Corinne Griffith

Corinne Griffith (née Griffin; November 21, 1894 – July 13, 1979) was an American film actress, producer, author and businesswoman. Dubbed "The Orchid Lady of the Screen,"[3] she was widely regarded as one of the most beautiful actress of the silent film era. In addition to her beauty, Griffith achieved critical recognition for her performance in Frank Lloyd's The Divine Lady (1929), which earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress.

Corinne Griffith
Corinne Griffin

(1894-11-21)November 21, 1894
Waco, Texas, U.S.
DiedJuly 13, 1979(1979-07-13) (aged 84)
Alma materUniversity of Texas at Austin
  • Actress
  • producer
  • author
  • businesswoman
Years active1916–1932; 1962
Net worth$150 million (1979)[1][2]
Webster Campbell
(m. 1920; div. 1923)

Walter Morosco
(m. 1924; div. 1934)

George Preston Marshall
(m. 1936; div. 1958)

Danny Scholl
(m. 1965; div. 1965)
Children2, adopted

A native of Texas, Griffith pursued a film career after winning a beauty contest in southern California. In 1916, she signed a contract with Vitagraph Studios, appearing in numerous films for the studio through the remainder of the decade. In 1920, she began making films for First National Pictures, and went on to become one of the studio's biggest stars. In the mid-1920s, she began executive-producing features, and served as a producer on 1925's Déclassée and Classified, both of which she also starred in.

In the latter part of the 1920s, Griffith's film career slowed, though she had lead performances in Outcast (1928) and the drama The Garden of Eden (also 1928). The following year, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in The Divine Lady. She subsequently starred in Lilies of the Field, a remake of the 1924 film in which she had also starred. Her following film, Back Pay (1930), was promoted as Griffith's final screen appearance before her retirement. She did, however, appear as the lead in Lily Christine, her first sound film, two years later.

After 1932, Griffith retired from acting and became a successful author and businesswoman, writing numerous fiction and non-fiction books, as well as venturing into real estate, in which she had begun investing in the 1920s. She married her third husband, Washington Redskins owner George Preston Marshall, in 1936, and remained married to him until 1958. She made her final film appearance with a minor role in Paradise Alley (1962), which marked her first screen appearance in 28 years. A biographical film about Griffith's life was released in 1963 titled Papa's Delicate Condition, based on her 1952 memoir and focusing on the relationship between her and her father. After suffering a stroke in July 1979, Griffith was hospitalized in Santa Monica, where she died shortly after of a heart attack. She left behind a reported estate of $150 million, making her one of the wealthiest women in the world at that time.[2]


1894–1932: Early life and Vitagraph films

Griffith was born Corinne Griffin on November 21, 1894[lower-alpha 1] in Waco, Texas,[lower-alpha 2] one of two daughters born to John Lewis "Jack" Griffin, a Methodist minister and train conductor of the Texas & Pacific railway,[12] and Amboline Ghio.[13] Griffith's maternal grandfather, Antonio Ghio, was an Italian immigrant who became a successful businessman in Texas,[14] and was a three-time mayor of Texarkana[15]; her maternal grandmother, Maria Anthes, also an immigrant, was a native of Darmstadt, Germany.[16] At the time of Griffith's birth, her mother Amboline was in her early twenties, while her father, John, was nearly forty.[17] Griffith's parents did not marry until 1887, three years after she was born, and the wedding was a celebrated event among local high-society.[15]

Griffith and her sister were raised Roman Catholic.[18] Her early years were spent in Waco[19] before the family moved to Texarkana, where Griffith lived until age ten; she subsequently relocated to New Orleans, Louisiana to attend the Sacred Heart Convent school.[20] Her father died in Mineral Wells, Texas, in March 1912.[12] After completing her primary education, Griffin enrolled at the University of Texas at Austin for the 1912–1913 semester year.[21][22] She also worked as a dancer before she began her acting career.[23]

