Cosworth[1] is a British automotive engineering company founded in London in 1958 (1958), specialising in high-performance internal combustion engines, powertrain, and electronics; for automobile racing (motorsport) and mainstream automotive industries. Cosworth is based in Northampton, England,[1] with American facilities in Indianapolis, Shelby Charter Township, Michigan and Mooresville, North Carolina.

Private company
IndustryAutomotive, automobile racing (motorsport)[1]
FoundedLondon, 1958 (1958)[1]
FoundersMike Costin and
Keith Duckworth
HeadquartersNorthampton, England[1]
Area served
Key people
Hal Reisiger (CEO)[2]
ProductsInternal combustion engines, electronic data acquisition and control systems
ServicesHigh performance engineering, precision manufacturing
OwnerGerald Forsythe,
Kevin Kalkhoven
Cosworth as a Formula One engine manufacturer
Formula One World Championship career
First entry2000 Australian Grand Prix
Last entry2013 Brazilian Grand Prix
Races entered199
ChassisJaguar, Arrows, Minardi, Red Bull, Toro Rosso, Williams, HRT, Lotus, Virgin, Marussia
Constructors' Championships0[note 1]
0[note 2]
Race victories0[note 3]
Podiums2[note 4]
Pole positions1[note 5]
Fastest laps1[note 6]

Cosworth has collected 176 wins in Formula One (F1) as engine supplier, ranking third with most wins, behind Ferrari and Mercedes.[3]

Corporate history

The company was founded as a British racing internal combustion engine maker in 1958 by Mike Costin and Keith Duckworth. Its company name, "Cosworth", was derived as a portmanteau of the surnames of its two founders (Costin and Duckworth).

Both of the co-founders were former employees of Lotus Engineering Ltd., and Cosworth initially maintained a strong relationship with Colin Chapman; and initial revenues of the company came almost exclusively from Lotus. When the company was founded in 1958, Duckworth left Lotus, leaving Costin (who had signed a term-employment contract with Chapman) at the company. Until 1962, Costin worked on Cosworth projects in his private time, while being active as a key Lotus engineer on the development of Lotus 15 through 26 (Elan), as well as leading the Team Lotus contingent at foreign races, as evidenced by the 1962 Le Mans Lotus scandal.

Initial series production engines (Mk.II, Mk.V, Mk.VIII, and Mk.XIV) were sold to Lotus exclusively, and many of the other racing engines up to Mk.XII were delivered to Team Lotus. The success of Formula Junior engines (Mk.III, IV, XI, and XVII) started bringing in non-Lotus revenues, and the establishment of Formula B by the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) allowed the financial foundation of Cosworth to be secured by the increased sales of Mk.XIII, a pure racing engine based on Lotus TwinCam, through its domination of the class. This newly found security enabled the company to distance itself from the Lotus Mk.VII and Elan optional road engine assembly business, and allowed its resources to be concentrated on racing engine development.

The first Cosworth-designed cylinder head was for SCA series; with a single overhead camshaft (SOHC) reverse-flow configuration, similar to the Coventry Climax FWE engine. A real success was achieved with the next gear-driven double overhead camshaft (DOHC) four-valve FVA in 1966, when Cosworth, with a help from Chapman, convinced Ford to purchase the rights to the design, and sign a development contract – including an eight-cylinder version. This resulted in the DFV, which dominated Formula One for many years.

From this time on, Cosworth was supported by Ford for many years, and many of the Cosworth designs were owned by Ford and named as Ford engines under similar contracts. Another success by the BD series in the 1970s put Cosworth on a growing track.

Cosworth then went through a number of ownership changes. After Duckworth decided he did not want to be involved with the day-to-day business of running a growing company, he sold out the ownership to United Engineering Industries (UEI) in 1980, retaining his life presidency and day-to-day technical involvement with Cosworth, and becoming a UEI board director; UEI was a group of small- to medium-sized technology companies, which was taken over by Carlton Communications in 1988 – Carlton was primarily interested in some of the audio-visual companies in the UEI portfolio, and Cosworth was a poor fit with these; a new buyer for the company in the engineering/automotive sector was sought, and the traditional engineering company Vickers plc bought Cosworth in 1990.[4] In 1998, Vickers sold Cosworth and Pi Research to Volkswagen who changed the name to Cosworth Technology .[1] In September, 2004 Volkswagen/Audi announced that it was selling Cosworth Technology and Pi Research, along with Cosworth Racing Ltd, and its Jaguar Formula One team. On 15 November 2004, the sale of Cosworth was completed, to Champ Car World Series owners Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven, the current Cosworth Group.[1]

The road car engine aspect of the business was split from the racing division, following the sale of the engineering division of Cosworth to the Volkswagen / Audi Group in September 1998, and renamed Cosworth Technology, before being subsequently acquired by Mahle GmbH in 2005. Cosworth Technology was then renamed as MAHLE Powertrain on 1 July 2005.[5]

Since 2006, Cosworth has diversified to provide engineering consultancy, high performance electronics, and component manufacture services outside of its classic motorsport customer base. Current publicised projects range from an 80 cubic centimetres (4.9 cu in) diesel engine for unmanned aerial vehicles, through to an engineering partnership on some of the world's most powerful normally aspirated road car engines, including upcoming Aston Martin Valkyrie 1000+bhp V12.

Cosworth supplied its last premier class racing engines to one F1 team in 2013, the Marussia F1 Team.[6]

Internal combustion engines

Early types

The following is the list of initial products, with cylinder heads modified, but not originally designed by Cosworth, on Ford Kent engine cylinder blocks. The exceptions were Mk.XVII and MAE (modified Anglia engine), which had intake port sleeves for downdraft carburetors brazed into the stock cast iron cylinder head, in place of the normal side draft ports, thus could be considered Cosworth designs.

designationyearblockdisplacementclaimed powerdescriptionintended for
Mk.I1959105/107E997 ccExperimental one-off to test cam designsDevelopment of A2 and A3 camshaft
Mk.II1960105/107E997cc75 bhpFirst series production engine, A2 camLotus Mk.VII
Mk.III1960105/107E997cc85–90 bhpA3 cam, optional dry sumpFormula Junior
Mk.IV1961105/107E1098 cc90–95 bhpMk.III with larger bore.Formula Junior
Mk.V1962109E1,340 cc80 bhpSeries production road engineLotus Mk.VII
Mk.VI1962109E1,340 cc105 bhpRacing version of Mk.VLotus Mk.VII
Mk.VII1962109E1,475 cc120 bhpMk.VI with larger bore1.5 litre class
Mk.VIII1963116E1,498 cc90 bhpImproved Mk.V on 5 main bearing blockLotus Mk.VII
Mk.IX1963116E1,498 cc120–125 bhpRacing version of Mk.VIII1.5 litre class
Mk.X1963116E1,498 ccExperimental one-off Lotus TwinCamDevelopment of Mk.XII and XIII
Mk.XI1963109E1,098 cc100–110 bhpImproved Mk.IV, dry sumpFormula Junior
Mk.XII1963116E1,594 cc140 bhpRacing Lotus TwinCam, stock crank and rods, dry sumpLotus 20B, 22, 23
Mk.XIII1963116E1,594 cc140–150 bhpImproved Mk.XII with steel crank and rods, dry sumpFormula B, Lotus 22, 23B, 23C
Mk.XIV1963116E1,498 cc100 bhpImproved Mk.VIIILotus Mk.VII
Mk.XV1963116E1,594 cc135–145 bhpRacing Lotus TwinCam, steel crank and rods, wet sumpLotus 26R, Lotus Cortina
Mk.XVI1963116E1,498 cc140–150 bhpMk.XIII for 1.5L classNote[7]
Mk.XVII1964109E1,098 cc120 bhpImproved Mk.XI, downdraft intake ports, dry sumpFormula Junior
MAE1965109E997 cc100–110 bhpImproved Mk.III, downdraft intake ports, dry sumpFormula 3

In addition to the above, Cosworth designed and provided the assembly work for Lotus Elan Special Equipment optional road engines with special camshafts and high compression pistons.

The final model of the above initial series was the MAE in 1965, when new rules were introduced in Formula 3 allowing up to 1,000 cubic centimetres (61.0 cu in) engines with 36 mm intake restrictor plates. MAE used one barrel of a two barrel Weber IDA downdraft carburetor with the other barrel blanked off. The domination of this engine was absolute as long as these regulations lasted until 1968. As Cosworth had a serious difficulty meeting the demand, the MAE was mainly sold as a kit. This experience led to the later FVA/DFV contract to be drawn where the responsibility of development rested with Cosworth, and the manufacturing right and responsibility rested with Ford. There also were some specially cast iron heads with similar dimensions to these brazed heads with titanium alloy valve spring retainers called the "screamer head" for MAE in later years.

The SCA series

A year before the introduction of the MAE, the single overhead cam two valve SCA was introduced. It was a 997 cc engine based on Ford Cortina 116E block that was designed for Formula 2, and featured the first totally Cosworth-designed head, Laystall forged crankshaft, steel main bearing caps and pistons with only one compression ring and one oil scraper ring each. Cylinder head to block sealing was by a head gasket incorporating Cooper Rings. The basic configuration was quite similar to Coventry Climax FWE on Lotus Elite including its SOHC reverse-flow design, except for a series of seven spur gears (one on the crank, two intermediary gears on two fixed shafts mounted on the front cover back plate, one on the 116E camshaft used as a jackshaft, two on a common fixed shaft in the head, and one on the camshaft) driving a five-bearing camshaft and the Ford five main bearing iron block. The intake ports and the oil scavenge pickup for dry sump lubrication were canted 25 degrees, so they faced straight up and down, respectively, when the engine was mounted 25 degrees from vertical to the right for a lower centre of gravity.

The SCA initially had two 40DCM2 Weber twin-choke downdraft sand-cast carburetors mounted on top to produce 115 hp, which was replaced by Lucas fuel injection in 1966, eventually reaching 140 hp.

The longer stroke SCB was built to compare against the 1,498 cc Mk.XVI, and upon proving its superior power against the Mundy-designed tw0-valve crossflow DOHC head, it acted as the benchmark for the development of FVA to measure the benefits and shortcomings of a four valve crossflow DOHC design. It was the results of this four valve development work that formed the basis for many of the Cosworth engines that followed.

A larger 85 mm bore SCC with the same short-stroke five-bearing crankshaft as the SCA was built and sold for SCCA 1.1 litre sports car class.

TypeYearBlockDisplacementClaimedDescriptionMainly For
SCA1964116E997 cc115–140 bhpGear-driven SOHC, reverse-flowFormula Two
SCB1964116E1,498cc175 bhpExperimentalDevelopment of FVA
SCC1965116E1,098cc135 bhpSCA with larger boreNorth American sports car racing

The FVA series

The Cortina Crossflow block was also the basis for the FVA(four valve Type A), an F2 engine introduced in 1966, and developed under the same contract as the DFV, for the new 1.6-litre engine rules. This engine featured 16 valves operated by twin overhead camshafts driven by a train of 9 gears. The metering unit for the Lucas mechanical fuel injection was rotated by a toothed belt from the gear-driven inlet cam, while the exhaust cam directly drove an alternator on the rear of the head. It produced 225 bhp (168 kW) at 9000 rpm. This engine dominated the category until 1971, and was also used in sports car racing in 1.8 Litre form as the "FVC".

The cylinder head on the FVA pioneered many of Duckworth's ideas that would be used on the DFV and a mule for the eight-cylinder engine development, FVB, was built. However, the distance between the two camshafts and the valve inclination angle were larger than on DFV for the series.

The larger displacement FVD was designed and released for endurance racing in 1975, that displaced 1,975 cc (120.5 cu in) on the aluminium block developed for BDG. The FVD produced only 275 bhp (205 kW), down from the 325 hp (242 kW) that other twin-cam four cylinders such as the Hart 420S produced but was more reliable. One was campaigned in the CanAm series in 1978 in the Osprey SR-1, built and driven by Dan Hartill.

