Contrasting and categorization of emotions

The contrasting and categorization of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Several proposals have been made for organizing them into groups.

Lists of emotions

Humans experience emotion, with evidence used that they influence action, thoughts and behavior. Emotions are categorized into various affects, which correspond to the current situation.[1] An affect is the range of feeling experienced.[2] Both positive and negative emotions are needed in our daily lives.[3]

Many theories of emotion have been proposed,[4] with contrasting views.[5]

Basic emotions

  • William James in 1890 proposed four basic emotions: fear, grief, love, and rage, based on bodily involvement.[6]
  • Paul Ekman identified six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise.[7] Wallace V. Friesen and Phoebe C. Ellsworth worked with him on the same basic structure.[8] The emotions can be linked to facial expressions. In the 1990s, Ekman proposed an expanded list of basic emotions, including a range of positive and negative emotions that are not all encoded in facial muscles.[9] The newly included emotions are: Amusement, Contempt, Contentment, Embarrassment, Excitement, Guilt, Pride in achievement, Relief, Satisfaction, Sensory pleasure, and Shame.[9]
  • Richard and Bernice Lazarus in 1996 expanded the list to 15 emotions: aesthetic experience, anger, anxiety, compassion, depression, envy, fright, gratitude, guilt, happiness, hope, jealousy, love, pride, relief, sadness, and shame, in the book Passion and Reason.[10][11]
  • Researchers at University of California, Berkeley identified 34 categories of emotion: admiration, adoration, aesthetic appreciation, amusement, anger, anxiety, awe, awkwardness, boredom, calmness, confusion, contempt, craving, disgust, empathic pain, entrancement, excitement, fear, horror, interest, joy, nostalgia, relief, romance, sadness, satisfaction, sexual desire and surprise.[12] This was based on 2185 short videos intended to elicit a certain emotion. These were then modeled onto a "map" of emotions.[13]

Contrasting basic emotions

A 2009 review[14] of theories of emotion identifies and contrasts fundamental emotions according to three key criteria for mental experiences that:

  1. have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain;
  2. are a response to some event or object that is either real or imagined;
  3. motivate particular kinds of behavior.

The combination of these attributes distinguishes emotions from sensations, feelings and moods.

Kind of emotionPositive emotionsNegative emotions
Related to object propertiesInterest, curiosity, enthusiasmIndifference, habituation, boredom
Attraction, desire, admirationAversion, disgust, revulsion
Surprise, amusementAlarm, panic
Future appraisalHope, excitementFear, anxiety, dread
Event-relatedGratitude, thankfulnessAnger, rage
Joy, elation, triumph, jubilationSorrow, grief
PatienceFrustration, restlessness
ContentmentDiscontentment, disappointment
Self-appraisalHumility, modestyPride, arrogance
SocialCharityAvarice, greed, miserliness, envy, jealousy
SympathyCruelty
CathectedLoveHate

HUMAINE's proposal for EARL

The emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions.[15]

Parrott's emotions by groups

A tree-structured list of emotions was described in Shaver et al. (1987),[16] and also featured in Parrott (2001).[17]

Primary emotion Secondary emotion Tertiary emotion
LoveAffectionAdoration · Fondness · Liking · Attraction · Caring · Tenderness · Compassion · Sentimentality
Lust/Sexual desireDesire · Passion · Infatuation
LongingLonging
JoyCheerfulnessAmusement · Bliss · Gaiety · Glee · Jolliness · Joviality · Joy · Delight · Enjoyment · Gladness · Happiness · Jubilation · Elation · Satisfaction · Ecstasy · Euphoria
ZestEnthusiasm · Zeal · Excitement · Thrill · Exhilaration
ContentmentPleasure
PrideTriumph
OptimismEagerness · Hope
EnthrallmentEnthrallment · Rapture
ReliefRelief
SurpriseSurpriseAmazement · Astonishment
AngerIrritabilityAggravation · Agitation · Annoyance · Grouchy · Grumpy · Crosspatch
ExasperationFrustration
RageAnger · Outrage · Fury · Wrath · Hostility · Ferocity · Bitterness · Hatred · Scorn · Spite · Vengefulness · Dislike · Resentment
DisgustRevulsion · Contempt · Loathing
EnvyJealousy
TormentTorment
SadnessSufferingAgony · Anguish · Hurt
SadnessDepression · Despair · Gloom · Glumness · Unhappiness · Grief · Sorrow · Woe · Misery · Melancholy
DisappointmentDismay · Displeasure
ShameGuilt · Regret · Remorse
NeglectAlienation · Defeatism · Dejection · Embarrassment · Homesickness · Humiliation · Insecurity · Insult · Isolation · Loneliness · Rejection
SympathyPity · Mono no aware · Sympathy
FearHorrorAlarm · Shock · Fear · Fright · Horror · Terror · Panic · Hysteria · Mortification
NervousnessAnxiety · Suspense · Uneasiness · Apprehension (fear) · Worry · Distress · Dread

