Cook Partisan Voting Index

The Cook Partisan Voting Index, often abbreviated as CPVI or PVI, is a measurement of how strongly a United States congressional district or state leans toward the Democratic or Republican Party, compared to the nation as a whole. The index is updated after each election cycle. The Cook Political Report introduced the PVI in August 1997 to better gauge the competitiveness of each district using the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections as a baseline.[1] The index is based on analysis by the Center for Voting and Democracy (now FairVote) for its July 1997 Monopoly Politics report.[2]

Calculation and format

PVIs are calculated by comparing a congressional district's average Democratic or Republican Party share of the two-party presidential vote in the past two presidential elections to the national average share for those elections. For example, the national average for 2004 and 2008 was 51.2% Democratic to 48.8% Republican.[1] In Alaska's at-large congressional district, the Republican candidate won 63% and 61% of the two-party share in the 2004 and 2008 presidential elections, respectively. Comparing the average of these two district results (62%) against the average national share (48.8%), this district voted 13.2 percentage points more Republican than the country as a whole, or R+13.

Prior to its April 2009 update, the PVI formula compared district-level results for the past two presidential elections to nationwide results for only the most recent election. Since then, local elections are compared to synchronic national elections.[3]

The Cook PVI is displayed as a letter, a plus sign, and a number. The letter (either a D for Democratic or an R for Republican) reflects the major party toward which the district (or state) leans. The number reflects the strength of that partisan preference in rounded percentage points. A district or state without a partisan tilt is designated as "EVEN".


By congressional district

This table is sourced from the Cook Political Report's 2016 analysis for districts of the 116th United States Congress, calculated according to the results of the 2012 and the 2016 U.S. presidential elections.[4] The party representations are based on the winners of the 2018 U.S. House elections. In the House, there are 235 districts that lean Republican and 192 districts that lean Democratic. The number of swing seats, defined as those between D+5 and R+5, is 73.

The district-by-district list has been collapsed to save space. To show the full list, please click the word "show" in the table below.