TypeYearBlockDisplacementClaimedDescriptionMainly For
FVA1966116E1,598 cc218–225 bhpGear-driven DOHC, crossflow, four valveFormula Two
FVB1967116E1,498 cc200 bhpExperimentalDFV development
FVC1969116E1,790 cc235 bhpFVA with larger bore2 L sports car racing
FVD1975BDG/aluminium1975 cc275 bhpFVC with yet larger bore on aluminium block2 L sports car racing

The DFV (Double Four Valve)

In 1966, Colin Chapman (Lotus Cars founder and principal of Team Lotus) persuaded Ford to bankroll Keith Duckworth's design for a new lightweight 3,000-cubic-centimetre (183.1 cu in) Formula One engine.[1] Cosworth received the order along with the £100,000 that Ford felt it adequate to spend on such an objective. The contract stipulated that a four-cylinder Ford-based F2 engine would be developed as proof of concept (see the FVA above) and that a pure Cosworth V8 would be built based on this.

The DFV design used a similar cylinder head to the one Duckworth had prototyped on the four-cylinder FVB unit on a custom Cosworth cylinder block and crankcase, forming a single 90° V8 engine, thus creating a legend in its own right, the DFV – literally meaning "Double Four Valve". This engine, and its derivatives were used for a quarter of a century, and it was the most successful in the history of Formula One / Grand Prix motor racing. Winning 167 races in a career lasting over 20 years, it was the product that put Cosworth Engineering on the map. Although originally designed for Formula One, the engine has been modified to be used in a range of categories.

The DFV won on its first outing, at the 1967 Dutch Grand Prix in the hands of Jim Clark, fitted to a Lotus 49, and from 1968 was available for purchase to any F1 team that wished it. During the 1970s, it was common for almost the entire field (with the notable exception of Ferrari) to use one of these engines – this at a time when independent wealthy individuals could buy exactly the same engine off the shelf that was also being used by McLaren et al. Most teams just built a tub around a Cosworth DFV and a Hewland gearbox. It won a record 155 World Championship races, the last being Detroit in 1983, powering a Tyrrell driven by Michele Alboreto.

Although the DFV (bore: 3.373 inches (85.67 mm), stroke: 2.555 inches (64.90 mm), displacement: 2,992.98 cc (182.6 cu in)) with 410 bhp (306 kW; 416 PS) at 9,000 rpm did not produce as much power as some of its rival 12-cylinder engines, it was lighter, resulting in a better power to weight ratio. In addition to being lighter, it was also made a structural part of the car itself, by placing load bearing arms to stress the block. These design aspects appealed tremendously to the genius of Colin Chapman who used them to the fullest extent.

The DFY, introduced in 1982 was a further evolution of the DFV for Formula One, with a shorter stroke and a DFL bore (bore: 3.543 inches (89.99 mm), stroke: 2.316 inches (58.83 mm), displacement 2,993.38 cc (182.7 cu in)) with 520 bhp (388 kW; 527 PS) at 11,000 rpm, thereby producing more power, but still unable to fight against the turbocharged cars of the day. It was the advent of turbocharged engines in Formula One which sounded the death knell for the venerable DFV, and in 1986 Cosworth returned to the lower formulae preparing the DFV for the newly created Formula 3000, with the installation of a compulsory 9,000 rpm rev limiter, which scaled power back from 500 to 420 bhp (313 kW; 426 PS); the DFV remained in this class until 1992. The final F3000 engines gave 500 bhp (373 kW; 507 PS), almost equalling the 1983 DFV which gave 510 bhp (380 kW; 517 PS) at 11,200 rpm.

In Formula One, a new DFV-based design was introduced for the new 3,500 cc (213.6 cu in) normally aspirated rules in 1987. The DFZ was produced as an interim model, but in 1988 Cosworth created the DFV's final evolution, the DFR, which soldiered on in F1 with smaller teams until 1991, scoring its last points – including a pair of second places by Jean Alesi – with Tyrrell in 1990.

The DFV has recently been given a new lease of life as a result of interest in Classic F1 racing, which was given a World Championship status by the FIA in 2004.

DFV variants

The DFV spawned a number of derivations. In 1968; Cosworth created the DFV's first derivation, a 2,500 cubic centimetres (152.6 cu in) version for the Tasman Series, the DFW. DFV to DFW conversion simply involved substitution of a short-stroke crank and longer connecting rods.

One of the most successful and longest-lived projects of Cosworth has been its CART / Champ Car engine program. In 1975; Cosworth developed the DFX, by destroking the engine to 2,650 cc (161.7 cu in) and adding a turbocharger, the DFX became the standard engine to run in IndyCar racing, ending the reign of the Offenhauser, and maintaining that position until the late 1980s. Ford backed Cosworth with creating a new interim design for IndyCar racing in the late 1980s, the DFS, which merged DFR technology into the ageing DFX design, but it was eventually rendered obsolete by advancing technology.

While designed as an F1 engine, the DFV was also used as in endurance racing, although its flat-plane crank design led to destructive vibrations putting stress on devices surrounding the engine, especially the exhaust system. The first sports car to use a DFV, the Ford P68, failed to finish a single race because of repeated mechanical and electrical failures. Despite this handicap the DFV won the 24 hours of Le Mans twice in its original 3.0 Litre form for Mirage and Rondeau, who were able to attain sufficient reliability by de-tuning the motor.

The DFL for endurance racing was developed for the 1982 season to replace the DFV. It came in two versions: one with 3,298 cc (201.3 cu in) and the other with 3,955 cc (241.3 cu in). While neither competed well in the Group C (C1 Class) the former was adapted to the C2 Class (700 kg minimum weight, 55 Litres fuel, 5 refuelings/1000 km) starting in 1984. During the latter half of the 1980s it was the most popular motor for that class, with successful championship campaigns and five class wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The latter version's severe lack of reliability caused it to fall out of use by 1985.

The BDA series

Cosworth solidified its association with Ford in 1969, by developing a double overhead camshaft (DOHC) 16-valve inline four-cylinder engine for road use in the Ford Escort. As Keith Duckworth was busy designing and developing the DFV, the project was assigned to Mike Hall, who created the 1601 cc BDA on the Kent block for homologation purposes. The camshafts were driven by a toothed belt developed for Fiat 124, hence the name BDA, literally meaning "Belt Drive, A type". It was designed for FIA Group 2 and Group 4 on either rallying or touring car racing purpose. The nominal homologation at 1601 cc capacity meant that BDA-engined cars competed in what was usually the top class (1600 cc and up) so were eligible for overall victories rather than class wins.

In 1970, the 1701 cc BDB was created for the Escort RS1600, and this engine received fuel injection for the first time in the series as 1701 cc BDC. Two years later, the BDA series was adopted for Formula 2; first came the 1790 cc BDE, then the 1927 cc BDF eventually reaching a maximum of 1975 cc BDG in 1973. As the bore size reached ever closer to the bore center distance, leaving little space in between cylinders, the all three types had brazed-in cylinder liners to the block. As a departure from the Ford iron block, the BDG received a new aluminium block (originally designed by Brian Hart in 1971 and re-engineered by Cosworth[8]) soon after, and this cylinder block was used as a replacement part in rebuilding many other BD series engines as well as some Mk.XIII engines.

The iron block was also used for smaller displacements; starting with the very successful 1599 cc Formula Atlantic BDD in 1970, followed by the 1098 cc BDJ and 1300 cc BDH variants for SCCA Formula C and sports car racing, respectively. There was even a one-off 785 cc version built by Cosworth employees Paul Squires and Phil Kidsley; fitted with a Lysholm supercharger it was installed in a Brabham BT28 Formula 3 chassis and competed in the British Hill Climb Championship as the Brabham-Lysholm.[9]

In 1970, Ford asked Weslake and Co of Rye to build the BDD for them, and by the end of 1970, the production line was installed at Rye and production was under way. These engines were often called the 'BDA', but were 1599 cc BDDs eligible for under 1.6 Litre class. The 1599 cc BDD engine won a number of championships around the world in Formula Atlantic and Formula Pacific during the 1980s.

In 1975, 1599 cc big valve BDM (225 bhp) was developed with fuel injection for Formula Atlantic, and a 'sealed engine' version BDN (1599 cc, 210 bhp) followed in 1977 for Canadian Formula Atlantic series.

Largely known as 'Cosworth BDA', BDD and BDM were also very successful in Formula Pacific and Formula Mondial racing in Australia and New Zealand. In open wheel racing, Cosworth powered cars (Ralt RT4 and Tiga's) won Australian Drivers' Championship in 1982–1986 as well as winning the Australian Grand Prix in 1981–1984 (including wins by Alain Prost and Roberto Moreno) before the race became part of the Formula One World Championship in 1985, and won the New Zealand Grand Prix each year from 1982 to 1988. BDD and BDM engines were also prominent in the Australian Sports Car Championship during the 1980s, winning the 1987 championship.

The turbo charged 1778 cc BDT was created in 1981, which powered the never-raced RWD Escort RS1700T. In 1984, 4WD Ford RS200 debuted with a 1803 cc version of BDT, which was created for Group B rallying. Between 1984 and 1986 the BDT engine was used in Group C endurance racing by Roy Baker, in class C2 using the Tiga GC284, GC285 and GC286. Later in 1986, a 2137 cc version was created by Brian Hart using a bespoke aluminium block and a large intercooler for RS200 Evolution, just as Group B was cancelled by the FIA. This BDT-E ('E' for Evolution) produced over 600 bhp (447 kW; 608 PS) in Group B 'rallycross' boost level, normally producing 530–550 bhp (395–410 kW; 537–558 PS) on a lower but sustainable boost.

In 1983, the BD series saw its second road engine incarnation (the first being the original BDA and BDB), the BDR, which was a BDA or BDB sold in kit form for the Caterham Super Seven in 1601 cc (120 bhp) and in 1701 cc (130 bhp) formats.

The Hart 420R and the Zakspeed F1 engines owe much to the BDA series, being essentially an aluminium-block derivative using similar heads.


A fuel-injected belt-driven DOHC GA (also called the GAA) was based on the 60 degree V6 block of Ford Essex, and was used for the Ford Capris raced in Group 2 in the early 1970s. This had a capacity of 3,412 cc (208.2 cu in), and was highly competitive against the BMW straight-sixes. The GA was also used in the later years of Formula 5000 in Europe.

The GA or GAA was commissioned by Ford in May 1972, when Ford realised that the Cologne V6 based Weslake OHV V6 engines used in their Capris which competed in the European Touring Car Championship had been modified to the point that no more performance could be extracted from them. Mike Hall, who had already designed the highly successful Cosworth DFV and BDA engines, took on the task of developing a whole new engine based on the 3-Litre Essex V6 block.

The new engine was radically different from the previously-used Weslake unit in that it featured twin overhead camshaft aluminium alloy cylinder heads, 4 valves per cylinder, a Lucas mechanical fuel injection system, dry sump oiling system, a steel crankshaft, and enlarged displacement of 3412cc, compared with the 2.9  litres of the previously used Cologne V6 based Weslake V6.

Ford expected a minimum of 400 Hp from the new Cosworth engine; that figure was exceeded, with the engine producing 420 Hp in the first test run. In race tune they finally produced around 462 bhp (345 kW; 468 PS) at 9000 rpm and 300 ft/lb of torque (407 Nm). This meant that the new engine proved highly successful at competing against BMW in the 1973 Season of the European Touring Car Championship where the engine was installed in Ford's newly homologated Capri RS 3100.

Ford Motorsport also sold 100 Cosworth GA V6 engines, most of them ending up in Formula 5000 cars.

The GA/GAA V6 is a very rare, and extremely expensive engine, with rebuilt units fetching around £50.000.[10]

The FBA and FBC V6

The FBA and FBC engines were found in the Ford Granada and Ford Scorpio Ultima. The FBA came first in 1991 and was also known as the 'BOA'; it was based on the Ford Cologne V6 used in the Ford Sierra and Ford Capri and other models and was a twin overhead camshaft 24valve conversion for more power, producing 195 metric horsepower (143 kW; 192 bhp) and better idle quality.

In 1995, with a new version of the Scorpio, it was upgraded with a wider torque spread and higher power – to 204 PS (150 kW; 201 hp), from a variable intake system and reprofiled cams. The NVH was improved with a change from a single chain to drive all four camshafts – to one chain to drive one bank of cams and a second for the other bank; this engine was known as the 'BOB'.

A racing version was also available for a short time – FBE – with an individual throttle butterfly for each cylinder.

FBB and FBD engines existed as development engines but these were never released.

The two production engines were always mated to an automatic gearbox but have become popular in the custom car scene where they have been mated to the 4x4 manual transmission and the rear-wheel-drive manual transmission from the Ford Sierra XR4 and XR4x4. There are also companies that offer twin and single turbo conversions, and other modifications to increase power to usually around 400 bhp (300 kW). These engines can be bought relatively cheaply and, providing they are well serviced, engines have been known to cover over 200,000 miles without major work being required.