Plutchik's wheel of emotions

  Anticipation
  Joy
  Trust
  Fear
  Surprise
  Sadness
  Disgust
  Anger
The primary, secondary and tertiary dyads.

In 1980, Robert Plutchik diagrammed a wheel of eight emotions: joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger and anticipation, inspired by his Ten Postulates.[18][19] Plutchik also theorized twenty-four "Primary", "Secondary", and "Tertiary" dyads (feelings composed of two emotions).[20][21][22][23][24][25][26] The wheel emotions can be paired in four groups:

Primary dyad = one petal apart = Love = Joy + Trust
Secondary dyad = two petals apart = Envy = Sadness + Anger
Tertiary dyad = three petals apart = Shame = Fear + Disgust
Opposite emotions = four petals apart = AnticipationSurprise

There are also triads, emotions formed from 3 primary emotions.[27] This leads to a combination of 24 dyads and 32 triads, making 56 emotions at 1 intensity level.[28] Emotions can be mild or intense;[29] for example, distraction is a mild form of surprise, and rage is an intense form of anger. The kinds of relation between each pair of emotions are:

Emotions and opposites
Mild emotion Mild opposite Basic emotion Basic opposite Intense emotion Intense opposite
SerenityPensiveness
Gloominess
Joy
Cheerfulness
Sadness
Dejection
Ecstasy
Elation
Grief
Sorrow
Acceptance
Tolerance
Boredom
Dislike
TrustDisgust
Aversion
Admiration
Adoration
Loathing
Revulsion
Apprehension
Dismay
Annoyance
Irritation
Fear
Fright
Anger
Hostility
Terror
Panic
Rage
Fury
Distraction
Uncertainty
Interest
Attentiveness
SurpriseAnticipation
Expectancy
Amazement
Astonishment
Vigilance
Dyads (Combinations)
Human feelings Emotions Opposite feelings Emotions
Optimism
Courage
Anticipation + JoyDisapproval
Disappointment
Surprise + Sadness
Hope
Fatalism
Anticipation + TrustUnbelief
Shock
Surprise + Disgust
Anxiety
Dread
Anticipation + FearOutrage
Hate
Surprise + Anger
Love
Friendliness
Joy + TrustRemorse
Misery
Sadness + Disgust
Guilt
Excitement
Joy + FearEnvy
Sullenness
Sadness + Anger
Delight
Doom
Joy + SurprisePessimismSadness + Anticipation
Submission
Modesty
Trust + FearContempt
Scorn
Disgust + Anger
CuriosityTrust + SurpriseCynicismDisgust + Anticipation
Sentimentality
Resignation
Trust + SadnessMorbidness
Derisiveness
Disgust + Joy
Awe
Alarm
Fear + SurpriseAggressiveness
Vengeance
Anger + Anticipation
DespairFear + SadnessPride
Victory
Anger + Joy
Shame
Prudishness
Fear + DisgustDominanceAnger + Trust
Opposite combinations[23]
Human feelings Emotions
Conflict
Bittersweetness
Joy + Sadness
Conflict
Ambivalence
Trust + Disgust
Conflict
Frozenness
Fear + Anger
Conflict
Confusion
Surprise + Anticipation

Similar emotions in the wheel are adjacent to each other.[30] Anger, Anticipation, Joy, and Trust are positive in valence, while Fear, Surprise, Sadness, and Disgust are negative in valence. Anger is classified as a "positive" emotion because it involves "moving toward" a goal[31], while surprise is negative because it is a violation of someone's territory.[32] The emotion dyads each have half-opposites and exact opposites:[33]