District PVI Party of
Alabama 1 R+15 Republican
Alabama 2 R+16 Republican
Alabama 3 R+16 Republican
Alabama 4 R+30 Republican
Alabama 5 R+18 Republican
Alabama 6 R+26 Republican
Alabama 7 D+20 Democratic
Alaska at-large R+9 Republican
Arizona 1 R+2 Democratic
Arizona 2 R+1 Democratic
Arizona 3 D+13 Democratic
Arizona 4 R+21 Republican
Arizona 5 R+15 Republican
Arizona 6 R+9 Republican
Arizona 7 D+23 Democratic
Arizona 8 R+13 Republican
Arizona 9 D+4 Democratic
Arkansas 1 R+17 Republican
Arkansas 2 R+7 Republican
Arkansas 3 R+19 Republican
Arkansas 4 R+17 Republican
California 1 R+11 Republican
California 2 D+22 Democratic
California 3 D+5 Democratic
California 4 R+10 Republican
California 5 D+21 Democratic
California 6 D+21 Democratic
California 7 D+3 Democratic
California 8 R+9 Republican
California 9 D+8 Democratic
California 10 EVEN Democratic
California 11 D+21 Democratic
California 12 D+37 Democratic
California 13 D+40 Democratic
California 14 D+27 Democratic
California 15 D+20 Democratic
California 16 D+9 Democratic
California 17 D+25 Democratic
California 18 D+23 Democratic
California 19 D+24 Democratic
California 20 D+23 Democratic
California 21 D+5 Democratic
California 22 R+8 Republican
California 23 R+14 Republican
California 24 D+7 Democratic
California 25 EVEN Democratic
California 26 D+7 Democratic
California 27 D+16 Democratic
California 28 D+23 Democratic
California 29 D+29 Democratic
California 30 D+18 Democratic
California 31 D+8 Democratic
California 32 D+17 Democratic
California 33 D+16 Democratic
California 34 D+35 Democratic
California 35 D+19 Democratic
California 36 D+2 Democratic
California 37 D+37 Democratic
California 38 D+17 Democratic
California 39 EVEN Democratic
California 40 D+33 Democratic
California 41 D+12 Democratic
California 42 R+9 Republican
California 43 D+29 Democratic
California 44 D+35 Democratic
California 45 R+3 Democratic
California 46 D+15 Democratic
California 47 D+13 Democratic
California 48 R+4 Democratic
California 49 R+1 Democratic
California 50 R+11 Republican
California 51 D+22 Democratic
California 52 D+6 Democratic
California 53 D+14 Democratic
Colorado 1 D+21 Democratic
Colorado 2 D+9 Democratic
Colorado 3 R+6 Republican
Colorado 4 R+13 Republican
Colorado 5 R+14 Republican
Colorado 6 D+2 Democratic
Colorado 7 D+6 Democratic
Connecticut 1 D+12 Democratic
Connecticut 2 D+3 Democratic
Connecticut 3 D+9 Democratic
Connecticut 4 D+7 Democratic
Connecticut 5 D+2 Democratic
Delaware at-large D+6 Democratic
Florida 1 R+22 Republican
Florida 2 R+18 Republican
Florida 3 R+9 Republican
Florida 4 R+17 Republican
Florida 5 D+12 Democratic
Florida 6 R+7 Republican
Florida 7 EVEN Democratic
Florida 8 R+11 Republican
Florida 9 D+5 Democratic
Florida 10 D+11 Democratic
Florida 11 R+15 Republican
Florida 12 R+8 Republican
Florida 13 D+2 Democratic
Florida 14 D+7 Democratic
Florida 15 R+6 Republican
Florida 16 R+7 Republican
Florida 17 R+13 Republican
Florida 18 R+5 Republican
Florida 19 R+13 Republican