The YB series

The YB series of 1,993 cc (121.6 cu in) engines are based on the older Pinto engine block,[11] and were introduced in the road-going Ford Sierra RS Cosworth in 1986 with 204 PS (150 kW; 201 bhp). With 5,000 units built for homologation purposes in Group A, both for rallies and touring cars. Racing versions of the RS Cosworth were developing around 370 hp (276 kW; 375 PS),[12] but with the small Garrett T3 turbo on the cars reliability was a problem. A limited edition evolution model was introduced in mid-1987, the Sierra RS500 which included a bigger T4 turbo, with power initially at around the 470 hp (350 kW; 477 PS) mark in 1987, but in later years climbing to close to some 550 hp (410 kW; 558 PS) in full racing trim.

The RS500 came to dominate touring car racing in its heyday from 1987 to 1992, winning multiple championships and major races in Europe including the ETCC, Britain and DTM (German), as well as Japan, Australia and New Zealand. This included wins in the five major races, the Spa 24 Hours held at Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium, the Bathurst 1000 at Mount Panorama in Australia, the RAC Tourist Trophy at Silverstone in England, the Wellington 500 street race in New Zealand, and the InterTEC 500 at Fuji in Japan. The only car to truly challenge the Sierra's dominance towards the end of the Group A era in 1990–1992 was the 640 hp (477 kW; 649 PS), 4WD twin turbo Nissan Skyline R32 GT-R.

At the end of its life in Group A in 1992, the Australian Sierra teams were reportedly getting around 600 bhp (447 kW; 608 PS) from the 2.0L turbocharged YB engines. For his pole position lap at the 1992 Bathurst 1000, Australian driver Dick Johnson (whose team since 1988 had a reputation for having the fastest Sierra's in Group A racing anywhere in the world) was reportedly running a special qualifying engine that was producing close to 680 hp (507 kW; 689 PS) in his RS500.

The various colour cam covers that distinguished each version were as follows: Red: YBB (Sierra Cosworth 2wd, both 3-door and Sapphire), YBD (Sierra RS500), YBJ (Sierra Sapphire 4wd, non cat); Green: YBG (catalyst equipped 4x4 Sierra Sapphire Cosworth); Blue: YBT (large-turbo Escort Cosworth); Silver: YBP (small-turbo Escort Cosworth).

Further evolutions of the YB included a reduced-emissions road version, as well as the block used in the Escort RS Cosworth (which used the Sierra floorpan). The engine stopped being used on new cars in 1997, with the Focus WRC and road-going Focus RS relying on Zetec designs.

The GBA V6

Cosworth experimented with turbocharged BD derivatives, before settling on an all-new turbocharged 1,500 cc (91.5 cu in) V6 engine to be badged as the Ford TEC (internally it was known as the GB-series). This had a long development history dating back to the 1984 British Grand Prix at Brands Hatch where Cosworth and Ford's competition department agreed to build a new turbo engine to replace the outdated DFV / DFY series. The TEC raced only briefly, in 1986, with the Haas Lola team and in 1987 with the Benetton team. The development of the GBA engine at Cosworth became the subject of a British TV documentary in Channel Four's Equinox series, broadcast in 1986.[13][14]

The GBA was designed by Keith Duckworth, though many in Formula One doubted his ability to design another truly competitive engine due to his known distaste for turbocharging in general. Rather than design an entirely new engine, Duckworth instead chose to originally try and develop an old, modified 4 cylinder BDA sports car engine as he believed 4 cylinder engines were more compact and economical than a V6 (Cosworth's chief race engine designer Geoff Goddard was against the idea of the straight 4, but reluctantly let Duckworth go down that path[15]). However, after numerous failures of the test engines on the dynamometer which were eventually traced to an incurable vibration at the crankshaft, Duckworth designed an all new 120° V6 engine instead, the same configuration as the Ferrari V6 turbo engine used from 1981 to 1986. The BDA engine was originally limited to 10,000 RPM in sports car racing, but with a turbo its failures generally happened at around 11,000 RPM. The first 4-cylinder test engine was so badly damaged that it actually changed the shape of the engine block to the point where the crankshaft would not move. As around 4 months had been lost in trying to get the 4 cylinder engine to work, Ford and Cosworth's plan for the engine to debut with Haas Lola in 1985 was pushed back to the 1986 season.

The GBA engine was first road tested by Haas Lola's lead driver, 1980 World Champion Alan Jones in the new Lola THL2 at the Boreham Circuit in Essex just north-east of London on 21 February 1986. In freezing, snowy conditions (−6° Celsius) at approximately 10 AM, the V6 turbo, running a conservative 2.5 BAR boost setting, ran cleanly although the engine management electronics developed by Motorola in the United States and Cosworth had not yet been finalised and the engine ran with the same electronics that were used on the dynamometer. Also present at the test were Duckworth, Goddard, the THL2's designer Neil Oatley, the teams #2 driver Patrick Tambay and other staff from both Haas Lola, Ford and Cosworth.

The engine made its Formula One debut with Jones driving the Lola THL2 at the 1986 San Marino Grand Prix, the third round of the 1986 season (for the opening two races in Brazil and Spain, the team used their 1985 car, the Hart 415-T turbo powered Lola THL1, while Tambay also drove the THL1 at Imola). Jones qualified in 21st place and retired after 28 of the races 60 laps due to overheating. Jones also recorded the engine's first finish when he placed 11th in the Belgian Grand Prix. Jones and teammate Patrick Tambay captured the Ford V6 turbo's first ever points when they finished 4th and 5th respectively in the Austrian Grand Prix, with Jones backing up in the next race in Italy with a 6th-placed finish, the final points the engine would gain in 1986.

Producing approximately 900 bhp (671 kW; 912 PS), the turbocharged V6 is the most powerful Formula One engine designed and built by Cosworth. With Haas Lola not competing in 1987, Benetton, having lost the use of the 4 cylinder BMW engines when the German giant pulled out of Formula One, signed with Ford to race their V6 for the season. While in 1986 turbo boost had been unrestricted by the rules, 1987 saw the FIA introduce the pop-off valve to the turbocharged engines in a two-year plan to outlaw the turbos and make all Formula One engines 3.5 litres and naturally aspirated by the start of the 1989 season. While Cosworth adapted the TEC to 1987's 4.0 Bar turbo limit and the new 195 litre fuel limit, development of the V6 turbo engine which would be obsolete in less than two years virtually stopped. Cosworth instead worked on the DFR V8 that was introduced with Benetton in 1988.

With the reduction in turbo boost limit not affecting the Ford V6 as much as others such as Honda, BMW and Ferrari which had more horsepower to lose, the turbo engine would be more competitive with Benetton in 1987, with Teo Fabi taking the engine's first podium with third in Austria, followed by its last podium when Thierry Boutsen also scored third in the last race of the season in Australia.

The HB V8

DFV/DFZ/DFR replacement was designed by Geoff Goddard to result in 3,498 cc (213.5 cu in) (96 mm x 60.4 mm) HB V8, which was introduced with the Benetton team midway through 1989 making its debut at the French Grand Prix, and won the Japanese Grand Prix that year (Benetton used both the original HBA1 and the development HBA4 in 1989). As Ford's de facto works team, Benetton maintained exclusivity with this model through the rest of 1989 and 1990. 1991 saw the introduction of customer units, two specifications behind their works equivalents. In 1991, these were supplied to the fledgling Jordan Grand Prix outfit, and for 1992, Lotus. 1993 saw the customer deal extended to McLaren who had lost the use of their Honda V12 engines after 1992. Using the customer HBA7 (and later a customer HBA8), McLaren won five Grands Prix with triple World Champion Ayrton Senna that year.

The HBA1 V8 was introduced in 1989. It exploited a narrower 75° vee-angle rather than the 90° used in the DFV series, and was originally rated at approximately 630 bhp (470 kW; 639 PS). By 1993, the factory HBA8 V8 engine used by Benetton was producing approximately 700 bhp (522 kW; 710 PS) at 13,000 rpm.[16] Although the HB V8 was less powerful than the V10s and V12s used by rivals Renault, Honda, and Ferrari, its advantage was that it was lighter and gave better fuel economy.

A Jaguar-badged version of the HB was developed by Tom Walkinshaw Racing to the tune of 650 bhp at 11,500 rpm for sports car racing, fitted to the extremely successful Jaguar XJR-14.

The EC, ECA, ED, EDM and ED 2/4 V8

The HB was developed into 3,498 cc (213.5 cu in) (100 mm x 55.7 mm) EC V8 for the 1994 season. This engine, producing about 740 bhp at 13,800rpm, was badged as Ford Zetec-R, and Michael Schumacher won the Drivers' World Championship with Benetton (his first of a record 7 championships), in 1994. This was the last Ford-powered F1 title.

For the 1995 season, the F1 engine regulation changed to 3 litres, and the EC's bore and stroke were changed to 94mm x 53.9mm, resulting in 2,992 cc (182.6 cu in) ECA, which was introduced at about 600 bhp, and developed to 610 to 630 bhp at 14,000rpm. It was exclusively used by the Sauber team, whose biggest success of the year was Heinz-Harald Frentzen's third place at Monza.

Customer unit Cosworth ED (not badged as Ford Zetec-R) for non-works teams was also made for 1995 with about 580 bhp for Minardi, Simtek (called the EDB), Pacific Racing (EDC) and Forti (EDD) teams. Minardi realised the power deficiency before the season and asked Magneti Marelli to develop a replacement engine management system, with which the engine was called the EDM. Cosworth later updated the ED to ED 2/4 for Tyrrell and Lola with 2,995 cc (182.8 cu in) (94mm x 53.95mm) displacement for 600 bhp, which was used until the end of 1997 season.

The JD, VJ and VJM V10

In order to produce a higher power at higher rpm, a completely new 2,992 cc (182.6 cu in) (89mm x 48.1mm) JD 72° V10 was designed for 1996, which produced about 670 bhp at 15,800rpm, and used by Sauber Formula One team. This engine was further developed into VJ and VJM with the same V-angle, bore and stroke, reaching 720 bhp for racing, 730 bhp for qualifying, at 16,500rpm. All three of these engines were badged as Ford Zetec-R as well, and used by several teams. In its debut season, the best result was another third place, this time taken by Johnny Herbert at Monaco. This was surpassed one year later by Rubens Barichello's sensational second place, again at Monaco, which was the first points finish for the newly formed Stewart Grand Prix team.

Other Formula One engines

The Stewart Grand Prix team effectively became the Ford works team, and used Cosworth CR-1 engines from its first season in 1997, which was a much lighter version of VJM, ultimately reaching 770 bhp at 16,500rpm by 2001. Over the next few years Ford had increased its involvement with the Stewart team, and finally bought the team, renaming it Jaguar Racing for 2000. Jaguar pulled out of F1 at the end of 2004, but the team (renamed Red Bull Racing) continued to use Cosworth V10 engines until switching to a Ferrari V8 for 2006. Minardi also used re-badged Cosworth engines until 2005.

Williams began testing the new CA2006 2.4-litre V8 in November 2005, and used the Cosworth V8 engines for the 2006 season. In the same year, Scuderia Toro Rosso used detuned V10 engines based on the 2005 units.

In 2007, however, the company was left without a partner when Williams chose to switch to Toyota power, and Scuderia Toro Rosso made the switch to Ferrari engines (as used in 2006 by their mother team Red Bull Racing).

In Max Mosley's letter following the withdrawal of Honda from Formula One in December 2008, it was announced that Cosworth had won the tender to provide a standard engine to any interested participants. The new engine would become the standard design and manufacturers could opt to use whole units, construct their own from designs provided by Cosworth, or produce their own engine with the caveat that it be limited to the same power as the new "standard" engine.

