College rugby, more specifically rugby union, is played throughout universities in the United States of America. College rugby is governed by USA Rugby, and does not fall under the auspices of the NCAA with the exception of 21 NCAA women's programs. Women's Rugby has been classified as an NCAA Emerging Sport since 2002.
There are over 900 college teams—male and female—registered with USA Rugby. There are over 32,000 college players registered with USA Rugby, making college rugby the largest section of USA Rugby's membership.
Rugby has been played in universities since as early as the 1800s, but it was the 1960s when rugby really found a foothold in colleges, led by the Catholic colleges such as Notre Dame and particularly the Jesuit universities such as Boston College and St. Joseph's in Philadelphia.
Today, college rugby continues to grow in popularity, and rugby is one of the fastest growing club sports across college campuses. The 32,000 registered college players in 2010 marked a 14% increase from 28,000 college players in 2008. Over 180 college rugby clubs started between 2010 and 2014. The National Small College Rugby Organization grew from 85 teams in 2007 to 151 teams in 2011 and to over 200 men's teams for 2012. Several schools have increased their investments in men's and women's rugby programs, by creating rugby programs with varsity or quasi-varsity status and funding for scholarships, and Notre Dame and Texas have upgraded their rugby programs from "club" status to "Olympic" status.
There has been increased interest in college rugby (particularly in rugby sevens) from TV since the International Olympic Committee's announcement in 2009 that rugby would return to the Summer Olympics in 2016. The highest profile college rugby sevens competition is the Collegiate Rugby Championship (CRC), which began in 2010. The CRC, which is played every June at PPL Park in Philadelphia, is televised live by NBC Sports and regularly draws attendances of 18,000. In 2015, the CRC set a new attendance record with over 24,000 spectators. Several top schools started a competition in 2013 called the Varsity Cup, with the 2014 Varsity Cup final broadcast live on NBC Sports.
College club rugby includes a national championship competition (since 1980). California has won the majority of titles, with Air Force and BYU also winning multiple championships. In 2011 a new Division 1-A was created with approximately 30 schools forming the new division.
In the United States, college rugby is governed by (in descending order of authority): USA Rugby, geographical unions (GUs) and local area unions (LAUs) (e.g., NERFU). USA Rugby has established a College Management Committee and a collegiate director, Rich Cortez, to oversee college rugby. The NCAA has no authority over college rugby. Often called a club sport, each college team is administered by either the athletic department or the student club department.
In 2011, USA Rugby continued to urge college rugby programs to adopt new conference structures similar to the conferences used by their other athletic programs. The highest profile example was the formation of the Ivy Rugby Conference in 2009. This move signals a shift away from the LAUs and TUs as the governing bodies for regional college rugby.
Play and participation
Winter and spring are the primary seasons for conferences in the pacific, northwest and south regions (e.g., PAC, Southeastern); the fall is the primary season for conferences in the northeast, mid-atlantic and upper midwest regions (e.g., Big Ten, Atlantic Coast). Conferences establish playing schedules in the primary season, while in the secondary season the teams often set up friendly matches or focus on playing rugby sevens.
USA Rugby maintains player eligibility guidelines, administered by the local area unions. College players generally have five years of rugby eligibility from the time they graduate high school. On-field disciplinary issues are generally handled by the local area unions, while off-field disciplinary issues are governed by the academic institution and the local area union. USA Rugby's CIPP insurance program provides liability insurance to players, teams, administrators and pitch hosts in exchange for an annual dues payment. Roughly one quarter of college rugby programs offer financial aid to their players.
Outstanding college rugby players are recognized as All-Americans. Qualified All-Americans can represent the United States in international tournaments by playing on the United States national under-20 rugby union team.
College rugby competition in the USA is divided into several tiers:
- The highest is Division I-A, formerly known as the College Premier Division
- Division I-AA
- Division II
- Small College, formerly known as Divisions III and IV.
USA Rugby generally allows colleges to select the division in which the college thinks it would fit best. Most schools remain in the same division from year-to-year, but there are exceptions. Schools that have been successful in a particular division may move up but are not required to do so; likewise, poorly performing schools may move down a division, but are not required to. Successful schools may have varied reasons for declining promotion. For example, a school may prefer to remain in its current conference against traditional rivals, or a school with a small budget might resist the additional travel expense that might come from switching divisions and conferences.
The most recent significant movement across divisions occurred in 2011 when USA Rugby separated Division I into Division I-A and I-AA. This new arrangement caused Division I schools to choose one or the other, with 31 schools joining Division I-A and the majority of Division I schools joining Division I-AA. Additionally, the creation of Division I-AA caused several successful Division II schools to move up to Division I-A. The evolving division structures, caused significant shifts in schools between Divisions I-A and I-AA in the following years, with half of the original 31 D I-A members leaving by the end of 2013, and new schools from lower divisions taking their place.