Florida 20 D+31 Democratic
Florida 21 D+9 Democratic
Florida 22 D+6 Democratic
Florida 23 D+11 Democratic
Florida 24 D+34 Democratic
Florida 25 R+4 Republican
Florida 26 D+6 Democratic
Florida 27 D+5 Democratic
Georgia 1 R+9 Republican
Georgia 2 D+6 Democratic
Georgia 3 R+18 Republican
Georgia 4 D+24 Democratic
Georgia 5 D+34 Democratic
Georgia 6 R+8 Democratic
Georgia 7 R+9 Republican
Georgia 8 R+15 Republican
Georgia 9 R+31 Republican
Georgia 10 R+15 Republican
Georgia 11 R+17 Republican
Georgia 12 R+9 Republican
Georgia 13 D+20 Democratic
Georgia 14 R+27 Republican
Hawaii 1 D+17 Democratic
Hawaii 2 D+19 Democratic
Idaho 1 R+21 Republican
Idaho 2 R+17 Republican
Illinois 1 D+27 Democratic
Illinois 2 D+29 Democratic
Illinois 3 D+6 Democratic
Illinois 4 D+33 Democratic
Illinois 5 D+20 Democratic
Illinois 6 R+2 Democratic
Illinois 7 D+38 Democratic
Illinois 8 D+8 Democratic
Illinois 9 D+18 Democratic
Illinois 10 D+10 Democratic
Illinois 11 D+9 Democratic
Illinois 12 R+5 Republican
Illinois 13 R+3 Republican
Illinois 14 R+5 Democratic
Illinois 15 R+21 Republican
Illinois 16 R+8 Republican
Illinois 17 D+3 Democratic
Illinois 18 R+15 Republican
Indiana 1 D+8 Democratic
Indiana 2 R+11 Republican
Indiana 3 R+18 Republican
Indiana 4 R+17 Republican
Indiana 5 R+9 Republican
Indiana 6 R+18 Republican
Indiana 7 D+11 Democratic
Indiana 8 R+15 Republican
Indiana 9 R+13 Republican
Iowa 1 D+1 Democratic
Iowa 2 D+1 Democratic
Iowa 3 R+1 Democratic
Iowa 4 R+11 Republican
Kansas 1 R+24 Republican
Kansas 2 R+10 Republican
Kansas 3 R+4 Democratic
Kansas 4 R+15 Republican
Kentucky 1 R+23 Republican
Kentucky 2 R+19 Republican
Kentucky 3 D+6 Democratic
Kentucky 4 R+18 Republican
Kentucky 5 R+31 Republican
Kentucky 6 R+9 Republican
Louisiana 1 R+24 Republican
Louisiana 2 D+25 Democratic
Louisiana 3 R+20 Republican
Louisiana 4 R+13 Republican
Louisiana 5 R+15 Republican
Louisiana 6 R+19 Republican
Maine 1 D+8 Democratic
Maine 2 R+2 Democratic
Maryland 1 R+14 Republican
Maryland 2 D+11 Democratic
Maryland 3 D+13 Democratic
Maryland 4 D+28 Democratic
Maryland 5 D+16 Democratic
Maryland 6 D+6 Democratic
Maryland 7 D+26 Democratic
Maryland 8 D+14 Democratic
Massachusetts 1 D+12 Democratic
Massachusetts 2 D+9 Democratic
Massachusetts 3 D+9 Democratic
Massachusetts 4 D+9 Democratic
Massachusetts 5 D+18 Democratic
Massachusetts 6 D+6 Democratic
Massachusetts 7 D+34 Democratic
Massachusetts 8 D+10 Democratic
Massachusetts 9 D+4 Democratic
Michigan 1 R+9 Republican
Michigan 2 R+9 Republican
Michigan 3 R+6 Independent
Michigan 4 R+10 Republican
Michigan 5 D+5 Democratic
Michigan 6 R+4 Republican
Michigan 7 R+7 Republican
Michigan 8 R+4 Democratic
Michigan 9 D+4 Democratic
Michigan 10 R+13 Republican
Michigan 11 R+4 Democratic
Michigan 12 D+14 Democratic
Michigan 13 D+33 Democratic
Michigan 14 D+30 Democratic
Minnesota 1 R+5 Republican
Minnesota 2 R+2 Democratic
Minnesota 3 D+1 Democratic
Minnesota 4 D+14 Democratic
Minnesota 5 D+26 Democratic
Minnesota 6 R+12 Republican