In 2010 Cosworth returned as the engine supplier for Williams and three new teams; Hispania Racing, Lotus Racing and Virgin Racing. The CA2010 is the same 2.4-litre V8 base of the CA2006 used by Williams, but has been re-tuned for the then-mandated 18,000 rpm limit required on all engines, down from its original 20,000 rpm implementation.[17] First units were ready and shipped to teams in mid-January for fitting 2 weeks prior to first track testing for the year.[18]

Other IndyCar and Champ Car engines

Cosworth designed a series of replacements for the DFS to be used in IndyCar and Champ Car racing: the X-series, beginning in 1992 with the XB. The XF was developed for the 2000 season to replace the XD, and was chosen as the spec engine for the Champ Car World Series in 2003. The most recent derivative of the XF, the 2,650 cubic centimetres (161.7 cu in) XFE quad-cam 90° V8 overhead camshaft, continued in that role through the 2007 season. The Champ Car World Series imposed a rev limit of 12,000 rpm down from the over 15,000 rpm of 2002. The 2004 model of the XFE had a rated power of nominal 750 horsepower (559 kW; 760 PS) at 1,054 mmHg (intake boost pressure), and a maximum power of 800 bhp (597 kW; 811 PS) at 1130 mmHg (during Push-to-Pass). The 2004 XFE maximum speed was 12,000 rpm (rev limited) and torque of 490 N⋅m (361 lbf⋅ft). The aluminium and iron turbo housing ran a boost of 5.9 psi at sea level (= boost of 12 inches of mercury which is 41.5 inches of mercury absolute). The Methanol-fuelled engine used a steel crankshaft and aluminium alloy pistons. Weight was 120 kg (264.6 lb) and length was 539 mm (21.2 in).

In 2007, the Ford name was removed from the engine pieces as the manufacturer elected not to continue sponsorship of the series. Several other engine changes were made, notably the removal of the calibrated "pop off valve" designed to limit turbo boost pressure, replaced by engine electronics. The rated life of the engine was 1,400 miles (2,300 km) between rebuilds. Engines were sent by the race teams to Cosworth for the rebuild. In 2007, Champ Car switched to the new Panoz DP01 chassis, which was said to provide better ducting of airflow into the engine. The Champ Car World Series merged into the Indy Racing League IndyCar Series prior to the 2008 season, and Cosworth does not currently provide engines to any American open wheel racing series.

There is evidence that Cosworth was working on a 3,400 cc (207.5 cu in) push-rod V8 along the lines of the Ilmor/Mercedes 500I to exploit the peculiar loophole in the Indianapolis 500 rules on the definition of the word "pushrod engine", permitting such engines with extremely short pushrods higher turbocharger boost – this was assigned a project code CD but seemingly never completed.

In mid-2003, Cosworth provided the 3.5 L V8 XG badged as a Chevrolet Gen 4 engine to IRL IndyCar Series teams after the proprietary Chevrolet Gen 3 engine proved inadequate against rival Hondas and Toyotas during the 2003 season. While many teams left Chevrolet after the 2003 season, those that stayed saw a significant improvement in performance with the new "Chevworth" engine compared to their previous units. The XG finished second in its first race at Michigan on July 27, 2003. Sam Hornish, Jr. went on to win 3 races that season with the new XG. The XG was reduced in size to 3 L for 2004 season and it won one race in 2005 during Chevrolet's final season in IRL.

Other Formula Atlantic engines

Currently these are 300 horsepower (224 kW; 304 PS) 2,300 cubic centimetres (140.4 cu in) inline-four engines based on the Mazda MZR engine developed in cooperation with Mazda. Changes includes a billet crankshaft, barrel throttle bodies, new cylinder head with larger valves, pistons, con rods and camshafts. A detuned 250 horsepower (190 kW; 250 PS) version, targeting club racers, is sold to the consumer market. This engine retains the standard crankshaft, and has a different cylinder head. Both engines are built by Cosworth in Torrance, California, under the guidance of newly appointed technical designer Wayne Merry (formerly of Cosworth in Worcester UK).

Other road engines

Best known in Europe for its relationship with Ford[1] – in particular because of the Cosworth name in the vehicle title on the high-performance Ford Sierra RS Cosworth and Ford Escort RS Cosworth,[1] but also in the creation of other Ford models; the Escort RS1600, Escort RS1800, RS200, and Scorpio 2.9i 24V.

In the US, the name has also appeared in the title of a road car (well before it did in Europe) as the Cosworth version of the Chevrolet Vega. Only 3,508 1975 and 1976 Cosworth Vegas were produced from March 1975 through 1976. The engine features the Vega sleeveless, aluminium-alloy block fitted with forged components. The twin-cam, 16-valve, aluminium cylinder head design was assisted by Cosworth, but Chevrolet did the development work. The engine features electronic ignition, Bendix electronic fuel injection, and stainless steel headers.[19] The final US emissions standardised version produces 110 bhp. Cosworth's EA racing version was not successful due to engine block structural failures. Chevrolet later produced a heavy-duty 'off-road' block with thicker walls to better withstand the racing application, but by that time Cosworth had moved on. Projected first year sales of the Cosworth Vega had been 5,000. With only 3,508 cars produced and many unsold, the car was discontinued. 1,500 hand-built Cosworth Vega engines were simply scrapped for lack of demand.[20]

Other published projects for Adam Opel AG include the Opel Ascona 400 / Manta 400 rally cars and the 2.0L 16V engines in the Opel Kadett, Opel Astra GSi, Opel Vectra and Opel Calibra turbo.

Other companies known to have benefitted from the Cosworth engineering input are Mercedes-Benz (with the 190 E 2.3-16), Rolls-Royce, and Audi (notably their RS cars).

Cosworth's involvement with Mercedes-Benz came with moves in the mid-1980s from the German manufacturer to re-enter motorsport after retiring from direct factory participation after the tragic 1955 Le Mans crash which killed 80 spectators. Mercedes-Benz was looking to create a Group B rally car out of its new W201 Chassis (190E Model) and turned to the expertise of Cosworth to shorten the development time for this project.

The request was a huge surprise for Cosworth, and the original brief for a 320 bhp engine based on the 136 bhp Mercedes M102 2.3-litre SOHC 4-cylinder engine was duly passed to Mike Hall, who "drew the famed DFV and BDA engine".[21] Designed around the existing M102 head bolt pattern, the new twin cam, 16-valve, pentroof head, had its valves set at 45° included angle, rather than the 40° angle of the BDA.[21] The valves were the biggest that could be fitted into the combustion chamber. Flat top pistons delivered the 10.5:1 compression ratio. The new Cosworth WAA[22] engine also was Cosworth's first one-piece head, i.e. the camshaft carrier was cast integral with the head itself. Again the constraints of the existing head-bolt pattern meant that Hall had to shift the camshaft bearings from outside each pair of camlobes as in the BDA to in between each cylinder's pair of cam lobes. The upside being that this configuration made for less flex at high rpm.[21]

The advent of the AWD turbo Audi Quattro gave the rear-wheel-drive, normally aspirated 190E rally car no chance of being successful and the competition car was stillborn. Instead Mercedes-Benz decided to recoup its development cost by selling the car as a road going sports-sedan. Hall detuned the WAA race engine to 185 bhp by reducing the port diameters and a more restrictive fuel injection and induction was substituted for the race items to complete the detune.[21] All WAA 2.3-16 engines were built in the Cosworth factory with the heads being produced by the Coscast method.

Cosworth assisted with the later 2.5-16 engine (WAB), and the short-stroke 2.5-16 Evo engines (WAC) although these were all manufactured in house by Mercedes-Benz. The 190E 2.3-16 became the basis for privateer Mercedes entries into the DTM from 1988. The short-stroke 2.5-16 190E EVO II was race-developed to 375+ bhp, gaining the 1992 DTM crown with Klaus Ludwig at the wheel.

A 4,300 cc (262.4 cu in) V10 designated WDA was also built and tested in a Volvo S80 in 1997, but this did not see production.

Cosworth F1 car

Cosworth made an attempt at designing a full Formula One Grand Prix car in 1969. The car, designed by Robin Herd, used an original 4WD transmission designed by Keith Duckworth (different from the Ferguson used by all other 4WD F1 cars of the 1960s) and powered by a magnesium version of the DFV unit. The car was planned to drive at the 1969 British Grand Prix, but it was silently withdrawn. When Herd left to form March Engineering, the project was cancelled. The external design of the car was a product of Herd's use of Mallite sheeting (a wood-aluminium laminate composite) for the principal structural monocoque sections, a technique he pioneered on the first McLaren single-seat cars, including the McLaren M2B of 1966.

Formula One World Championship results

(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position) (Races in italics indicate fastest lap)