Accounts of Griffith's entry into the film industry vary[24]: At some point after her father's death, Griffith left Texas and relocated with her mother and sister, Augusta, to southern California.[25] Some sources claim that she was urged by Vitagraph Studios director Rollin S. Sturgeon to pursue an acting career after winning a beauty contest in Santa Monica, in which Sturgeon was a judge.[26][27] In an alternate account, Griffith met Sturgeon at a high-society event in Crescent City, and he offered her a film contract on the spot.[28] In a 1919 newspaper article, by Griffith's own account, she claimed to have been approached by Sturgeon while still living in New Orleans; she claimed it was there that she had won a pageant during the Mardi Gras festival, which had attracted his attention.[29] According to Griffith, Sturgeon suggested she become an actress, and several months later, she traveled to California to meet with executives at Vitagraph.[29]

In 1916, she signed a $15-weekly contract with Vitagraph,[25] and took the stage name Corinne Griffith.[30] She made her screen debut in a short film titled La Paloma, opposite Earle Williams.[29] She appeared in a series of short films for the studio before becoming a leading lady.[25] On April 22, 1920, Griffith married her first husband, Webster Campbell, at a private ceremony in Oceanside, California.[31]

Griffith's performance in one of her later films for Vitagraph, The Broadway Bubble (1920), was described by a critic of the Austin American-Statesman as the "strongest and most fascinating role in her notable career" and lauded as her "crowning achievement."[32]

1923–1932: First National contract

In 1923, after three years of marriage, Griffith divorced Webster, whom she claimed was an abusive alcoholic.[33] The same year, Griffith left Vitagraph Studios, signing a more lucrative contract of $10,000 a week with First National,[25] where she became one of their most popular stars.[34] Her first film for the studio was Frank Lloyd's Black Oxen (1923), a drama in which she portrayed a mysterious Austrian countess. The film, in which Griffith co-starred with Conway Tearle and Clara Bow, became a hit.[35]

Griffith married producer Walter Morosco in February 1924.[31] The same year, she starred in and executive-produced three pictures: Single Wives, Love's Wilderness, and Lilies of the Field.[36] All three of the films were box-office hits.[37] By 1927, Griffith had begun investing her income from making films in real estate, and at that time owned approximately $500,000 worth of properties.[1]

In 1928, she had the starring role in The Garden of Eden for United Artists, which, though critically praised, was not a box-office hit.[38] Disappointed by the film's lackluster dividends, Griffith returned to First National to appear in Frank Lloyd's The Divine Lady (1929), a sound film featuring synchronized music but no audible dialogue.[38] Griffith earned critical accolades for her performance, including a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress.[38][39]

Griffith's first full sound film was Lilies of the Field, a remake of the 1924 silent film in which she had previously starred in the same role. Griffith's voice, which was regarded as nasal,[25] did not record well (The New York Times stated that she "talked through her nose"),[3] and the film was a box office flop.[40] The following year, she starred in the drama Back Pay (1930), based on a story by Fannie Hurst, which was promoted as being her final screen appearance.[38] After a two-year hiatus following Back Pay, Griffith starred in the British film Lily Christine (1932),[41] before leaving the public eye completely.[38]

1933–1964: Post-film career

After her retirement from film, Griffith divorced husband Morosco in 1934. Two years later, she married businessman and Washington Redskins owner George Preston Marshall. In December 1941, the couple adopted two daughters, Pamela and Cynthia.[42] In the early years of her marriage to Marshall, she composed the lyrics to the Redskins fight song "Hail to the Redskins" which became one of the most famous football anthems.[43]

In the 1940s, Griffith began investing in real estate in the Los Angeles area.[44] She funded the construction of four commercial buildings on all four corners of the intersection of Wilshire Boulevard and South Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills.[44] The construction of the buildings, each named after her, proved lucrative, and she turned down an offer of $2.5 million for them in 1950.[11] The same year, she spoke at the inaugural National Association of Real Estate Boards convention in Florida.[44] "I liked the vacant business lots I saw in Beverly Hills with the For Sale signs on them," she recalled. "They were so near the beautiful homes there in that section and I couldn’t help but feel that someday the business section would grow up to the great buying power of these wealthy estates."[44]

"I got my money without the help of any man. Women wise enough to earn their own money will get a broader understanding of life, a new respect from their husbands and a bank account which they can use without resorting to the old tricks that sicken every wife at heart."

