Conrad Veidt

Hans Walter Conrad Veidt (/ft/; 22 January 1893 – 3 April 1943) was a German actor best remembered for his roles in films such as Different from the Others (1919), The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), and The Man Who Laughs (1928). After a successful career in German silent films, where he was one of the best-paid stars of UFA, he and his new Jewish wife Ilona Prager were forced to leave Germany in 1933 after the Nazis came to power. They settled in Britain, where he participated in a number of films, including The Thief of Bagdad (1940), before emigrating to the United States around 1941, which led to him having the role of Major Strasser in Casablanca (1942).

Conrad Veidt
Conrad Veidt in 1941
Born
Hans Walter Conrad Veidt

(1893-01-22)22 January 1893
Died3 April 1943(1943-04-03) (aged 50)
OccupationActor
Years active1917–1943
Spouse(s)
Gussy Holl
(m. 1918; div. 1922)

Felicitas Radke
(m. 1923; div. 1932)

Ilona Prager (m. 1933)
Children1

Early life

Veidt was born in a bourgeois district of Berlin, in what was then the German Empire, to Amalie Marie (née Gohtz) and Phillip Heinrich Veidt.[1] (Some biographies wrongly state that he was born in Potsdam, probably on the basis of an early claim on his part.) His family was Lutheran.[1]

In 1914, Veidt met actress Lucie Mannheim, with whom he began a relationship. Later in the year Veidt was conscripted into the German Army during World War I. In 1915, he was sent to the Eastern Front as a non-commissioned officer and took part in the Battle of Warsaw. He contracted jaundice and pneumonia, and had to be evacuated to a hospital on the Baltic Sea. While recuperating, he received a letter from Mannheim telling him that she had found work at a theatre in Libau. Intrigued, Veidt applied for the theatre as well. As his condition had not improved, the army allowed him to join the theatre so that he could entertain the troops. While performing at the theatre, he ended his relationship with Mannheim. In late 1916, he was re-examined by the Army and deemed unfit for service; he was given a full discharge in January 1917. Veidt returned to Berlin to pursue his acting career.[2][3][4]

Career

From 1916 until his death, Veidt appeared in more than 100 films. One of his earliest performances was as the murderous somnambulist Cesare in director Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), a classic of German Expressionist cinema, with Werner Krauss and Lil Dagover. His starring role in The Man Who Laughs (1928), as a disfigured circus performer whose face is cut into a permanent grin, provided the (visual) inspiration for the Batman villain the Joker, created in 1940 by Bill Finger. Veidt also starred in other silent horror films such as The Hands of Orlac (1924), another film directed by Robert Wiene, The Student of Prague (1926) and Waxworks (1924), in which he played Ivan the Terrible.

Veidt also appeared in Magnus Hirschfeld's film Anders als die Andern (Different from the Others, 1919), one of the earliest films to sympathetically portray homosexuality, although the characters in it do not end up happily.[5] He had a leading role in Germany's first talking picture, Das Land ohne Frauen (Land Without Women, 1929).

He moved to Hollywood in the late 1920s and made a few films, but the advent of talking pictures and his difficulty with speaking English led him to return to Germany.[6] During this period, he lent his expertise to tutoring aspiring performers, one of whom was the later American character actress Lisa Golm.

Emigration

Veidt fervently opposed the Nazi regime and donated a major portion of his personal fortune to Britain to assist in the war effort. Soon after the Nazi Party took power in Germany, by March 1933, Joseph Goebbels was purging the film industry of anti-Nazi sympathizers and Jews, and so in 1933, a week after Veidt's marriage to Ilona Prager, a Jewish woman, the couple emigrated to Britain before any action could be taken against either of them.

Goebbels had imposed a "racial questionnaire" in which everyone employed in the German film industry had to declare their "race" to continue to work. When Veidt was filling in the questionnaire, he answered the question about what his Rasse (race) was by writing that he was a Jude (Jew).[7] Veidt was not Jewish, but his wife was Jewish, and Veidt would not renounce the woman he loved.[7] Additionally, Veidt, who was opposed to anti-Semitism, wanted to show solidarity with the German Jewish community, who were rapidly being stripped of their rights as German citizens in the spring of 1933. As one of Germany's most popular actors, Veidt had already been informed that if he was prepared to divorce his wife and declare his support for the new regime, he could continue to act in Germany. Several other leading actors who had been opposed to the Nazis before 1933 switched allegiances. In answering the questionnaire by stating he was a Jew, Veidt rendered himself unemployable in Germany, but stated this sacrifice was worth it as there was nothing in the world that would compel him to break with his wife.[7] Upon hearing about what Veidt had done, Goebbels remarked that he would never act in Germany again.