Year Entrant Chassis Engine Tyres Drivers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Points WCC
1963 Canadian Stebro Racing Stebro Mk IV 109E 1.5 L4 D MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER ITA USA MEX RSA 0 NC
Peter Broeker 7
Ted Lanfear Lotus 22 Brausch Niemann 14 0 NC
David Prophet Brabham BT6 David Prophet Ret 0 NC
1964 Bob Gerard Racing Cooper T71/T73 109E 1.5 L4 D MON NED BEL FRA GBR GER AUT ITA USA MEX 0 NC
John Taylor 14
John Willment Automobiles Brabham BT10 Frank Gardner Ret 0 NC
1965 John Willment Automobiles Brabham BT10 109E 1.5 L4 D RSA MON BEL FRA GBR NED GER ITA USA MEX 0 NC
Paul Hawkins 9
David Prophet Racing David Prophet 14
Ted Lanfear Lotus 22 Brausch Niemann DNQ 0 NC
Brian Raubenheimer Lotus 20 Brian Raubenheimer WD
Ecurie Tomahawk Dave Charlton DNPQ
Trevor Blokdyk Cooper T59 Trevor Blokdyk DNQ 0 NC
Bob Gerard Racing Cooper T73 Alan Rollinson DNQ
1966 Caltex Racing Team Brabham BT18 Cosworth SCA 1.0 L4 D MON BEL FRA GBR NED GER ITA USA MEX N/A
Kurt Ahrens, Jr. Ret
Roy Winkelmann Racing D Hans Herrmann 11
Alan Rees Ret
Team Lotus Lotus 44 D Pedro Rodríguez Ret
Piers Courage Ret
Gerhard Mitter DNS
Matra Sports Matra MS5 D Jean-Pierre Beltoise 8
Jo Schlesser 10
Tyrrell Racing D Jacky Ickx Ret
Silvio Moser Brabham BT16 D Silvio Moser DNS
1967 Team Lotus Lotus 49 Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 F RSA MON NED BEL FRA GBR GER CAN ITA USA MEX 44 2nd
Jim Clark 1 6 Ret 1 Ret Ret 3 1 1
Graham Hill Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 4 Ret 2 Ret
Eppie Wietzes DSQ
Giancarlo Baghetti Ret
Moisés Solana Ret Ret
Lotus 48 Cosworth FVA 1.6 L4 Jackie Oliver 5
Matra Sports Matra MS7 D Jean-Pierre Beltoise DNQ DNA 7 7 0 NC
Johnny Servoz-Gavin Ret DNA
Tyrrell Racing D Jacky Ickx Ret
Ecurie Ford-France Matra MS5 D Jo Schlesser Ret
Roy Winkelmann Racing Brabham BT23 D Alan Rees 7 N/A
Gerhard Mitter D Gerhard Mitter Ret
Ron Harris Racing Team Protos F2 F Brian Hart NC
Kurt Ahrens, Jr. Ret
Lola Cars Lola T100 F Brian Redman DNS
1968 Team Lotus Lotus 49 Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 F RSA ESP MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER ITA CAN USA MEX 62 1st
Jim Clark 1
Graham Hill 2
Gold Leaf Team Lotus Lotus 49
F 1 1 Ret 9 Ret Ret 2 Ret 4 2 1
Jackie Oliver Ret 5 NC Ret 11 Ret Ret DNS 3
Mario Andretti DNS Ret
Bill Brack Ret
Moisés Solana Ret
Rob Walker Racing Team Lotus 49
F Jo Siffert Ret Ret 7 Ret 11 1 Ret Ret Ret 5 6
Bruce McLaren Motor Racing McLaren M7A G Bruce McLaren Ret Ret 1 Ret 8 7 13 Ret 2 6 2 49 2nd
Denny Hulme 2 5 Ret Ret 5 4 7 1 1 Ret Ret
Anglo American Racers G Dan Gurney Ret 4 Ret
Matra International (Tyrrell Racing) Matra MS9
D Jackie Stewart Ret 4 1 3 6 1 Ret 6 1 7 45 3rd
Johnny Servoz-Gavin Ret 2 Ret Ret
Jean-Pierre Beltoise 5
Matra Sports Matra MS7 Cosworth FVA 1.6 L4 D 6
1969 Matra Sports Matra MS7 Cosworth FVA 1.6 L4 D RSA ESP MON NED FRA GBR GER ITA CAN USA MEX 66 1st
Henri Pescarolo 5
Johnny Servoz-Gavin Ret
Matra International (Tyrrell Racing) Matra MS10
Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 D 6 NC 8
Jackie Stewart 1 1 Ret 1 1 1 2 1 Ret Ret 4
Jean-Pierre Beltoise 6 3 Ret 8 2 9 12† 3 4 Ret 5
Motor Racing Developments Ltd Brabham BT26A G Jack Brabham Ret Ret Ret 6 Ret 2 4 3 49 (51) 2nd
Jacky Ickx Ret 6 Ret 5 3 2 1 10 1 Ret 2
Frank Williams Racing Cars D Piers Courage Ret 2 Ret Ret 5 Ret 5 Ret 2 10
Brabham BT30 Cosworth FVA 1.6 L4 Richard Attwood 6
Ahrens Racing Team D Kurt Ahrens, Jr. 7
Felday Engineering Ltd F Peter Westbury 9
Squadra Tartaruga Brabham BT23C F Xavier Perrot 10
Silvio Moser Racing Team Brabham BT24 Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G Silvio Moser Ret Ret 7 Ret Ret 6 11
Gold Leaf Team Lotus Lotus 49B
F Graham Hill 2 Ret 1 7 6 7 4 9 Ret Ret 47 3rd
Jochen Rindt Ret Ret Ret Ret 4 Ret 2 3 1 Ret
Mario Andretti Ret Ret Ret
Richard Attwood 4
John Miles Ret 10 Ret Ret Ret
Rob Walker Racing Team Lotus 49B F Jo Siffert 4 Ret 3 2 9 8 11† 8 Ret Ret Ret
Team Gunston Lotus 49 D John Love Ret
Ecurie Bonnier Lotus 49B
F Jo Bonnier Ret Ret
Roy Winkelmann Racing Lotus 59B Cosworth FVA 1.6 L4 F Rolf Stommelen 8
Hans Herrmann DNS
Pete Lovely Volkswagen Inc. Lotus 49B Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 F Pete Lovely Ret 9
Bruce McLaren Motor Racing McLaren M7A
G Denny Hulme 3 4 6 4 8 Ret Ret 7 Ret Ret 1 38 (40) 4th
Bruce McLaren 5 2 5 Ret 4 3 3 4 5 DNS DNS
Derek Bell Ret
Team Lawson McLaren M7A D Basil van Rooyen Ret
Antique Automobiles McLaren M7B G Vic Elford 10 5 6 Ret
Tecno Racing Team Tecno 69 Cosworth FVA 1.6 L4 D François Cevert Ret N/A
1970 Gold Leaf Team Lotus Lotus 49
Jochen Rindt 13 Ret 1 Ret 1 1 1 1 Ret DNS
John Miles 5 DNQ DNQ Ret 7 8 Ret Ret Ret DNS
Emerson Fittipaldi 8 4 15 DNS 1 Ret
Reine Wisell 3 NC
Brooke Bond Oxo Racing Lotus 49C
F Graham Hill 6 4 5 Ret NC 10 6 Ret DNS NC Ret Ret
Brian Redman DNS
Team Gunston Lotus 49 D John Love 8
Scuderia Scribante Lotus 49C F Dave Charlton 12
World Wide Racing Lotus 49C
F Alex Soler-Roig DNQ DNS DNQ
Pete Lovely Volkswagen Inc. Lotus 49B F Pete Lovely DNQ DNQ NC DNQ
March Engineering March 701 F Chris Amon Ret Ret Ret 2 Ret 2 5 Ret 8 7 3 5 4 48 3rd
Jo Siffert 10 DNQ 8 7 Ret Ret Ret 8 9 Ret Ret 9 Ret
STP Corporation March 701 F Mario Andretti Ret 3 Ret Ret Ret
Antique Automobiles March 701 G Ronnie Peterson 7 NC
Colin Crabbe Racing March 701 G 9 Ret 9 Ret Ret NC 11
Hubert Hahne March 701 G Hubert Hahne DNQ
Tyrrell Racing Organisation March 701 G Johnny Servoz-Gavin Ret 5 DNQ
François Cevert Ret 11 7 7 Ret 6 9 Ret Ret
Jackie Stewart 3 1 Ret Ret 2 9 Ret Ret Ret 2
Tyrrell 001 Ret Ret Ret 0 -
Motor Racing Developments Ltd Brabham BT33 G Jack Brabham 1 Ret 2 Ret 11 3 2 Ret 13 Ret Ret 10 Ret 35 4th
Auto Motor Und Sport Brabham BT33 G Rolf Stommelen Ret Ret DNQ 5 DNQ 7 DNS 5 3 5 Ret 12 Ret
Team Gunston Brabham BT26A G Peter de Klerk 11
Tom Wheatcroft Racing Brabham BT26A G Derek Bell Ret
Gus Hutchison Brabham BT26A G Gus Hutchison Ret
Bruce McLaren Motor Racing McLaren M14A G Bruce McLaren Ret 2 Ret 35 5th
Denny Hulme 2 Ret 4 4 3 3 Ret 4 Ret 7 3
Dan Gurney Ret 6 Ret
Peter Gethin Ret Ret 10 Ret 6 14 Ret
Ecurie Bonnier McLaren M7C G Jo Bonnier DNQ Ret
Team Surtees McLaren M7C F John Surtees Ret Ret Ret 6
Surtees TS7 Ret 9 Ret Ret 5 Ret 8 3 8th
Derek Bell 6
Frank Williams Racing Cars De Tomaso 505/38 D Piers Courage Ret DNS NC Ret Ret 0 -
Brian Redman DNS DNQ
Tim Schenken Ret Ret NC Ret
Silvio Moser Racing Team Bellasi F1 G Silvio Moser DNQ DNQ DNQ Ret DNQ 0 -
1971 Elf Team Tyrrell Tyrrell 001
Jackie Stewart 2 1 1 11 1 1 1 Ret Ret 1 5
François Cevert Ret 7 Ret Ret 2 10 2 Ret 3 6 1
Peter Revson Ret
STP March Racing Team March 711 F Ronnie Peterson 10 Ret 2 4 2 5 8 2 2 3 33 (34) 4th
Alex Soler-Roig Ret Ret DNQ Ret Ret
Nanni Galli DNS 11 Ret 16 Ret
Niki Lauda Ret
Mike Beuttler NC
Clarke-Mordaunt-Guthrie Racing March 711 F Mike Beuttler Ret DSQ NC Ret
Frank Williams Racing Cars March 701
F Henri Pescarolo 11 Ret 8 NC Ret 4 Ret 6 Ret DNS Ret
Max Jean NC
Team Gunston March 701 G John Love Ret
Gene Mason Racing March 711 F Skip Barber DNQ NC Ret NC
Jo Siffert Automobiles March 701 F François Mazet 13
Shell Arnold Team March 701 F Jean-Pierre Jarier NC
Team Lotus Lotus 72C
F Emerson Fittipaldi Ret Ret 5 3 3 Ret 2 7 NC 21 5th
Reine Wisell 4 NC Ret DSQ 6 8 4 5 Ret
Dave Charlton DNS Ret
Pete Lovely Volkswagen Inc. Lotus 69 F Pete Lovely NC NC
Bruce McLaren Motor Racing McLaren M14A
G Denny Hulme 6 5 4 12 Ret Ret Ret Ret 4 Ret 10 6th
Peter Gethin Ret 8 Ret Ret 9 Ret Ret
Jackie Oliver Ret 9 7
Ecurie Bonnier McLaren M7C G Joakim Bonnier Ret DNQ DNS 10 16
Helmut Marko DNS
Penske-White Racing McLaren M19A G Mark Donohue 3 DNS
David Hobbs 10
Brooke Bond Oxo Team Surtees Surtees TS7
F John Surtees Ret 11 7 5 8 6 7 Ret Ret 11 17 8 8th
Auto Motor Und Sport Team Surtees Rolf Stommelen 12 Ret 6 DSQ 11 5 10 7 DNS Ret
Team Surtees Brian Redman 7
Derek Bell Ret
Mike Hailwood 4 15
Sam Posey Ret
Gijs van Lennep DNS
Stichting Autoraces Nederland Surtees TS7 F 8
Motor Racing Developments Ltd Brabham BT33
G Graham Hill 9 Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret 9 5 Ret Ret 7 5 9th
Dave Charlton Ret
Tim Schenken 9 10 Ret 12 12 6 3 Ret Ret Ret
Team Gunston Brabham BT26A G Jackie Pretorius Ret
Ecurie Evergreen Brabham BT33 G Chris Craft DNQ Ret
Jolly Club Switzerland Bellasi F1 G Silvio Moser Ret 0 -
1972 John Player Team Lotus Lotus
Emerson Fittipaldi Ret 2 1 3 1 2 1 Ret 1 1 11 Ret
David Walker DSQ 10 9 14 14 18 Ret Ret Ret Ret
Reine Wisell Ret 10
Scuderia Scribante Lotus
F Dave Charlton Ret DNQ Ret Ret
Elf Team Tyrrell Tyrrell 002
G Jackie Stewart 1 Ret Ret 4 1 2 11 7 Ret 1 1 51 2nd
François Cevert Ret 9 Ret NC 2 4 Ret 10 9 Ret Ret 2
Patrick Depailler NC 7
Yardley Team McLaren McLaren
G Denny Hulme 2 1 Ret 15 3 7 5 Ret 2 3 3 3 47 3rd
Peter Revson Ret 3 5 7 3 3 4 2 18
Brian Redman 5 9 5
Jody Scheckter 9
Brooke Bond Oxo Team Surtees Surtees
F Mike Hailwood Ret Ret Ret 4 6 Ret Ret 4 2 17 18 5th
Tim Schenken 5 Ret 8
Flame Out Team Surtees 17 Ret
Team Surtees Ret Ret 14 11 Ret 7 Ret
John Surtees Ret DNS
Ceramica Pagnossin Team Surtees Andrea de Adamich Ret NC 4 7 Ret 14 Ret 13 14 Ret Ret Ret
Team Gunston Surtees
F John Love 16
Champcar Inc. Surtees
G Sam Posey 12
STP March Racing Team March 721
G Ronnie Peterson 6 5 Ret 11 9 5 7 3 12 9 DSQ 4 15 6th
Niki Lauda 11 7 Ret 16 12 Ret 9 Ret 10 13 DSQ NC
Team Williams Motul March 711
G Henri Pescarolo 8 11 11 Ret NC DNS Ret DNS DNQ 13 14
Carlos Pace 17 6 17 5 Ret Ret NC NC Ret 9 Ret
Clarke-Mordaunt-Guthrie Racing March 721G F Mike Beuttler DNQ 13 Ret 19 13 8 Ret 10 NC 13