–Griffith on women's financial autonomy[8]

In addition to her real estate ventures, beginning in the 1950s Griffith became a vocal supporter of repealing the 16th Amendment, which authorized income tax.[25] Over the ensuing decade, she gave approximately 500 speeches on the subject.[45] Commenting on her dedicaton to the topic, she stated: "We have no substitute of other taxes because we have no substitute for waste, graft and corruption. If the federal government will eliminate only part of its waste, just 40 billions of dollars a year of its waste...  I can prove to you in dollars and cents that the government does not need the income tax."[46] Griffith also spoke in support of women seeking their own financial autonomy.[8]

In addition to her real estate career, Griffith was also an accomplished writer who published eleven books including two best-sellers, My Life with the Redskins (1947), and the memoir Papa's Delicate Condition (1952), which chronicled her upbringing and family live in Texarkana.[26] Her third publication, 1955's Eggs I Have Known, was a recipe book.[4] In 1958, Griffith divorced Marshall. In 1960, she was honored for her contributions to the motion picture industry with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1560 Vine Street. She subsequently published her fourth book, Antiques I Have Known, a non-fiction book about Griffith's interest in antiques.[47] Griffith returned to the screen in 1962 in the low-budget melodrama Paradise Alley, which received scant release, and marked her final film role. Also in 1962, she published two books: Hollywood Stories, a selection of fictional short stories,[26] and Taxation Without Representation—or, Your Money Went That-a-Way, which entailed an argument against income taxation.[46] The following year, her memoir, Papa's Delicate Condition, was made into a biographical feature film of the same name starring Jackie Gleason.[48]

1965–1979: Claims about identity and final years

In February 1965, she married her fourth husband, Broadway actor Danny Scholl in Alexandria, Virginia.[49] Scholl was 44 years old, more than 25 years Griffith's junior.[49] The couple separated after two months of marriage.[49] Within the year, Griffith filed for a divorce after a judge denied her motion for an annulment, with her contesting that the marriage had not been consummated.[49] Pending trial, she was ordered to pay alimony of $200 per month to Scholl beginning in December 1964.[49]

During their divorce court proceedings in May 1966,[49] Griffith testified that she was actually not Corinne Griffith, instead claiming that she was the actress's younger (by twenty years) sister, who had taken her place upon the famous sister's death in 1924.[50] She also denied having married her former two husbands, Webster Campbell and Walter Morosco.[31] In court, Scholl's attorney proposed that Griffith had falsified her age in the couple's marriage documents, as well as failing to disclose her previous two marriages.[31] Upon being questioned about her true age, Griffith refused to comment, stating that her religion, Christian Science, prevented her from publicly disclosing it.[26] She also claimed not to have kept record of her age since she was 13 years old.[31] Contradictory testimony by actresses Betty Blythe and Claire Windsor, who had both known Griffith since the 1920s, did not shake her story, and she continued to claim that she was in fact Corinne's sister.[51][52]

In a subsequent interview, Griffith further complicated her story, claiming to be Corinne's twin named Mary, rather than her younger sister:

I am Mary Griffith. Her twin sister. Let me explain. She, Corinne, was starring in a film in Mexico in 1920. She was stricken by a mysterious local malady and died suddenly at age twenty-four. Mr. Adolph Zukor, head of Paramount, called me in person and told me I must save the day; a cancellation of the picture would be a disaster for the studio. He told me what had happened; I cried and cried. He said I must pull myself together: there was a million dollars in it if I would become my sister. I had never acted and didn't want to act. But I couldn't resist the money, and I felt Corinne would want me to help. So I went to Mexico and took over, and nobody knew the difference. From then on, I was Corinne Griffith.[53]

Additionally, in the same interview, she stated that Corinne had been buried in an unmarked grave in Mexico.[53]

Following the publicity surrounding her divorce and mistaken identity claims, Griffith spent the remainder of her years writing. In 1969, she published Not For Men Only – But Almost, a non-fiction book detailing the appeal of sports to men, and its lack of appeal for most women.[54] She published another collection of personal non-fiction stories, This You Won't Believe, in 1972.[26] Her final book, I'm Lucky at Cards (1974), was a book of essays penned by Griffith.[55]

Screen and public image

Griffith was lauded by numerous publications for her beauty. Valeria Beletti, a secretary of Samuel Goldwyn, described Griffith as "the most beautiful of all the silent stars, talented or otherwise," despite the fact that she personally found Griffith abrasive: "very haughty and disdainful. She looks at no one but her dogs, and is generally disliked by all."[26] According to biographer Anthony Slide, the common phrase "the camera loves her" was first coined for Griffith.[26]