Minnesota 7 R+12 Democratic
Minnesota 8 R+4 Republican
Mississippi 1 R+16 Republican
Mississippi 2 D+14 Democratic
Mississippi 3 R+13 Republican
Mississippi 4 R+21 Republican
Missouri 1 D+29 Democratic
Missouri 2 R+8 Republican
Missouri 3 R+18 Republican
Missouri 4 R+17 Republican
Missouri 5 D+7 Democratic
Missouri 6 R+16 Republican
Missouri 7 R+23 Republican
Missouri 8 R+24 Republican
Montana at-large R+11 Republican
Nebraska 1 R+11 Republican
Nebraska 2 R+4 Republican
Nebraska 3 R+27 Republican
Nevada 1 D+15 Democratic
Nevada 2 R+7 Republican
Nevada 3 R+2 Democratic
Nevada 4 D+3 Democratic
New Hampshire 1 R+2 Democratic
New Hampshire 2 D+2 Democratic
New Jersey 1 D+13 Democratic
New Jersey 2 R+1 Democratic
New Jersey 3 R+2 Democratic
New Jersey 4 R+8 Republican
New Jersey 5 R+3 Democratic
New Jersey 6 D+9 Democratic
New Jersey 7 R+3 Democratic
New Jersey 8 D+27 Democratic
New Jersey 9 D+16 Democratic
New Jersey 10 D+36 Democratic
New Jersey 11 R+3 Democratic
New Jersey 12 D+16 Democratic
New Mexico 1 D+7 Democratic
New Mexico 2 R+6 Democratic
New Mexico 3 D+8 Democratic
New York 1 R+5 Republican
New York 2 R+3 Republican
New York 3 D+1 Democratic
New York 4 D+4 Democratic
New York 5 D+37 Democratic
New York 6 D+16 Democratic
New York 7 D+38 Democratic
New York 8 D+36 Democratic
New York 9 D+34 Democratic
New York 10 D+26 Democratic
New York 11 R+3 Democratic
New York 12 D+31 Democratic
New York 13 D+43 Democratic
New York 14 D+29 Democratic
New York 15 D+44 Democratic
New York 16 D+24 Democratic
New York 17 D+7 Democratic
New York 18 R+1 Democratic
New York 19 R+2 Democratic
New York 20 D+7 Democratic
New York 21 R+4 Republican
New York 22 R+6 Democratic
New York 23 R+6 Republican
New York 24 D+3 Republican
New York 25 D+8 Democratic
New York 26 D+11 Democratic
New York 27 R+11 Republican
North Carolina 1 D+17 Democratic
North Carolina 2 R+7 Republican
North Carolina 3 R+12 Republican
North Carolina 4 D+17 Democratic
North Carolina 5 R+10 Republican
North Carolina 6 R+9 Republican
North Carolina 7 R+9 Republican
North Carolina 8 R+8 Republican
North Carolina 9 R+8 Republican
North Carolina 10 R+12 Republican
North Carolina 11 R+14 Republican
North Carolina 12 D+18 Democratic
North Carolina 13 R+6 Republican
North Dakota at-large R+16 Republican
Ohio 1 R+5 Republican
Ohio 2 R+9 Republican
Ohio 3 D+19 Democratic
Ohio 4 R+14 Republican
Ohio 5 R+11 Republican
Ohio 6 R+16 Republican
Ohio 7 R+12 Republican
Ohio 8 R+17 Republican
Ohio 9 D+14 Democratic
Ohio 10 R+4 Republican
Ohio 11 D+32 Democratic
Ohio 12 R+7 Republican
Ohio 13 D+7 Democratic
Ohio 14 R+5 Republican
Ohio 15 R+7 Republican
Ohio 16 R+8 Republican
Oklahoma 1 R+17 Republican
Oklahoma 2 R+24 Republican
Oklahoma 3 R+27 Republican
Oklahoma 4 R+20 Republican
Oklahoma 5 R+10 Democratic
Oregon 1 D+9 Democratic
Oregon 2 R+11 Republican
Oregon 3 D+24 Democratic
Oregon 4 EVEN Democratic
Oregon 5 EVEN Democratic
Pennsylvania 1 R+1 Republican
Pennsylvania 2 D+25 Democratic
Pennsylvania 3 D+41 Democratic