Gene Mason Racing March 711 F Skip Barber NC 16
Motor Racing Developments Ltd Brabham
F Graham Hill Ret 6 10 12 Ret 10 Ret 6 Ret 5 8 11 7 9th
Carlos Reutemann 7 Ret 13 12 8 Ret Ret Ret 4 Ret
Wilson Fittipaldi 7 9 Ret 8 12 7 Ret Ret Ret Ret
Team Gunston Brabham
F William Ferguson DNS
Team Eifelland Caravans Eifelland 21 G Rolf Stommelen 13 Ret 10 11 16 10 Ret 15 0 -
Team Williams Motul Politoys FX3 G Henri Pescarolo Ret 0 -
Connew Racing Team Connew PC1 F François Migault DNS Ret 0 -
1973 John Player Team Lotus Lotus 72D
Emerson Fittipaldi 1 1 3 1 3 2 12 Ret Ret Ret 6 Ret 2 2 6
Ronnie Peterson Ret Ret 11 Ret Ret 3 2 1 2 11 Ret 1 1 Ret 1
Scribante Lucky Strike Racing Lotus 72D F Dave Charlton Ret
Elf Team Tyrrell Tyrrell 005
G Jackie Stewart 3 2 1 Ret 1 1 5 4 10 1 1 2 4 5 DNS 82 (86) 2nd
François Cevert 2 10 NC 2 2 4 3 2 5 2 2 Ret 5 Ret DNS
Chris Amon 10 DNS
Blignaut Lucky Strike Racing Tyrrell 004 G Eddie Keizan NC
Yardley Team McLaren McLaren M19A
G Denny Hulme 5 3 5 6 7 6 1 8 3 Ret 12 8 15 13 4 58 3rd
Peter Revson 8 Ret 2 4 Ret 5 7 1 4 9 Ret 3 1 5
Jody Scheckter 9 Ret Ret Ret Ret
Jacky Ickx 3
Motor Racing Developments Ltd Brabham BT37
G Carlos Reutemann Ret 11 7 Ret Ret Ret 4 3 6 Ret Ret 4 6 8 3 22 4th
Wilson Fittipaldi 6 Ret Ret 10 Ret 11 Ret 16 Ret Ret 5 Ret Ret 11 NC
John Watson Ret Ret
Ceramica Pagnossin MRD Andrea de Adamich Ret 4 7 Ret Ret
Rolf Stommelen 11 Ret 12 12
STP March Racing Team March 721G
G Jean-Pierre Jarier Ret Ret NC Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret NC 11 14 5th
Henri Pescarolo 8
Roger Williamson Ret Ret
Clarke-Mordaunt-Guthrie Racing F Mike Beuttler 10 Ret NC 7 11 Ret 8 11 Ret 16 Ret Ret Ret 10
Reine Wisell Ret
Team Pierre Robert G DNS
Hesketh Racing March 731 G James Hunt 9 6 4 3 Ret DNS 7 2
LEC Refrigeration Racing March 731 G David Purley Ret DNS Ret 15 9
UOP Shadow Racing Team Shadow DN1 G George Follmer 6 3 Ret DNS 14 Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret 10 17 14 9 8th
Jackie Oliver Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 11 3 15
Brian Redman DSQ
Embassy Racing G Graham Hill Ret 9 Ret Ret 10 Ret NC 13 Ret 14 16 13
Brooke Bond Oxo Team Surtees Surtees TS9B
F Carlos Pace Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 10 13 Ret 7 4 3 Ret 18 Ret 7 9th
Mike Hailwood Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret Ret Ret Ret 14 10 7 9 Ret
Team Surtees Luiz Bueno 12
Jochen Mass Ret 7 Ret
Ceramica Pagnossin Team Surtees Andrea de Adamich 8
Frank Williams Racing Cars Iso-Marlboro FX3B
F Howden Ganley NC 7 10 Ret Ret Ret 11 14 9 9 DNS NC NC 6 12 2 10th
Nanni Galli Ret 9 11 Ret Ret
Jackie Pretorius Ret
Tom Belsø DNS
Henri Pescarolo Ret 10
Graham McRae Ret
Gijs van Lennep 6 9 Ret
Tim Schenken 14
Jacky Ickx 7
Team Ensign Ensign N173 F Rikky von Opel 15 13 DNS Ret Ret NC Ret 0 -
1974 Marlboro Team Texaco McLaren M23 Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G ARG BRA RSA ESP BEL MON SWE NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA 73 (75) 1st
Emerson Fittipaldi 10 1 7 3 1 5 4 3 Ret 2 Ret Ret 2 1 4
Denny Hulme 1 12 9 6 6 Ret Ret Ret 6 7 DSQ 2 6 6 Ret
Yardley Team McLaren Mike Hailwood 4 5 3 9 7 Ret Ret 4 7 Ret 15
David Hobbs 7 9
Jochen Mass 16 7
Scribante Lucky Strike Racing G Dave Charlton 19
Elf Team Tyrrell Tyrrell 005
G Jody Scheckter Ret 13 8 5 3 2 1 5 4 1 2 Ret 3 Ret Ret 45 3rd
Patrick Depailler 6 8 4 8 Ret 9 2 6 8 Ret Ret Ret 11 5 6
Blignaut Embassy Racing Tyrrell 004 F Eddie Keizan 14
John Player Team Lotus Lotus 72E
G Ronnie Peterson 13 6 Ret Ret Ret 1 Ret 8 1 10 4 Ret 1 3 Ret 38 (40) 4th
Jacky Ickx Ret 3 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 11 5 3 5 Ret Ret 13 Ret
Tim Schenken DSQ
Team Gunston Lotus 72E F Ian Scheckter 13
Paddy Driver Ret
Motor Racing Developments Ltd Brabham BT42
G Carlos Reutemann 7 7 1 Ret Ret Ret Ret 12 Ret 6 3 4 Ret 1 1 35 5th
Richard Robarts Ret 15 17
Rikky von Opel Ret Ret DNQ 9 9 DNQ
Teddy Pilette 17
Carlos Pace 9 12 Ret 5 8 2
John Goldie Racing with Hexagon F DNQ
John Watson 12 Ret Ret 11 11 6 11 7 16 11 Ret 4 7 Ret 5
Scuderia Finotto Brabham BT42 F Gérard Larrousse Ret DNQ
Helmuth Koinigg DNQ
Carlo Facetti DNQ
Allied Polymer Group G Lella Lombardi DNQ
Team Canada F1 Racing G Eppie Wietzes Ret
The Chequered Flag G Ian Ashley DNQ DNQ
Hesketh Racing Hesketh 308 F
James Hunt Ret 10 Ret Ret 3 Ret Ret Ret Ret 3 Ret 4 3 15 6th
Ian Scheckter DNQ
UOP Shadow Racing Team Shadow DN1
G Jean-Pierre Jarier Ret Ret Ret 13 3 5 Ret 12 Ret 8 8 Ret Ret 10 7 8th
Peter Revson Ret Ret
Brian Redman 7 18 Ret
Bertil Roos Ret
Tom Pryce Ret Ret 8 6 Ret 10 Ret NC
March Engineering March 741 G Hans-Joachim Stuck Ret Ret 5 4 Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret 7 11 Ret Ret DNQ 6 9th
Reine Wisell Ret
Howden Ganley 8 Ret
Vittorio Brambilla 10 DNS 9 Ret 10 10 11 Ret 13 6 Ret DNQ Ret
Hesketh Racing March 731 F James Hunt Ret 9
Dempster International Racing Team F Mike Wilds DNQ
Frank Williams Racing Cars Iso-Marlboro FW F Arturo Merzario Ret Ret 6 Ret Ret Ret DNS Ret 9 Ret Ret Ret 4 Ret Ret 4 10th
Tom Belsø Ret DNQ 8 DNQ
Gijs van Lennep 14 DNQ
Richard Robarts DNS
Jacques Laffite Ret NC Ret 15 Ret
Jean-Pierre Jabouille DNQ
Team Surtees Surtees TS16 F DNQ 3 11th
Carlos Pace Ret 4
Jochen Mass Ret 17 Ret Ret Ret DNS Ret Ret Ret 14 Ret
José Dolhem DNQ DNQ Ret
Helmuth Koinigg 10 Ret
Derek Bell DNQ DNQ DNQ
Bang & Olufsen Team Surtees DNQ 11
Carlos Pace 11 13 Ret Ret Ret
Memphis International Team Surtees Dieter Quester 9
AAW Racing Team F Leo Kinnunen DNQ Ret DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ
Embassy Racing with Graham Hill Lola T370 F Graham Hill Ret 11 12 Ret 8 7 6 Ret 13 13 9 12 8 14 8 1 12th
Guy Edwards 11 Ret DNQ 12 8 7 Ret 15 DNQ DNQ
Peter Gethin Ret
Rolf Stommelen Ret Ret 11 12
Vel's Parnelli Jones Racing Parnelli VPJ4 F Mario Andretti 7 DSQ 0 NC
Trojan–Tauranac Racing Trojan T103 F Tim Schenken 14 10 Ret DNQ Ret DNQ 10 Ret 0 NC
Penske Cars Penske PC1 G Mark Donohue NC NC 0 NC
Token Racing Token RJ02 F Tom Pryce Ret 0 NC
David Purley DNQ
Ian Ashley 14 NC
Team Ensign Ensign N174 F Rikky von Opel DNS 0 NC
Vern Schuppan 15 Ret DSQ DSQ DNQ DNQ Ret
Chris Amon Racing Amon AF101 F Chris Amon Ret DNS DNQ DNQ 0 NC
Larry Perkins DNQ
Maki Engineering Maki F101 F Howden Ganley DNQ DNQ 0 NC
Pinch Plant Ltd. Lyncar 006 F John Nicholson DNQ 0 NC
1975 Martini Racing Brabham BT44B Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G ARG BRA RSA ESP MON BEL SWE NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA USA 54 (56) 2nd
Carlos Reutemann 3 8 2 3 9 3 2 4 14 Ret 1 14 4 Ret
Carlos Pace Ret 1 4 Ret 3 8 Ret 5 Ret 2 Ret Ret Ret Ret
Marlboro Team McLaren McLaren M23 G Emerson Fittipaldi 1 2 NC DNS 2 7 8 Ret 4 1 Ret 9 2 2 53 3rd
Jochen Mass 14 3 6 1 6 Ret Ret Ret 3 7 Ret 4 Ret 3
Lucky Strike Racing G Dave Charlton 14
Hesketh Racing Hesketh 308
G James Hunt 2 6 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 1 2 4 Ret 2 5 4 33 4th
Brett Lunger 13 10 Ret
Polar Caravans Torsten Palm DNQ 10
Warsteiner Brewery Harald Ertl 8 Ret 9
Custom Made Harry Stiller Racing Hesketh 308B G Alan Jones Ret Ret Ret 11
Elf Team Tyrrell Tyrrell 007 G Jody Scheckter 11 Ret 1 Ret 7 2 7 16 9 3 Ret 8 8 6 25 5th
Patrick Depailler 5 Ret 3 Ret 5 4 12 9 6 9 9 11 7 Ret
Jean-Pierre Jabouille 12
Michel Leclère Ret
Lexington Racing G Ian Scheckter Ret
UOP Shadow Racing Team Shadow DN3B
G Tom Pryce 12 Ret 9 Ret Ret 6 Ret 6 Ret Ret 4 3 6 NC 9.5 6th
Jean-Pierre Jarier DNS Ret Ret 4 Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 14 Ret Ret
John Player Team Lotus Lotus 72E
G Ronnie Peterson Ret 15 10 Ret 4 Ret 9 15 10 Ret Ret 5 Ret 5 9 7th
Jacky Ickx 8 9 12 2 8 Ret 15 Ret Ret
Jim Crawford Ret 13
Brian Henton 16 DNS NC
John Watson Ret
Team Gunston Lotus 72 G Guy Tunmer 11
Eddie Keizan 13
Beta Team March March 741
G Vittorio Brambilla 9 Ret Ret 5 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 6 Ret 1 Ret 7 7.5 8th
March Engineering Lella Lombardi Ret
Lavazza March 6 DNQ Ret Ret 14 8 Ret 7 17 Ret
Hans-Joachim Stuck Ret Ret Ret Ret 8
Penske Cars March 751 G Mark Donohue 5 Ret DNS
Frank Williams Racing Cars Williams FW
G Jacques Laffite Ret 11 NC DNQ Ret Ret 11 Ret 2 Ret Ret DNS 6 9th
Arturo Merzario NC Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret
Tony Brise 7
Damien Magee 14
Ian Scheckter Ret 12
François Migault DNS
Ian Ashley DNS
Jo Vonlanthen Ret
Renzo Zorzi 14
Lella Lombardi DNS
Vel's Parnelli Jones Racing Parnelli VPJ4 F
Mario Andretti Ret 7 17 Ret Ret 4 5 12 10 Ret Ret Ret 5 10th
Embassy Racing with Graham Hill Hill GH1 G Rolf Stommelen Ret 16 Ret 3 11th
François Migault NC Ret
Graham Hill DNQ
Tony Brise Ret 6 7 7 15 Ret 15 Ret Ret
Vern Schuppan Ret
Alan Jones 13 16 10 5
Penske Cars Penske PC1 G Mark Donohue 7 Ret 8 Ret Ret 11 5 8 Ret 2 12th
John Watson 9
HB Bewaking Team Ensign Ensign N174
G Roelof Wunderink Ret DNQ DNQ NC DNQ Ret 1 13th
Gijs van Lennep 10 15 6
Chris Amon 12 12
Embassy Racing with Graham Hill Lola T370
G Graham Hill 10 12 DNQ 0 NC
Rolf Stommelen 13 14 7
Team Surtees Surtees TS16 G John Watson DSQ 10 Ret 8 Ret 10 16 Ret 13 11 10 0 NC
National Organs Team Surtees Dave Morgan 18
Copersucar-Fittipaldi Fittipaldi FD01
G Wilson Fittipaldi Ret 13 DNQ Ret DNQ 12 17 11 Ret 19 Ret DNS 10 0 NC
Arturo Merzario 11
Pinch Plant Ltd. Lyncar 006 G John Nicholson 17 0 NC
Maki Engineering Maki F101C G Hiroshi Fushida DNS DNQ 0 NC
Tony Trimmer DNQ DNQ DNQ
1976 Marlboro Team McLaren McLaren M23
James Hunt Ret 2 Ret 1 Ret Ret 5 1 DSQ 1 4 1 Ret 1 1 3
Jochen Mass 6 3 5 Ret 6 5 11 15 Ret 3 7 9 Ret 5 4 Ret
Elf Team Tyrrell Tyrrell 007
