February 16881759-17659 April 1765Nassau-Dietz
Orange-Nassau
John William Friso
26 April 1709
Kassel
two children
Louis Ernest, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Bevern (regent)25 September 17181759-176612 May 1788Nassau-Dietz
Orange-Nassau
Unmarried
Carolina of Orange-Nassau (regent)28 February 17431765-17666 May 1787Nassau-WeilburgCharles Christian
5 March 1760
The Hague
fifteen children
William VII8 March 17481766-18069 April 1806Nassau-Dietz
Orange-Nassau
Wilhelmina of Prussia I
4 October 1767
Berlin
five children
Charles Christian16 January 17351753-178828 November 1788Nassau-WeilburgCarolina of Orange-Nassau
5 March 1760
The Hague
fifteen children

Barbara Giessen
2 October 1788
(morganatic)
no children
Louis III3 January 17451768-17942 March 1794Nassau-SaarbrückenWilhelmine of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
30 October 1766
Schwarzburg
one child

Katharina Kest
30 October 1766
(morganatic, legitimized 1787)
seven children
Charles William9 November 17351775-180317 May 1803Nassau-UsingenCaroline Felizitas of Leiningen-Dagsburg
16 April 1760
one child
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
In 1783, the heads of various branches of the House of Nassau sealed the Nassau Family Pact (Erbverein) to regulate future succession in their states, and to establish a dynastic hierarchy whereby the Prince of Orange-Nassau-Dietz was recognised as President of the House of Nassau.[2]
Henry Louis9 March 17681794-179727 April 1797Nassau-SaarbrückenMarie Françoise Maximilienne of Saint Mauris-Montbarrey
6 October 1785
no children
After his death Nassau-Saarbrücken was occupied by France.
Nassau-Saarbrücken was annexed by France
Frederick Augustus 23 April 1738 1803-1806 24 March 1816 Nassau-Usingen Louise of Waldeck
9 June 1775
seven children
From 1806 ruled jointly. Frederick William retained the title of Prince of Nassau, and Frederick Augustus maintained his title of Duke.
1806-1816Duchy of Nassau
Nassau-Usingen united with Nassau-Weilburg to form the Duchy of Nassau
Frederick William III 25 October 1768 1788-1806 9 January 1816 Nassau-Weilburg Louise Isabelle of Kirchberg
31 July 1788
Hachenburg
four children
1806-1816Duchy of Nassau
Nassau-Weilburg united with Nassau-Usingen to form the Duchy of Nassau
William VIII24 August 17721806

1813-1815
12 December 1843Nassau-Dietz
Orange-Nassau
Wilhelmina of Prussia II
1 October 1791
Berlin
six children

Henrietta d'Oultremont
17 February 1841
(morganatic)
no children
Ascended 9 April 1806, and on 27 October his lands were annexed to the Duchy of Nassau. He revived the Principality of Orange-Nassau, but in 1815 was proclaimed King of the Netherlands. His Nassau lands returned to the Duchy of Nassau. See List of monarchs of the Netherlands for the descendants of William.
In 1806, Nassau-Dietz and Orange-Nassau were annexed to the Duchy of Nassau

In 1815, Nassau-Dietz and Orange-Nassau were annexed again to the Duchy of Nassau
William IX14 June 1792 1816-183920/30 August 1839Duchy of NassauLouise of Saxe-Hildburghausen
24 June 1814
Weilburg
eight children

Pauline of Württemberg
23 April 1829
Stuttgart
four children
Adolph VI24 July 1817 1839-186617 November 1905Duchy of NassauElizabeth Mikhailovna of Russia
31 January 1844
St. Petersburg
no children

Adelheid-Marie of Anhalt-Dessau
23 April 1851
Dessau
five children
In 1866 lost his Nassau lands, but he was granted in 1890 the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg after the death of his cousin without male descendants. See List of monarchs of Luxembourg for the descendants of William.
In 1866, Nassau was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia

References

  1. Abramson, Scott F. (2017-01-01). "The Economic Origins of the Territorial State". International Organization. 71 (1): 97–130. doi:10.1017/S0020818316000308. ISSN 0020-8183.
  2. Hay, Mark Edward (1 June 2016). "The House of Nassau between France and Independence, 1795–1814: Lesser Powers, Strategies of Conflict Resolution, Dynastic Networks". The International History Review. 38 (3): 482–504. doi:10.1080/07075332.2015.1046387.

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