Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel
The Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel (French: [kɔ̃sɛj sypeʁjœʁ də lɔdjɔvizɥɛl], Superior Council of the Audiovisual), abbreviated CSA, is a French institution created in 1989 whose role is to regulate the various electronic media in France, such as radio and television. The creation of the Haute Autorité de la Communication Audiovisuelle was a measure found in the Socialist Party's electoral program of 1981, called 110 Propositions for France.
The CSA replaced the Commission Nationale de la Communication et des Libertés (CNCL), which itself replaced the Haute Autorité de la Communication Audiovisuelle, created in 1982 to supervise the attribution of radio frequencies to the private radio sector, which was judged better than allowing the anarchic creation of the radios libres ("free radios"), mainly composed of amateurs and NGOs.
The CSA always acts after content has been shown on a TV channel or heard on a radio, so it is not a censorship instance. Notably, the CSA asked the Government of France to forbid Al-Manar TV in 2005 because of charges of hate speech; it also claimed that MED TV was close to the Kurdish PKK, on grounds not of "evidences" but of "concording elements".
The following pictograms are proposed to the different TV channels. Channels are responsible for displaying the right pictogram depending on the show and its time of broadcast. Note that –18 can be either non-pornographic (like the movie Ken Park) or pornographic.
- Les Kurdes privés de leur télé, L'Humanité, 23 February 2004 (in French)
- Medya TV CEO Denies Links with PKK Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine, Clandestine Radio, 25 February 2004 (in English)
- Composition du CSA, Official website of the CSA, February 2019 (in French)
- "Roch-Olivier Maistre président du CSA : le parlement confirme", France Info, 30 January 2019 (in French)