G Jody Scheckter 5 4 Ret Ret 4 2 1 6 2 2 Ret 5 4 4 2 Ret 71 3rd
Patrick Depailler 2 9 3 Ret Ret 3 2 2 Ret Ret Ret 7 6 2 Ret 2
Lexington Racing Tyrrell 007 G Ian Scheckter Ret
Scuderia Gulf Rondini G Alessandro Pesenti-Rossi 14 11 DNQ 18
ÖASC Racing Team G Otto Stuppacher DNS DNQ DNQ
Heros Racing B Kazuyoshi Hoshino Ret
John Player Team Lotus Lotus 77 G Mario Andretti Ret Ret Ret Ret 5 Ret 12 5 3 Ret 3 Ret 1 29 4th
Ronnie Peterson Ret
Bob Evans 10 DNQ
Gunnar Nilsson Ret Ret 3 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 5 3 Ret 13 12 Ret 6
Citibank Team Penske Penske PC3
G John Watson Ret 5 NC Ret 7 10 Ret 3 3 7 1 Ret 11 10 6 Ret 20 5th
F&S Properties Penske PC3 G Boy Hayje Ret
Beta Team March March 761 G Vittorio Brambilla Ret 8 Ret Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret Ret Ret 6 7 14 Ret Ret 19 7th
Lavazza March Lella Lombardi 14
March Engineering Hans-Joachim Stuck 4 12 Ret Ret Ret 4 Ret 7 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 5 Ret
Ronnie Peterson Ret 10 Ret Ret Ret 7 19 Ret Ret 6 Ret 1 9 Ret Ret
Ovoro Team March Arturo Merzario DNQ Ret Ret DNQ 14 9 Ret
Shadow Racing Team Shadow DN5B
G Tom Pryce 3 7 Ret 8 10 7 9 8 4 8 Ret 4 8 11 Ret Ret 10 8th
Jean-Pierre Jarier Ret Ret 7 Ret 9 8 12 12 9 11 Ret 10 19 18 10 10
Team P R Reilly Shadow DN3B G Mike Wilds DNQ
Team Surtees Surtees TS19 G Brett Lunger 11 DNQ DNQ Ret 15 16 Ret Ret 10 14 15 11 7 10th
Conny Andersson Ret
Noritake Takahara 9
Durex Team Surtees Alan Jones NC 9 5 Ret 13 Ret 5 10 Ret 8 12 16 8 4
Team Norev / BS Fabrications G Henri Pescarolo DNQ Ret Ret DNQ 9 11 17 9 NC
Shellsport Whiting Surtees TS16 G Divina Galica DNQ
Copersucar-Fittipaldi Fittipaldi FD03
G Emerson Fittipaldi 13 17 6 Ret DNQ 6 Ret Ret 6 13 Ret Ret 15 Ret 9 Ret 3 11th
Ingo Hoffmann 11 DNQ DNQ DNQ
Team Ensign Ensign N174
G Chris Amon 14 8 5 Ret 13 Ret Ret Ret 2 12th
Patrick Nève 18
Hans Binder Ret
Jacky Ickx Ret 10 13 Ret
Vel's Parnelli Jones Racing Parnelli VPJ4 G Mario Andretti 6 Ret 1 13th
Hesketh Racing Hesketh 308D G Harald Ertl 15 DNQ DNQ Ret DNQ Ret Ret 7 Ret 8 Ret 16 DNS 13 8 0 NC
Rolf Stommelen 12
Alex Ribeiro 12
Penthouse Rizla Racing Guy Edwards DNQ 17 Ret 15 DNS 20
Wolf-Williams Racing Wolf-Williams FW04
G Jacky Ickx 8 16 DNQ 7 DNQ DNQ 10 DNQ 0 NC
Renzo Zorzi 9
Michel Leclère 13 DNQ 10 11 11 Ret 13
Arturo Merzario Ret Ret Ret DNS Ret Ret Ret
Chris Amon DNS
Warwick Brown 14
Hans Binder Ret
Masami Kuwashima DNS
HB Bewaking Alarm Systems Boro 001 G Larry Perkins 13 8 DNQ Ret Ret Ret 0 NC
Kojima Engineering Kojima KE007 D Masahiro Hasemi 11 0 NC
RAM Racing Brabham BT44B G Loris Kessel DNQ 12 Ret DNQ NC 0 NC
Emilio de Villota DNQ
Patrick Nève Ret
Jac Nellemann DNQ
Damien Magee DNQ
Bob Evans Ret
Lella Lombardi DNQ DNQ 12
Rolf Stommelen DNS
Mapfre-Williams Williams FW04 G Emilio Zapico DNQ 0 NC
Maki Engineering Maki F102A G Tony Trimmer DNQ 0 NC
1977 John Player Team Lotus Lotus 78 Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G ARG BRA RSA USW ESP MON BEL SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA USA CAN JPN 62 2nd
Mario Andretti 5 Ret Ret 1 1 5 Ret 6 1 14 Ret Ret Ret 1 2 9 Ret
Gunnar Nilsson DNS 5 12 8 5 Ret 1 19 4 3 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret
Marlboro Team McLaren McLaren M23
G James Hunt Ret 2 4 7 Ret Ret 7 12 3 1 Ret Ret Ret Ret 1 Ret 1 60 3rd
Jochen Mass Ret Ret 5 Ret 4 4 Ret 2 9 4 Ret 6 Ret 4 Ret 3 Ret
Gilles Villeneuve 11
Bruno Giacomelli Ret
Chesterfield Racing McLaren M23 G Brett Lunger DNS 11 DNQ 13 Ret 10 9 Ret 10 11
Iberia Airlines G Emilio de Villota 13 DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ 17 DNQ
Walter Wolf Racing Wolf WR1
G Jody Scheckter 1 Ret 2 3 3 1 Ret Ret Ret Ret 2 Ret 3 Ret 3 1 10 55 4th
Elf Team Tyrrell Tyrrell P34 G Ronnie Peterson Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 3 Ret 12 Ret 9 5 Ret 6 16 Ret Ret 27 5th
Patrick Depailler Ret Ret 3 4 Ret Ret 8 4 Ret Ret Ret 13 Ret Ret 14 2 3
Meiritsu Racing Team Tyrrell 007 D Kunimitsu Takahashi 9
Shadow Racing Team Shadow DN5B
G Tom Pryce NC Ret Ret 23 7th
Renzo Zorzi Ret 6 Ret Ret Ret
Alan Jones Ret Ret 6 5 17 Ret 7 Ret 1 Ret 3 Ret 4 4
Riccardo Patrese 9 Ret Ret Ret 10 13 Ret 10 6
Jackie Oliver 9
Arturo Merzario Ret
Jean-Pierre Jarier 9
Copersucar-Fittipaldi Fittipaldi FD04
G Emerson Fittipaldi 4 4 10 5 14 Ret Ret 18 11 Ret DNQ 11 4 DNQ 13 Ret 11 9th
Ingo Hoffmann Ret 7
Team Ensign Ensign N177 G Clay Regazzoni 6 Ret 9 Ret Ret DNQ Ret 7 7 DNQ Ret Ret Ret 5 5 Ret Ret 10 10th
Jacky Ickx 10
Theodore Racing Hong Kong G Patrick Tambay Ret 6 Ret 5 Ret DNQ 5 Ret
Team Surtees Surtees TS19 G DNQ 6 11th
Larry Perkins 12 DNQ DNQ
Vern Schuppan 12 7 16 DNQ
Lamberto Leoni DNQ
Durex Team Surtees Hans Binder Ret Ret 11 11 9 Ret 11 Ret Ret
Beta Team Surtees Vittorio Brambilla 7 Ret 7 Ret Ret 8 4 Ret 13 8 5 15 12 Ret 19 6 8
Melchester Racing G Tony Trimmer DNPQ
ATS Racing Team Penske PC4 G Jean-Pierre Jarier 6 DNQ 11 11 8 Ret 9 Ret 14 Ret Ret 9 1 12th
Hans Heyer DSQ*
Hans Binder 12 8 DNQ
Interscope Racing G Danny Ongais Ret 7
Hollywood March Racing March 761B
G Alex Ribeiro Ret Ret Ret Ret DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ 8 DNQ 11 DNQ 15 8 12 0 NC
Team Rothmans International Ian Scheckter Ret Ret 11 DNQ Ret Ret NC Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret Ret
Hans-Joachim Stuck Ret
Brian Henton 10
British Formula One Racing Team March 761 G DNQ DNQ DNQ
Bernard de Dryver DNQ
Williams Grand Prix Engineering G Patrick Nève 12 10 15 DNQ 10 DNQ 9 DNQ 7 18 Ret
Chesterfield Racing G Brett Lunger 14 Ret 10
Team Merzario G Arturo Merzario Ret DNQ 14 Ret Ret DNQ DNQ
RAM Racing/F&S Properties G Boy Hayje Ret DNQ DNQ NC DNQ DNQ
Mikko Kozarowitzky DNQ DNPQ
Michael Bleekemolen DNQ
RAM Racing Andy Sutcliffe DNPQ
Penthouse Rizla Racing Hesketh 308E G Rupert Keegan Ret 12 Ret 13 10 Ret Ret 7 Ret 9 8 Ret 0 NC
Hesketh Racing Harald Ertl Ret DNQ 9 16 Ret
Héctor Rebaque DNQ DNQ DNQ Ret DNQ DNQ
Ian Ashley DNQ DNQ DNQ 17 DNS
Kojima Engineering Kojima KE009 B Noritake Takahara Ret 0 NC
Heros Racing B Kazuyoshi Hoshino 11
LEC Refrigeration Racing LEC CRP1 G David Purley DNQ 13 14 Ret DNPQ 0 NC
HB Bewaking Alarm Systems Boro 001 G Brian Henton DSQ DNQ 0 NC
Jolly Club Switzerland Apollon Fly G Loris Kessel DNQ 0 NC
Brian McGuire McGuire BM1 G Brian McGuire DNPQ 0 NC
1978 John Player Team Lotus Lotus 78
Mario Andretti 1 4 7 2 11 1 1 Ret 1 Ret 1 Ret 1 6 Ret 10
Ronnie Peterson 5 Ret 1 4 Ret 2 2 3 2 Ret Ret 1 2 Ret
Jean-Pierre Jarier 15 Ret
Team Rebaque Lotus 78 G Héctor Rebaque DNQ Ret 10 DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ Ret 12 DNQ Ret 6 Ret 11 DNQ Ret DNQ
Elf Team Tyrrell Tyrrell 008 G Didier Pironi 14 6 6 Ret 5 6 12 Ret 10 Ret 5 Ret Ret Ret 10 7 38 4th
Patrick Depailler 3 Ret 2 3 1 Ret Ret Ret Ret 4 Ret 2 Ret 11 Ret 5
Walter Wolf Racing Wolf WR1
G Jody Scheckter 10 Ret Ret Ret 3 Ret 4 Ret 6 Ret 2 Ret 12 12 3 2 24 5th
Bobby Rahal 12 Ret
Theodore Racing Hong Kong Wolf WR3
G Keke Rosberg 12 NC Ret DNPQ
Fittipaldi Automotive Fittipaldi F5A G Emerson Fittipaldi 9 2 Ret 8 9 Ret Ret 6 Ret Ret 4 4 5 8 5 Ret 17 7th
Marlboro Team McLaren McLaren M26 G James Hunt 4 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 6 8 3 Ret DSQ Ret 10 Ret 7 Ret 15 8th
Patrick Tambay 6 Ret Ret 12 7 Ret 4 9 6 Ret Ret 9 5 6 8
Bruno Giacomelli 8 Ret 7 Ret 14
Centro Asegurador F1 McLaren M23
G Emilio de Villota DNQ
Liggett Group / BS Fabrications McLaren M23
G Brett Lunger 13 Ret 11 DNQ DNPQ 7 DNQ DNQ Ret 8 DNPQ 8 Ret Ret
BS Fabrications Nelson Piquet Ret Ret 9
Melchester Racing McLaren M23 G Tony Trimmer DNQ
Williams Grand Prix Engineering Williams FW06 G Alan Jones Ret 11 4 7 Ret 10 8 Ret 5 Ret Ret Ret Ret 13 2 9 11 9th
Arrows Racing Team Arrows FA1
G Riccardo Patrese 10 Ret 6 6 Ret Ret 2 8 Ret 9 Ret Ret Ret 4 11 10th
Rolf Stommelen 9 9 Ret Ret 14 14 15 DNQ DSQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ 16 DNQ
Shadow Racing Team Shadow DN8
G Hans-Joachim Stuck 17 Ret DNQ DNS Ret Ret Ret 11 11 5 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 6 11th
Clay Regazzoni 15 5 DNQ 10 DNQ Ret 15 5 Ret Ret DNQ NC DNQ NC 14 DNQ
Interscope Racing Shadow DN9 G Danny Ongais DNPQ DNPQ
Durex Team Surtees Surtees TS19
G Rupert Keegan Ret Ret Ret DNS Ret DNQ 11 DNQ Ret DNQ DNQ DNQ DNS 1 13th
René Arnoux 9 Ret
Team Surtees Brian Henton PO
Gimax DNQ
Beppe Gabbiani DNQ DNQ
Beta Team Surtees Vittorio Brambilla 18 DNQ 12 Ret DNQ 13 7 Ret 17 9 Ret 6 DSQ Ret
Team Tissot Ensign Ensign N177 G Danny Ongais Ret Ret 1 14th
Lamberto Leoni Ret DNS DNQ DNQ
Jacky Ickx Ret 12 Ret DNQ
Bernard de Dryver DNP
Derek Daly DNQ Ret DSQ Ret 10 8 6
Nelson Piquet Ret
Brett Lunger 13
Sachs Racing G Harald Ertl 11 Ret DNPQ DNPQ
Mario Deliotti Racing Ensign N175 G Geoff Lees DNQ
ATS Racing Team ATS HS1
G Jochen Mass 11 7 Ret Ret DNQ 11 9 13 13 NC Ret DNQ DNQ 0 NC
Jean-Pierre Jarier 12 DNS 8 11 DNQ DNQ
Alberto Colombo DNQ DNQ
Keke Rosberg 15 16 Ret Ret NC
Hans Binder DNQ
Harald Ertl DNQ
F&S Properties/ATS Racing Team Michael Bleekemolen DNQ DNQ Ret DNQ
Automobiles Martini Martini MK23 G René Arnoux DNQ DNPQ 9 14 DNPQ 9 Ret 0 NC
Team Merzario Merzario A1 G Arturo Merzario Ret DNQ Ret Ret DNPQ DNPQ DNQ NC DNQ Ret DNQ DNQ Ret Ret Ret DNQ 0 NC
Alberto Colombo DNPQ
Theodore Racing Hong Kong Theodore TR1 G Eddie Cheever DNQ DNQ 0 NC
Olympus Cameras/Hesketh Racing Hesketh 308E G Divina Galica DNQ DNQ 0 NC
Eddie Cheever Ret
Patrick Nève March 781S G Patrick Nève DNP 0 NC
1979 Albiad-Saudia Racing Team Williams FW06
Alan Jones 9 Ret Ret 3 Ret Ret Ret 4 Ret 1 1 1 9 1 Ret
Clay Regazzoni 10 15 9 Ret Ret Ret 2 6 1 2 5 Ret 3 3 Ret