In addition to her appearance, Griffith took efforts to maintain a decorous and healthful image, claiming to have never smoked or drank alcohol.[56] She also well avoided swearing, and refrained from wearing make-up when not appearing on film.[56] Columnist Adela Rogers St. Johns once referred to Griffith as "innocence personified."[56]


Griffith suffered a stroke in early July 1979, brought on by cerebral arteriosclerosis, and was hospitalized at Saint John's Hospital in Santa Monica, California.[57] She died there shortly after of a heart attack on July 13, aged 84.[26] Griffith's sister Augusta, from whom she had been estranged, had died only weeks earlier.[57] Griffith's remains were cremated by the Chapel of the Pines Crematory in Los Angeles, and buried at sea in the Pacific Ocean.[7] At the time of her death, Griffith's estate had amassed $150 million, largely consisting of the properties she owned.[1]


Denotes a lost or presumed lost film.
Year Title Role Notes Ref.
1916 La Paloma Stella Short film [58]
1916 Bitter Sweet Ruth Slatter - John's Wife Short film [59]
1916 When Hubby Forgot The Maid Short film [60]
1916 Sin's Penalty Lola Wilson Short film [61]
1916 Miss Adventure Gloria Short film [62]
1916 The Cost of High Living Jack's Sister Short film [63]
1916 The Rich Idler Marion- Mary's Friend Short film [4]
1916 Ashes The Nurse Short film [4]
1916 The Waters of Lethe Joyce Denton Short film [4]
1916 The Yellow Girl Corinne Short film [4]
1916 A Fool and His Friend Short film [4]
1916 Through the Wall Pussy Wimott [59]
1916 The Last Man Lorna [59]
1916 His Wife's Allowance Short film [64]
1917 The Mystery of Lake Lethe Short film [4]
1917 The Stolen Treaty Irene Mitchell [59]
1917 Transgression Marion Hayward [59]
1917 The Love Doctor Blanche Hildreth [59]
1917 I Will Repay Virginia Rodney [59]
1917 Who Goes There? Karen Girard [59]
1918 The Menace Virginia Denton [59]
1918 Love Watches Jacqueline Cartaret [59]
1918 The Clutch of Circumstance Ruth Lawson [59]
1918 The Girl of Today Leslie Selden [59]
1918 Miss Ambition Marta [59]
1919 The Adventure Shop Phyllis Blake [59]
1919 The Girl Problem Erminie Foster [59]
1919 The Unknown Quantity Mary Boyne [59]
1919 Thin Ice Alice Winton [59]
1919 A Girl at Bay Mary Allen [59]
1919 The Bramble Bush Kaly Dial [59]
1919 The Climbers Blanche Sterling [59]
1920 The Tower of Jewels Emily Cottrell [59]
1920 Human Collateral Patricia Langdon [59]
1920 Deadline at Eleven Helen Stevens [59]
1920 The Garter Girl Rosalie Ray [59]
1920 Babs Barbara Marvin; "Babs" [59]
1920 The Whisper Market Erminie North [59]
1920 The Broadway Bubble Adrienne Landreth/Drina Lynn [59]
1921 It Isn't Being Done This Season Marcia Ventnor [59]
1921 What's Your Reputation Worth? Cara Deene [59]
1921 Moral Fibre Marion Wolcott [59]
1921 The Single Track Janette Gildersleeve [59]
1922 Received Payment Celia Hughes [59]
1922 A Virgin's Sacrifice Althea Sherrill [59]
1922 Island Wives Elsa Melton [59]
1922 Divorce Coupons Linda Catherton [59]
1922 The Common Law Valerie West [59]
1923 Black Oxen Madame Zatianny/Mary Ogden [59]
1923 Six Days Laline Kingston [59]
1924 Single Wives Betty Jordan Executive producer [59]
1924 Love's Wilderness Linda Lou Heath Executive producer [59]
1924 Lilies of the Field Mildred Harker Executive producer [59]
1925 Déclassée Lady Helen Haden Producer [59]
1925 Classified Babs Comet Producer [59]
1925 Infatuation Violet Bancroft Executive producer [59]
1925 The Marriage Whirl Marian Hale Executive producer [59]
1926 Mademoiselle Modiste Fifi Executive producer [59]
1926 Into Her Kingdom Grand Duchess Tatiana (at 12 and 20) Executive producer [59]
1926 Syncopating Sue Susan Adams Executive producer [59]
1927 The Lady in Ermine Mariana Beltrami Executive producer [59]
1927 Three Hours Madeline Durkin Executive producer [59]
1928 The Garden of Eden Toni LeBrun [59]
1928 Outcast Miriam [59]
1929 Saturday's Children Bobby Halevy [59]
1929 Prisoners Riza Riga [59]
1929 The Divine Lady Lady Emma Hart Hamilton Nominated— Academy Award for Best Actress [59]
1930 Lilies of the Field Mildred Harker [59]
1930 Back Pay Hester Bevins [59]
1932 Lily Christine Lily Christine Summerset [59]
1962 Paradise Alley Mrs. Wilson Alternative title: Stars in the Backyard [59]