Pennsylvania 4 D+7 Democratic
Pennsylvania 5 D+13 Democratic
Pennsylvania 6 D+2 Democratic
Pennsylvania 7 D+1 Democratic
Pennsylvania 8 R+1 Democratic
Pennsylvania 9 R+14 Republican
Pennsylvania 10 R+6 Republican
Pennsylvania 11 R+14 Republican
Pennsylvania 12 R+17 Republican
Pennsylvania 13 R+22 Republican
Pennsylvania 14 R+14 Republican
Pennsylvania 15 R+20 Republican
Pennsylvania 16 R+8 Republican
Pennsylvania 17 R+3 Democratic
Pennsylvania 18 D+13 Democratic
Rhode Island 1 D+14 Democratic
Rhode Island 2 D+6 Democratic
South Carolina 1 R+10 Democratic
South Carolina 2 R+12 Republican
South Carolina 3 R+19 Republican
South Carolina 4 R+15 Republican
South Carolina 5 R+9 Republican
South Carolina 6 D+19 Democratic
South Carolina 7 R+9 Republican
South Dakota at-large R+14 Republican
Tennessee 1 R+28 Republican
Tennessee 2 R+20 Republican
Tennessee 3 R+18 Republican
Tennessee 4 R+20 Republican
Tennessee 5 D+7 Democratic
Tennessee 6 R+24 Republican
Tennessee 7 R+20 Republican
Tennessee 8 R+19 Republican
Tennessee 9 D+28 Democratic
Texas 1 R+25 Republican
Texas 2 R+11 Republican
Texas 3 R+13 Republican
Texas 4 R+28 Republican
Texas 5 R+16 Republican
Texas 6 R+9 Republican
Texas 7 R+7 Democratic
Texas 8 R+28 Republican
Texas 9 D+29 Democratic
Texas 10 R+9 Republican
Texas 11 R+32 Republican
Texas 12 R+18 Republican
Texas 13 R+33 Republican
Texas 14 R+12 Republican
Texas 15 D+7 Democratic
Texas 16 D+17 Democratic
Texas 17 R+12 Republican
Texas 18 D+27 Democratic
Texas 19 R+27 Republican
Texas 20 D+10 Democratic
Texas 21 R+10 Republican
Texas 22 R+10 Republican
Texas 23 R+1 Republican
Texas 24 R+9 Republican
Texas 25 R+11 Republican
Texas 26 R+18 Republican
Texas 27 R+13 Republican
Texas 28 D+9 Democratic
Texas 29 D+19 Democratic
Texas 30 D+29 Democratic
Texas 31 R+10 Republican
Texas 32 R+5 Democratic
Texas 33 D+23 Democratic
Texas 34 D+10 Democratic
Texas 35 D+15 Democratic
Texas 36 R+26 Republican
Utah 1 R+26 Republican
Utah 2 R+16 Republican
Utah 3 R+25 Republican
Utah 4 R+13 Democratic
Vermont at-large D+15 Democratic
Virginia 1 R+8 Republican
Virginia 2 R+3 Democratic
Virginia 3 D+16 Democratic
Virginia 4 D+10 Democratic
Virginia 5 R+6 Republican
Virginia 6 R+13 Republican
Virginia 7 R+6 Democratic
Virginia 8 D+21 Democratic
Virginia 9 R+19 Republican
Virginia 10 D+1 Democratic
Virginia 11 D+15 Democratic
Washington 1 D+6 Democratic
Washington 2 D+10 Democratic
Washington 3 R+4 Republican
Washington 4 R+13 Republican
Washington 5 R+8 Republican
Washington 6 D+6 Democratic
Washington 7 D+33 Democratic
Washington 8 EVEN Democratic
Washington 9 D+21 Democratic
Washington 10 D+5 Democratic
West Virginia 1 R+19 Republican
West Virginia 2 R+17 Republican
West Virginia 3 R+23 Republican
Wisconsin 1 R+5 Republican
Wisconsin 2 D+18 Democratic
Wisconsin 3 EVEN Democratic
Wisconsin 4 D+25 Democratic
Wisconsin 5 R+13 Republican
Wisconsin 6 R+8 Republican
Wisconsin 7 R+8 Republican
Wisconsin 8 R+7 Republican
Wyoming at-large R+25 Republican