Anticipation, Joy, Surprise, Sadness
+ Sadness Joy
Anticipation PessimismOptimism
Surprise DisapprovalDelight
Joy, Trust, Sadness, Disgust
+ Disgust Trust
Joy MorbidnessLove
Sadness RemorseSentimentality
Trust, Fear, Disgust, Anger
+ Fear Anger
Trust SubmissionDominance
Disgust ShameContempt
Fear, Surprise, Anger, Anticipation
+ Surprise Anticipation
Anger OutrageAggressiveness
Fear AweAnxiety
Trust, Surprise, Disgust, Anticipation
+ Surprise Anticipation
Trust CuriosityHope
Disgust UnbeliefCynicism
Joy, Fear, Sadness, Anger
+ Fear Anger
Joy GuiltPride
Sadness DespairEnvy

Six emotion axes

Some people list six emotion axes with different opposite emotions, and different emotions coming from ranges.[34]

Emotional flow
Axis -1.0 -0.5 0 0 +0.5 +1.0
AnxietyConfidence AnxietyWorryDiscomfortComfortHopefulConfident
BoredomFascination EnnuiBoredomIndifferenceInterestCuriosityIntrigue
FrustrationEuphoria FrustrationPuzzlementConfusionInsightEnlightenmentEpiphany
DispiritedEncouraged DispiritedDisappointedDissatisfiedSatisfiedThrilledEnthusiastic
TerrorEnchantment TerrorDreadApprehensionCalmAnticipatoryExcited
HumiliationPride HumiliatedEmbarrassedSelf-consciousPleasedSatisfiedProud

They also made a model labeling phases of learning emotions.[34]

Negative Affect Positive Affect
Constructive Learning Disappointment
Puzzlement
Confusion
Awe
Satisfaction
Curiosity
Un-learning Frustration
Discard
Misconceptions
Hopefulness
Fresh research

The Hourglass of Emotions

The 2012 book The Hourglass of Emotions was based on Robert Plutchik's model, but categorised the emotions into four sentic dimensions. It contrasted anger, anticipation, joy, and trust as positive emotions, and fear, surprise, sadness and disgust as negative.[35][36]

Emotional flow
Dimension +3 +2 +1 -1 -2 -3
Sensitivity RageAngerAnnoyanceApprehensionFearTerror
Attention VigilanceAnticipationInterestDistractionSurpriseAmazement
Pleasantness EcstasyJoySerenityPensivenessSadnessGrief
Aptitude AdmirationTrustAcceptanceBoredomDisgustLoathing
Advanced emotions
Dimensions High Sensitivity Low Sensitivity High Pleasantness Low Pleasantness
High Attention AggressivenessAnxietyOptimismFrustration
Low Attention RejectionAweFrivolityDisapproval
High Aptitude RivalrySubmissionLoveEnvy
Low Aptitude ContemptCoercionGloatRemorse

The Book of Human Emotions

Tiffany Watt Smith listed 154 different worldwide emotions and feelings.[37]

Mapping facial expressions

Scientists map twenty-one different facial emotions[39][40] expanded from Paul Ekman's six basic emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise:

HappySadFearfulAngrySurprised Disgusted
Happily
Surprised
Happily
Disgusted
Sadly
Fearful
Sadly
Angry
Sadly
Surprised
Sadly
Disgusted
AppalledFearfully
Angry
Fearfully
Surprised
Fearfully
Disgusted
Awed Angrily
Surprised
Angrily
Disgusted
Hatred Disgustedly
Surprised

Emotional equations

A book written by Chip Conley showed how emotions and feelings are organised using mathematical terms.[41]

Despair = Suffering - Meaning
Disappointment = Expectations - Reality
Regret = Disappointment + Responsibility
Jealousy =
Envy =
Anxiety = Uncertainty x Powerlessness
Calling =
Workaholism =
Flow =
Curiosity = Wonder + Awe
Authenticity = Self-Awareness x Courage
Narcissism = (Self-Esteem)2 x Entitlement
Integrity = Authenticity x Invisibility x Reliability
Happiness = Love - Fear
Thriving =
Faith =
Wisdom = Experience

Atlas of Emotions

The Dalai Lama made a website based on the emotions of enjoyment, disgust, anger, fear and sadness with the help of Paul Ekman.[42][43] The emotions were similar to the ones found in Inside Out, a film that Paul Ekman advised.[44]

Emotion and Stress

Emotions and stress are connected, so stressful situations produce emotion. Environments that make stress also make emotions.[45]

See also

References

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