  • My Life with the Redskins (1947) – history of the Washington Redskins football team, owned by her husband, George Marshall
  • Papa's Delicate Condition (1952) – memoir of her childhood
  • Eggs I Have Known (1955) – collection of recipes
  • Antiques I Have Known (1961) – book about her interest in antiques
  • Taxation Without Representation—or, Your Money Went That-a-Way (1962) – Griffith's argument against taxes.
  • I Can't Boil Water (1963) – collection of recipes she obtained from famous restaurants
  • Hollywood Stories (1963) – collection of short fiction written by Griffith
  • Truth is Stranger (1964) – collection of true stories and anecdotes told by Griffith that struck her as stranger than any fiction
  • Not For Men Only – But Almost (1969) – a book on sports and its lack of appeal for most women
  • This You Won't Believe (1972) – another collection similar to "Truth is Stranger"
  • I'm Lucky at Cards (1974) – a book of various essays by Griffith


  1. Some sources state Griffith was born November 24,[4] though biographer Anthony Slide[5] as well as the National Museum of American History[6] among others[7] cite November 21 as her birthdate. Sources regarding her birth year erroneously vary from 1896[4] to 1906,[8] though the California Death Index corroborates November 21, 1894 as her birthday.[9] Additionally, U.S. census records from 1900 indicate that a then-six-year-old Corinne Griffin resided in a Waco boardinghouse with her father, J. L. Griffin, mother, A. Griffin, and sister, "Gussie" (Augusta).[10]
  2. Several sources claim Texarkana as Griffith's birthplace, but her obituary in The New York Times[8] states that she was born in Waco. This is supported by an article from The Washington Post that states Griffith herself asserted that she had been born in Waco, not Texarkana, though she was raised in the latter.[11]