  • * – Started illegally.
  • – Half points awarded as less than 75% of the race distance was completed.

Summary of F1 engine use

Season Engine Type Disp. Teams Wins Notes
1963 Mk.IXI41.5 Lotus 0
  • The first 'Ford' Formula One engine entry
1964 Mk.XVII41.5 Cooper 0
  • Entered as 'Ford 109E'
1965 Mk.XVII41.5 Lotus, Cooper 0
  • Entered as 'Ford 109E'
1966 SCAI41.0 Brabham, Lotus, Matra 0
  • Entered as Formula Two entires with 'Cosworth SCA' engines
1967 FVAI41.6 Brabham, Lola, Lotus, Matra, Protos 4
DFVV83.0 Lotus
1968 DFVV83.0 Lotus, McLaren, Matra 11
FVAI41.6 Matra
1969 DFVV83.0 Matra, Brabham, Lotus, McLaren 11
FVAI41.6 Brabham, Lotus, Matra, Tecno
1970 DFVV83.0 Lotus, March, McLaren, Brabham, Surtees, Tyrrell, Bellasi, De Tomaso 8
1971 DFVV83.0 Tyrrell, March, Lotus, McLaren, Surtees, Brabham, Bellasi 7
1972 DFVV83.0 McLaren, Lotus, Tyrrell, Surtees, March, Brabham, Poiltoys, Connew 10
1973 DFVV83.0 Lotus, Tyrrell, McLaren, Brabham, March, Shadow, Surtees, Iso–Marlboro, Ensign 15
1974 DFVV83.0 McLaren, Tyrrell, Lotus, Brabham, Hesketh, Shadow, March, Iso–Marlboro, Surtees, Lola, Token, Trojan, Penske, Parnelli, Lyncar, Ensign, Amon, Maki 12
1975 DFVV83.0 McLaren, Brabham, Hesketh, Tyrrell, Shadow, March, Lotus, Williams, Parnelli, Hill, Penske, Ensign, Fittipaldi, Lyncar, Lola, Maki, Surtees 8
1976 DFVV83.0 Tyrrell, McLaren, Lotus, Penske, March, Shadow, Surtees, Fittipaldi, Ensign, Parnelli, Wolf–Williams, Williams, Kojima, Hesketh, Maki, Brabham, Boro 10
1977 DFVV83.0 Lotus, McLaren, Wolf, Tyrrell, Shadow, Fittipaldi, Ensign, Surtees, Penske, Williams, Boro, LEC, McGuire, Kojima, Hesketh, March 12
1978 DFVV83.0 Lotus, Tyrrell, Wolf, Fittipaldi, McLaren, Arrows, Williams, Shadow, Surtees, Ensign, Martini, Hesketh, ATS, Theodore, Merzario, March 9
1979 DFVV83.0 Williams, Ligier, Lotus, Tyrrell, McLaren, Arrows, Shadow, ATS, Fittipaldi, Kauhsen, Wolf, Brabham, Ensign, Rebaque, Merzario 8
  • Cosworth-powered teams took 2nd, 3rd and 4th place in Constructors' Championship
1980 DFVV83.0 Williams, Ligier, Brabham, Lotus, Tyrrell, McLaren, Arrows, Fittipaldi, Shadow, ATS, Osella, Ensign 11
1981 DFVV83.0 Williams, Brabham, McLaren, Lotus, Tyrrell, Arrows, Ensign, Theodore, ATS, Fittipaldi, Osella, March 8
1982 DFVV83.0 McLaren, Williams, Lotus, Tyrrell, Brabham, Arrows, ATS, Osella, Fittipaldi, March, Theodore, Ensign 8
1983 DFYV83.0 Williams, McLaren, Tyrrell 3
DFVV83.0 Williams, McLaren, Tyrrell, Arrows, Lotus, Theodore, Osella, RAM, Ligier
1984 DFYV83.0 Tyrrell 0
DFVV83.0 Arrows, Spirit
1985 DFYV83.0 Tyrrell 0
DFVV83.0 Minardi
1986 GBAV6-T1.5 Haas Lola 0
  • First Cosworth engine to use a turbo in F1, and first non-V8 V engine
1987 GBAV6-T1.5 Benetton 0
  • Benetton reach 1000+ bhp with qualifying spec turbo engine
DFZV83.5 Tyrrell, Larrousse, AGS, March, Coloni
1988 DFRV83.5 Benetton 0
  • Dallara used a Formula 3000 car in the opening round in Brazil but did not pre-qualify. This was the last F1 race for the DFV engine
DFZV83.5 Tyrrell, Rial, Minardi, Coloni, Larrousse, AGS, EuroBrun, Dallara
DFVV83.0 Dallara
1989 HBV83.5 Benetton 1
DFRV83.5 Tyrrell, Arrows, Dallara, Minardi, Onyx, Ligier, Rial, AGS, Osella, Coloni
1990 HBV83.5 Benetton 2
DFRV83.5 Tyrrell, Arrows, Monteverdi, Ligier, Osella, Dallara, Coloni, AGS, Minardi
1991 HBV83.5 Benetton, Jordan 1
  • DFV-series' last F1 season (DFR)
DFRV83.5 Lola, Fondmetal, Coloni, AGS, Footwork
1992 HBV83.5 Benetton, Lotus, Fondmetal 1
1993 HBV83.5 McLaren, Benetton, Lotus, Minardi 6
1994 EC Zetec-RV83.5 Benetton 8
HBV83.5 Footwork, Minardi, Larrousse, Simtek
1995 ECA Zetec-RV83.0 Sauber 0
  • ECA engine is a developed 3-litre version of the 3.5litre EC Zetec-R V8.
EDV83.0 Minardi, Forti, Simtek, Pacific
1996 JD Zetec-RV103.0 Sauber 0
  • First Cosworth V10 design
ECA Zetec-RV83.0 Forti
EDV83.0 Minardi
1997 VJ Zetec-RV103.0 Stewart 0
ECA Zetec-RV83.0 Lola
EDV83.0 Tyrrell
1998 VJ Zetec-RV103.0 Stewart 0
JD Zetec-RV103.0 Tyrrell, Minardi
1999 CR-1V103.0 Stewart 1
VJ Zetec-RV103.0 Minardi
2000 CR-2V103.0 Jaguar 0
  • Starting this year, Ford uses Cosworth for the engine names
  • Minardi engines rebadged as Fondmetal
VJ Zetec-RV103.0 Minardi
2001 CR-3V103.0 Jaguar 0
VJ Zetec-RV103.0 Minardi
2002 CR-4V103.0 Jaguar, Arrows 0
CR-3V103.0 Jaguar, Arrows
2003 CR-5V103.0 Jaguar 1
RS1V103.0 Jordan
CR-3V103.0 Minardi
2004 CR-6V103.0 Jaguar 0
  • Jordan engines use Ford name
RS2V103.0 Jordan
CR-3LV103.0 Minardi
2005 TJ2005V103.0 Red Bull, Minardi 0
  • Minardi used the CK2004 (CR-3L) engine during the first 3 races of the season where the team used the old PS04B chassis.
2006 CA2006V82.4 Williams 0
  • Toro Rosso V10s rev-limited
TJ2005V103.0 Toro Rosso
20072009: Cosworth did not supply any engines in Formula One.
2010 CA2010V82.4 Williams, Lotus, HRT, Virgin 0
2011 CA2011V82.4 Williams, HRT, Virgin 0
2012 CA2012V82.4 HRT, Marussia 0
2013 CA2013V82.4 Marussia 0
20142020: Cosworth did not supply any engines in Formula One.

See also



  1. Ford badged Cosworth engines have won the Constructors' Championship 10 times; in 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1978, 1980 and 1981.
  2. Ford badged Cosworth engines have won the Drivers' Championship 13 times; in 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1981, 1982 and 1994.
  3. Ford badged Cosworth engines have achieved 176 race victories.
  4. Ford badged Cosworth engines have achieved 533 further podiums.
  5. Ford badged Cosworth engines have achieved 139 further pole positions.
  6. Ford badged Cosworth engines have achieved 160 further fastest laps.


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  14. Racing Channel (5 November 2014). "1986 Equinox – Turbo – The Cosworth V6 Turbo for the 1986 F1 Season (Part 2)". Retrieved 5 July 2017 via YouTube.
  15. "cosworth-gb". 7 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
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Further reading

  • Tuchen, Bernd (2006). Ford in der Formel 1 1965 bis 1994. Die Geschichte des legendären Ford Cosworth DFV Motors. Seine Entstehung, seine Rennställe, seine Siege und Weltmeister (in German). Büchenbach: Verlag Dr. Faustus. ISBN 978-3-933474-38-4.
  • Robson, Graham (1999). Cosworth: The Search For Power (4th ed.). Haynes Publishing. ISBN 1-85960-610-5.
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