The District of Columbia's at-large congressional district is ranked on the Cook PVI, as it participates in presidential elections. It is represented by a non-voting delegate. Its rank is D+43. Territorial districts are not ranked on the Cook PVI, as they do not participate in presidential elections.

By state

The PVIs for states are calculated based on the 2012 and 2016 presidential election.[5]

State PVI Party of
in Senate
Alabama R+14 Republican Both 6R, 1D
Alaska R+9 Republican Republican 1R
Arizona R+5 Republican Both 5D, 4R
Arkansas R+15 Republican Republican 4R
California D+12 Democratic Democratic 46D, 7R
Colorado D+1 Democratic Both 4D, 3R
Connecticut D+6 Democratic Democratic 5D
Delaware D+6 Democratic Democratic 1D
Florida R+2 Republican Republican 14R, 13D
Georgia R+5 Republican Republican 9R, 5D
Hawaii D+18 Democratic Democratic 2D
Idaho R+19 Republican Republican 2R
Illinois D+7 Democratic Democratic 13D, 5R
Indiana R+9 Republican Republican 7R, 2D
Iowa R+3 Republican Republican 3D, 1R
Kansas R+13 Democratic Republican 3R, 1D
Kentucky R+15 Democratic Republican 5R, 1D
Louisiana R+11 Democratic Republican 5R, 1D
Maine D+3 Democratic Both* 2D
Maryland D+12 Republican Democratic 7D, 1R
Massachusetts D+12 Republican Democratic 9D
Michigan D+1 Democratic Democratic 7D, 6R, 1I
Minnesota D+1 Democratic Democratic 5D, 3R
Mississippi R+9 Republican Republican 3R, 1D
Missouri R+9 Republican Republican 6R, 2D
Montana R+11 Democratic Both 1R
Nebraska R+14 Republican Republican 3R
Nevada D+1 Democratic Democratic 3D, 1R
New Hampshire EVEN Republican Democratic 2D
New Jersey D+7 Democratic Democratic 11D, 1R
New Mexico D+3 Democratic Democratic 3D
New York D+12 Democratic Democratic 21D, 6R
North Carolina R+3 Democratic Republican 10R, 3D
North Dakota R+17 Republican Republican 1R
Ohio R+3 Republican Both 12R, 4D
Oklahoma R+20 Republican Republican 4R, 1D
Oregon D+5 Democratic Democratic 4D, 1R
Pennsylvania EVEN Democratic Both 9D, 9R
Rhode Island D+10 Democratic Democratic 2D
South Carolina R+8 Republican Republican 5R, 2D
South Dakota R+14 Republican Republican 1R
Tennessee R+14 Republican Republican 7R, 2D
Texas R+8 Republican Republican 23R, 13D
Utah R+20 Republican Republican 3R, 1D
Vermont D+15 Republican Democratic* 1D
Virginia D+1 Democratic Democratic 7D, 4R
Washington D+7 Democratic Democratic 7D, 3R
West Virginia R+19 Republican Both 3R
Wisconsin EVEN Democratic Both 5R, 3D
Wyoming R+25 Republican Republican 1R

*An independent senator caucuses with the Democrats.

The most Democratic congressional district in the country is New York's 15th, located in the Bronx, with a PVI of D+44. The most Republican district is Texas's 13th at R+33. As for states as a whole, Wyoming is the most Republican at R+25, and Hawaii is the most Democratic at D+18.

The most Democratic district relative to its state is Tennessee's 9th, being D+28 in an R+14 state (a 42-point difference). The most Republican relative to its state is Illinois's 15th, being R+21 in a D+7 state (a 28-point difference). Of the 428 Congressional districts that are in states with more than one district, 104 lean to one party while their state leans to the other.

As of January 2019, the most Democratic-leaning congressional district that is represented by a Republican is New York's 24th; with a PVI of D+3, the district is represented by John Katko, who is the only Republican to represent a Democratic-leaning House district. As of January 2019, the most Republican-leaning congressional district that is represented by a Democrat is Utah's 4th; with a PVI of R+13, the district is represented by Democrat Ben McAdams. Following the 2018 elections, there were 36 Republican-leaning House districts represented by Democrats.

In the Senate, the most Republican-leaning state to have a Democratic senator is West Virginia, represented by Joe Manchin. The least Democratic-leaning state to have two Democratic senators is New Hampshire, represented by Jeanne Shaheen and Maggie Hassan. The most Democratic-leaning state to have a Republican senator is Maine with Susan Collins. The least Republican-leaning state to have two Republican senators is Florida, represented by Marco Rubio and Rick Scott.

Four of the (index-based) Republican-leaning states have Democratic governors, while three Democratic-leaning states have Republican governors. The most Republican-leaning state with a Democratic governor is Kentucky, with Andy Beshear, and the most Democratic-leaning state to have a Republican governor is Vermont, with Phil Scott.

See also


  1. Wasserman, David (October 11, 2012). "House About PVI". The Cook Political Report. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  2. "Monopoly Politics". Center for Voting and Democracy. July 1997. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  3. Nir, David (February 6, 2009). "Swing State Project:: A Look at the Cook Political Report's Partisan Vote Index (PVI)". Archived from the original on February 24, 2009. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  4. "Partisan Voting Index Districts of the 115th Congress by The Cook Political Report (Arranged by State/District)" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 7, 2017.
  5. "2016 State PVI Changes". Decision Desk HQ. Archived from the original on June 13, 2018.
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