  1. Haile 2019, p. 77.
  2. Slide 2010, p. 170.
  3. Porter 2005, p. 301.
  4. Slater, Tom. "Corinne Griffith". Women Film Pioneers Project. Columbia University. Archived from the original on October 10, 2019.
  5. Slide 2010, p. 168.
  6. "Corinne Griffith cinema card". National Museum of American History. Archived from the original on October 10, 2019.
  7. Wilson 2016, p. 300.
  8. Goodman, George, Jr. (July 22, 1979). "Corinne Griffith, Silent Movie Star". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018.
  9. California Death Index, 1940-1997 (November 26, 2014). Corinne Griffith, 13 Jul 1979; Department of Public Health Services, Sacramento. Retrieved October 11, 2019. (subscription required)
  10. "Corine Griffin in household of Joe Lehman, Waco city Ward 4, McLennan, Texas, United States", United States Census, 1900; Waco, Texas; roll T623, page 18A, line 7, enumeration district 78, Family History film 1,241,656. (subscription required) Archived copy.
  11. Joyce, Maureen (July 15, 1979). "Corinne Griffith, Film Star, Redskins Adviser, dies". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 11, 2019. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  12. "Death of Jack Griffin". The Marshall Messenge. Marshall, Texas. March 26, 1912. p. 7 via
  13. Pylant 2014, pp. 31–35.
  14. Pylant 2014, pp. 6–14.
  15. "Griffin-Ghio". Dallas Daily Herald. Dallas, Texas. July 8, 1887. p. 4 via
  16. Pylant 2014, pp. 13–16.
  17. Pylant 2014, p. 31.
  18. Pylant 2014, p. 160.
  19. Caulfield, Tom (March 7, 1952). "Papa Was a Man to Make Kids' Dreams Come True". The Waco News-Tribune. Waco, Texas. p. 35 via
  20. Haile 2019, p. 75.
  21. "Many Film Stars Are Texas 'Exes'". The Kerrville Times. Kerrville, Texas. November 24, 1938. p. 2 via
  22. Pylant 2014, p. 75.
  23. Who's Who in America. Marquis-Who's Who. 1954. p. 1427.
  24. Bodeen 1975, p. 514.
  25. Richter, Karl (October 4, 2019). "Silent film stardom just the start for Texas side's Griffith". Texarkana Gazette. Texarkana, Texas. Archived from the original on October 5, 2019.
  26. Slide 2010, p. 169.
  27. Sanchez 1930, p. 41.
  28. Bartee 2019, p. 75.
  29. Griffith, Corinne (February 28, 1919). "Corinne Griffith Thanks Mardi Gras". New York Daily News. New York City, New York. p. 7 via
  30. "A Talented Texas Girl". Corsicana Semi-Weekly Light. Corsicana, Texas. November 23, 1915. p. 2 via
  31. "Divorce Puzzler: Will Real Corinne Griffith Please Stand Up?". The Tampa Tribune. Tampa, Florida. United Press International. May 6, 1966. p. 9 via
  32. "Screen Favorites Booked This Week At Crescent Theater". Austin American-Statesman. Austin, Texas. December 26, 1920. p. 14 via
  33. Pylant 2014, pp. 115–116.
  34. Lowe 2004, p. 258.
  35. Woodward 1999, p. 96.
  36. Sanchez 1930, p. 411.
  37. Bodeen 1975, p. 518.
  38. Bodeen 1975, p. 520.
  39. "The 2nd Academy Awards (1930) Nominees and Winners". Academy Awards. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015.
  40. Barrios 1995, p. 317.
  41. "Lily Christine (1932)". British Film Institute. Archived from the original on November 11, 2017.
  42. "Corinne Griffith Assumes Mother Role, Adopting Two". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. December 20, 1941. p. 23 via
  43. Richman 2007, p. 15.
  44. National Association of Realtors Staff (November 2008). "Movie Star Corinne Griffith's "Romance in Real Estate"". National Association of Realtors. Archived from the original on May 8, 2017.
  45. "Film Star Leads War on Income Tax". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. November 17, 1960. p. 60 via
  46. Johnson, Erskine (May 13, 1963). "Corinne Griffith Would Eliminate Tax". The Jackson Sun. Jackson, Tennessee. p. 11 via
  47. Liebman 1996, p. 138.
  48. "State Line Shows Variety Of Hits During Week". Elizabethton Star. Elizabethton, Tennessee. September 8, 1963. p. 6 via
  49. "Hubby Loses Alimony Plea, Actress Wins Her Divorce". The Tampa Tribune. Tampa, Florida. United Press International. May 15, 1966. p. 10-A via
  50. Higham 2004, pp. 131–132.
  51. Pylant 2014, p. 207.
  52. Higham 2004, p. 14.
  53. Higham 2004, p. 132.
  54. "Sports Bookshelf". The News Journal. Wilmington, Delaware. December 18, 1969. p. 68 via
  55. Addis 1983, p. 194.
  56. Haile 2019, p. 76.
  57. Pylant 2004, p. 222.
  58. "La Paloma". The Moving Picture World. 27: 1530. March 4, 1916. OCLC 1717051.
  59. "Corinne Griffith filmography". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Archived from the original on October 10, 2019. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
  60. Pylant 2014, p. 113.
  61. "Sin's Penalty". The Moving Picture World. 28: 497. April 15, 1916. OCLC 1717051.
  62. "Miss Adventure". The Moving Picture World. 28: 1565. May 27, 1916. OCLC 1717051.
  63. "A Week of Vitagraphs". The Moving Picture World. 28: 1521. May 27, 1916. OCLC 1717051.
  64. "The Penn". The News-Journal. Wilmington, Delaware. December 25, 1916. p. 3 via


  • Addis, Patricia K. (1983). Through a Woman's I: An Annotated Bibliography of American Women's Autobiographical Writings, 1946-1976. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-810-81588-9.
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