After arriving in Britain, he perfected his English and starred in the title role of the original anti-Nazi version of Lion Feuchtwanger's novel, Jew Süss (1934) directed by German-born US director Lothar Mendes and produced by Michael Balcon for Gaumont-British. He became a British citizen by 1938. By this point multi-lingual, Veidt made films in both French with expatriate French directors and in English, including three of his best-known roles for British director Michael Powell in The Spy in Black (1939), Contraband (1940) and The Thief of Bagdad (1940).

Later career in the US

By 1941, he and Ilona had moved to Hollywood to assist in the British effort in making American films that might persuade the then-neutral and still isolationist US to join the war against the Nazis, who had conquered all of continental Europe and were bombing the United Kingdom at the time. Before leaving the United Kingdom, Veidt gave his life savings to the British government to help finance the war effort.[5] Realizing that Hollywood would most likely typecast him in Nazi roles, he had his contract mandate that they must always be villains.[5]

He starred in a few films, such as George Cukor's A Woman's Face (1941) where he received billing just under Joan Crawford's and Nazi Agent (1942), in which he had a dual role as both an aristocratic German Nazi spy and as the man's twin brother, an anti-Nazi American. His best-known Hollywood role was as the sinister Major Heinrich Strasser in Casablanca (1942), a film which was written and began pre-production before the United States entered World War II.

Personal life

Conrad Veidt married three times: he first married Augusta Holl, a cabaret entertainer known as "Gussy", on 18 June 1918. They divorced four years later. Gussy later married German actor Emil Jannings. Veidt's second wife Felicitas Radke was from an aristocratic German family; they married in 1923. Their daughter, Vera Viola Maria, called Viola, was born on 10 August 1925. He last married Ilona Prager, a Hungarian Jew called Lily, in 1933; they were together until his death.

Death

Conrad Veidt died on 3 April 1943 of a massive heart attack while playing golf at the Riviera Country Club in Los Angeles with singer Arthur Fields and his personal physician, Dr. Bergman, who pronounced him dead on the scene.[5][8] Veidt was 50 years old. In 1998, his ashes were placed in a niche of the columbarium at the Golders Green Crematorium in north London.[9][10]

