# Complete bipartite graph

In the mathematical field of graph theory, a complete bipartite graph or biclique is a special kind of bipartite graph where every vertex of the first set is connected to every vertex of the second set.

Complete bipartite graph
A complete bipartite graph with m = 5 and n = 3
Verticesn + m
Edgesmn
Radius$\left\{{\begin{array}{ll}1&m=1\vee n=1\\2&{\text{otherwise}}\end{array}}\right.$ Diameter$\left\{{\begin{array}{ll}1&m=n=1\\2&{\text{otherwise}}\end{array}}\right.$ Girth$\left\{{\begin{array}{ll}\infty &m=1\vee n=1\\4&{\text{otherwise}}\end{array}}\right.$ Automorphisms$\left\{{\begin{array}{ll}2m!n!&n=m\\m!n!&{\text{otherwise}}\end{array}}\right.$ Chromatic number2
Chromatic indexmax{m, n}
Spectrum$\{0^{n+m-2},(\pm {\sqrt {nm}})^{1}\}$ Notation$K_{m,n}$ Table of graphs and parameters

Graph theory itself is typically dated as beginning with Leonhard Euler's 1736 work on the Seven Bridges of Königsberg. However, drawings of complete bipartite graphs were already printed as early as 1669, in connection with an edition of the works of Ramon Llull edited by Athanasius Kircher. Llull himself had made similar drawings of complete graphs three centuries earlier.

## Definition

A complete bipartite graph is a graph whose vertices can be partitioned into two subsets V1 and V2 such that no edge has both endpoints in the same subset, and every possible edge that could connect vertices in different subsets is part of the graph. That is, it is a bipartite graph (V1, V2, E) such that for every two vertices v1V1 and v2V2, v1v2 is an edge in E. A complete bipartite graph with partitions of size |V1|=m and |V2|=n, is denoted Km,n; every two graphs with the same notation are isomorphic.

## Examples

• For any k, K1,k is called a star. All complete bipartite graphs which are trees are stars.
• The graph K1,3 is called a claw, and is used to define the claw-free graphs.
• The graph K3,3 is called the utility graph. This usage comes from a standard mathematical puzzle in which three utilities must each be connected to three buildings; it is impossible to solve without crossings due to the nonplanarity of K3,3.
• The maximal bicliques found as subgraphs of the digraph of a relation are called concepts. When a lattice is formed by taking meets and joins of these subgraphs, the relation has an Induced concept lattice. This type of analysis of relations is called formal concept analysis.

## Properties

Example Kp,p complete bipartite graphs
K3,3 K4,4 K5,5

3 edge-colorings

4 edge-colorings

5 edge-colorings
Regular complex polygons of the form 2{4}p have complete bipartite graphs with 2p vertices (red and blue) and p2 2-edges. They also can also be drawn as p edge-colorings.