Convolvulaceae

Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a family of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs, and also including the sweet potato and a few other food tubers.

Bindweed family
Ipomoea imperati
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Convolvulaceae
Juss.
Type genus
Convolvulus
Genera

See text

Description

Convolvulaceae can be recognized by their funnel-shaped, radially symmetrical corolla; the floral formula for the family has five sepals, five fused petals, five epipetalous stamens (stamens fused to the petals), and a two-part syncarpous and superior gynoecium. The stems of these plants are usually winding, hence their Latin name (from convolvere, "to wind"). The leaves are simple and alternate, without stipules. In parasitic Cuscuta they are reduced to scales. The fruit can be a capsule, berry, or nut, all containing only two seeds per one locule (one ovule/ovary).

The leaves and starchy, tuberous roots of some species are used as foodstuffs (e.g. sweet potato and water spinach), and the seeds are exploited for their medicinal value as purgatives. Some species contain ergoline alkaloids that are likely responsible for the use of these species as ingredients in psychedelic drugs (e.g. ololiuhqui). The presence of ergolines in some species of this family is due to infection by fungi related to the ergot fungi of the genus Claviceps. A recent study of Convolvulaceae species, Ipomoea asarifolia, and its associated fungi showed the presence of a fungus, identified by DNA sequencing of 18s and ITS ribosomal DNA and phylogenetic analysis to be closely related to fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, was always associated with the presence of ergoline alkaloids in the plant. The identified fungus appears to be a seed-transmitted, obligate biotroph growing epiphytically on its host.[1] This finding strongly suggests the unique presence of ergoline alkaloids in some species of the family Convolvulaceae is due to symbiosis with clavicipitaceous fungi. Moreover, another group of compounds, loline alkaloids, commonly produced by some members of the clavicipitaceous fungi (genus Neotyphodium), has been identified in a convolvulaceous species, but the origin of the loline alkaloids in this species is unknown.[2]

Members of the family are well known as showy garden plants (e.g. morning glory) and as troublesome weeds (e.g. bindweed and dodder), while Humbertia madagascariensis is a medium-sized tree. Some parasitic members of this family are also used medicinally.[3]

Tribes

According to the study of D. F. Austin (see Reference) the family Convolvulaceae can be classified in the tribes Ericybeae, Cresseae, Convolvuleae, merremioids, Ipomoeae, Argyreiae, Poraneae, Dichondreae, and Cuscuteae (previously classified as a separate family Cuscutaceae).

Genera

Tribe Aniseieae
  • Aniseia Choisy
  • Iseia O'Donell
  • Odonellia K.R.Robertson
  • Tetralocularia O'Donell[4]
Tribe Cardiochlamyeae
  • Cardiochlamys Oliv.
  • Cordisepalum Verdc.
  • Dinetus Buch.-Ham. ex Sweet
  • Poranopsis Roberty
  • Tridynamia Gagnep.[5]
Tribe Convolvuleae
Tribe Cresseae
Tribe Cuscuteae
Tribe Dichondreae
  • Calycobolus Willd. ex Schult.
  • Dichondra J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
  • Falkia Thunb.
  • Metaporana N.E.Br.
  • Nephrophyllum A.Rich.
  • Porana Burm.f.
  • Rapona Baill.[9]
Tribe Erycibeae
Tribe Humbertieae
Tribe Ipomoeeae
Tribe Jacquemontieae
Tribe Maripeae
  • Dicranostyles Benth.
  • Lysiostyles Benth.
  • Maripa Aubl.[14]
Tribe Merremieae
  • Decalobanthus Ooststr.
  • Hewittia Wight & Arn.
  • Hyalocystis Hallier f.
  • Merremia Dennst. ex Endl. – Hawaiian woodrose
  • Operculina Silva Manso
  • Xenostegia D.F.Austin & Staples[15]
Incertae sedis
  • Pentacrostigma K.Afzel.

References

  1. Ulrike Steiner; Mahalia A. Ahimsa-Müller; Anne Markert; Sabine Kucht; Julia Groß; Nicole Kauf; Monika Kuzma; Monika Zych; Marc Lamshöft; Miroslawa Furmanowa; et al. (2006). "Molecular characterization of a seed transmitted clavicipitaceous fungus occurring on dicotyledoneous plants (Convolvulaceae)". Planta. 224 (3): 533–544. doi:10.1007/s00425-006-0241-0. PMID 16525783.
  2. Britta Tofern; Macki Kaloga; Ludger Witte; Thomas Hartmann; Eckart Eich (1999). "Occurrence of loline alkaloids in Argyreia mollis (Convolvulaceae)". Phytochemistry. 51 (8): 1177–1180. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00121-1.
  3. O'Neill, A.R.; Rana, S.K. (2019). "An ethnobotanical analysis of parasitic plants (Parijibi) in the Nepal Himalaya". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 12 (14). doi:10.1186/s13002-016-0086-y.
  4. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Aniseieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  5. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cardiochlamyeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  6. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Convolvuleae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  7. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cresseae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  8. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cuscuteae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  9. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Dichondreae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  10. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Erycibeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  11. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Humbertieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  12. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Ipomoeeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  13. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Jacquemontieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  14. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Maripeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  15. "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Merremieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-04-13.

Further reading

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