Complete filmography

YearTitleRoleNotes
1917The Path of DeathRolf
1917When the Dead SpeakRichard von Worth
1917FearIndian Priest
1917The Sea Battle
1917The Spy
1918The Mystery of BangaloreDinja
1918The Serenyi
1918The Mexican
1918Diary of a Lost WomanDr. Julius
1918Jettchen Gebert's StoryDoktor Friedrich Köstling
1918ColombaHenrik van Rhyn
1918Let There Be LightHerr Kramer
1918The Story of Dida IbsenErik Norrensen
1918Henriette JacobyDoktor Friedrich Köstling
1918Not of the Woman BornSatan
1919The Japanese WomanThe Secretary
1919Victim of SocietyProsecutor Chrysander
1919ProstitutionAlfred Werner
1919Around the World in Eighty DaysPhineas Fogg
1919Peer Gynt (2 parts)Ein fremder Passagier
1919Different from the OthersPaul Körner
1919The OcarinaJaap
1919Prince CuckooKarl Kraker
1919MadnessBankier Lorenzen
1919Unheimliche GeschichtenDer Tod (framing story) / The stranger (ep.1) / The assassin (ep.2) / Traveller (ep.3) / Club president (ep.4) / Husband (ep.5)
1919Nocturne of LoveFrederic Chopin
1919OpiumDr. Richard Armstrong Jr.
1920The Count of CagliostroThe Minister
1920Figures of the NightClown
1920SatanLucifer / Hermit / Gubetta / Grodski
1920The Cabinet of Dr. CaligariCesare
1920The Merry-Go-RoundPetre Karvan
1920PatienceSir Percy Parker
1920The Night at GoldenhallLord Reginald Golden / Harald Golden
1920The Eyes of the WorldJulianne's Lover, Johannes Kay
1920KurfürstendammTeufel
1920The Head of JanusDr. Warren / Mr. O'Connor
1920Moriturus
1920The Clan
1920Evening – Night – MorningBrilburn - Maud's brother
1920Manolescu's MemoirsManolescu
1920Christian WahnschaffeChristian Wahnschaffe
1920Temperamental ArtistArpad Czaslo
1921People in EcstasyProfessor Munk, Komponist
1921The Secret of BombayDichter Tossi
1921Journey into the NightDer Maler
1921DesireIvan - a young Russian dancer
1921Love and PassionJalenko, the Gypsy
1921The Love Affairs of Hector DalmoreHektor Dalmore
1921Country Roads and the Big CityRaphael, der Geiger
1921Danton
1921Lady HamiltonLord Nelson
1921The Indian Tomb (2 parts)Ayan III / Fürst von Eschnapur / The Majarajah of Bengal
1921The Passion of Inge KrafftHendryck Overland
1922Lucrezia BorgiaCesare Borgia
1923PaganiniNiccolò Paganini
1923William TellHermann Gessler
1923Gold and LuckThe Count
1924Carlos and ElisabethDon Carlos
1924The Hands of OrlacPaul Orlac
1924WaxworksIvan the Terrible
1924Husbands or LoversDer Liebhaber, ein Dichter
1925Count KostiaComte Kostia
1925DestinyGraf L. M. Vranna
1925Ingmar's InheritanceHellgum
1926The Fiddler of FlorenceRenées Vater
1926The Brothers SchellenbergWenzel Schellenberg / Michael Schellenberg
1926Love is BlindDr. Lamare
1926Should We Be Silent?Paul Hartwig, Maler
1926The Woman's CrusadeDer Staatsanwalt
1926The Student of PragueBalduin, ein Student
1926The Flight in the NightHeinrich IV
1927The Beloved RogueKing Louis XI
1927A Man's PastPaul La Roche
1928The Man Who LaughsGwynplaine / Lord Clancharlie
1929Land Without WomenDick Ashton, telegrapher
1929The Last PerformanceErik the Great
1930The Last CompanyHauptmann Burk
1930Menschen im Käfig (People in the Cage)Kingsley
1930The Great LongingHimself
1931The Man Who MurderedMarquis de Sévigné
1931The Night of DecisionGeneral Gregori Platoff
1931The Congress DancesPrince Metternich
1931The Other SideHauptmann Stanhope
1932Rasputin, Demon with WomenGrigori Rasputin
1932Congress DancesPrince Metternich
1932The Black HussarRittmeister Hansgeorg von Hochberg
1932Rome ExpressZurta
1933The Empress and IMarquis de Pontignac
1933F.P.1Maj. Ellissen
1933I Was a SpyCommandant Oberaertz
1933The Wandering JewMatathias
1934William TellGessler (both German- and English-language versions)
1934Jew SussJosef Süss Oppenheimer
1934Bella DonnaMahmoud Baroudi
1935The Passing of the Third Floor BackThe Stranger
1935King of the DamnedConvict 83
1937Dark JourneyBaron Karl Von Marwitz
1937Under the Red RobeGil de Berault
1938Storm Over AsiaErich Keith
1938The Chess PlayerLe baron de Kempelen
1939The Spy in BlackCaptain Hardt
1940ContrabandCapt. Andersen
1940The Thief of BagdadJaffar
1940EscapeGeneral Kurt von Kolb
1941A Woman's FaceTorsten Barring
1941Whistling in the DarkJoseph Jones
1941The Men in Her LifeStanislas Rosing
1942All Through the NightEbbing
1942Nazi AgentOtto Becker / Baron Hugo Von Detner
1942CasablancaMajor Heinrich Strasser
1943Above SuspicionHassert SeidelReleased Posthumously

References

  1. Allen, Jarry. Conrad Veidt: from Caligari to Casablanca. boxwood. p. 5. ISBN 978-0940168046.
  2. "Conrad Veidt: The Cinema's Master". The Conrad Veidt Society.
  3. "Conrad Veidt". A History of Horror. Archived from the original on 9 March 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  4. "Conrad Veidt: Cinema's Dark Prince, 1893–1943". Monster Zine. October–December 2000. Archived from the original on 7 February 2005.
  5. "Meet Conrad Veidt, Badass". Badass Digest. 9 July 2013.
  6. Turner Classic Movies Conrad Veidt
  7. Hull, David Stewart Film in the Third Reich, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1973 page 90.
  8. "Conrad Veidt Obituary," Los Angeles Times, 1943
  9. "Newspaper reports of reinterrment". Conrad Veidt Society. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  10. Conrad Veidt on Screen
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