Colleges classify their rugby programs as club sports rather than varsity sports. A small but growing number of universities, however, have begun labeling rugby as a varsity sport, realizing that rugby can be profitable, as a successful rugby program can result in national championships and increased marketability.
|California (Berkeley)||D1: Pac-12||Berkeley, CA||1882||26 national championships since 1980, 5 CRC 7s championships|
|SUNY Maritime College||D3: Skyline||Bronx, NY||???|
|Paul Smiths College||(USCAA)||Paul Smiths, NY||2000||2013 and 2017 ~ NSCRO Ranked Top 40|
|Principia College||D3||Elsah, IL||???|
|Cal Maritime||(NAIA)||Vallejo, CA||2001||NSCRO rank #1 (2009, 2010); runner up (2012)|
|Franciscan University||D3: 3RRC||Steubenville, OH||2001||NSCRO Ranked #1 (2012); 3rd at Nationals|
|Norwich||D3: GNAC||Northfield, VT||2008||D2 national playoffs (2013)|
|American International College||D2: NE-10||Springfield, MA||2009|
|Life University||(NAIA)||Marietta, GA||2010||D1-A champion (2013, 2016, 2018, 2019); D1-A runner-up (2014, 2015, 2017)|
|Lindenwood||D2: MIAA||Saint Louis, MO||2011||D1 7s champion (2015, 2017, 2018), CRC 7s champion (2018); D1-AA runner-up (2013)|
|Lindenwood-Belleville||(NAIA)||Saint Louis, MO||2015||D2 15s quarterfinalist (2015); D2 7s semifinalist (2016); D1-AA quarterfinalist (2016/2017)|
|Wheeling Jesuit||D2: Mtn. East||Wheeling, WV||2012|
|Notre Dame College||D2: Great Lakes||Cleveland, OH||2012||2017 D1-AA National Champion, 2016 D1-AA National Runner-Up|
|Central Washington University||D2: Great NW||Ellensburg, WA||2014|
|Army||D1: Patriot||West Point, NY||2014|
|Bethel College||(NAIA)||Mishawaka, IN||2015|
|Marywood University||D3||Scranton, PA||2018|
|Queens University of Charlotte||D2: SAC||Charlotte, NC||2018|
|New England College||D3: NECC||Henniker, NH||2015||NSCRO National Champions VII's - (2014), NSCRO National Champion XV's - (2015), National runner up XV's - (2014)|
Other schools have promoted rugby to quasi-varsity status, committing resources for scholarships and for paid full-time coaches, or given rugby some recognized form of elevated club sport status short of full varsity status.
|Penn State||D1: Big Ten||University Park, PA||"Team sports" status; member of Athletic Department.|
|BYU||D1: West Coast||Provo, UT||Rugby is one of four extramural sports teams sponsored by the school.|
|Spring Hill College||D2: SIAC||Mobile, AL||Receives support from the athletics department, including a full-time head coach.|
|Davenport||(NAIA)||Grand Rapids, MI||Officially listed as non-varsity, but is fully supported as a varsity program.|
|Kutztown||D2: PSAC||Kutztown, PA||Kutztown rugby has been designated as elite club status.|
|Arizona||D1: Pac-12||Tucson, AZ||Rugby is in the "Cactus Tier", an elevated level of intercollegiate competition.|
|Mount St. Mary's||D1: Northeast||Emmitsburg, MD||Elevated to "Premier Team Sport" status.|
Women's Rugby: An NCAA Emerging Sport
Since 2002, a growing number of schools have begun adding women's rugby as an NCAA sport. These women's rugby programs have received sanctioning by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. The NCAA has identified women's rugby as an NCAA Emerging Sports for Women. An "Emerging Sport" must gain championship status (minimum 40 varsity programs for team sports, except 28 for Division III) within 10 years, or show steady progress toward that goal to remain on the list. Until then, it is under the auspices of the NCAA and its respective institutions. Emerging Sport status allows for competition to include club teams to satisfy the minimum number of competitions bylaw established by the NCAA.
The NCAA identified women's rugby as an "Emerging Sport" in 2002 in light of the fact that nearly 350 collegiate women's rugby clubs were active. Growth was initially slow, with only 3 women's varsity programs forming within the first few years. The push for varsity rugby status received a boost in 2009 when the International Olympic Committee announced that rugby would return to the Summer Olympics in 2016. Although NCAA Division I programs dropped 72 women's varsity sports during 2008–2012 due to the economic recession, women's rugby programs grew in number during that time frame.
As of the fall of 2019, the NCAA has sanctioned rugby for 21 schools: eight in Division I, seven in Division II, and 6 in Division III. Current NCAA women's rugby programs include the following: This league is known as the National Intercollegiate Rugby Association (NIRA)
|1||West Chester University||2004||II|
|8||Sacred Heart University||2015||I|
|10||American International College||2015||II|
|11||Notre Dame College||2015||II|
|13||University of New England||2016||III|
|16||Long Island University Post||2017||I|
|17||Mount St. Mary's University||2017||I|
|18||Queens University of Charlotte 2||2018||II|
|19||New England College 2||2019||III|
Division 1 National Championships (15's)
Men's National Championship
USA Rugby has crowned an official national men's champion each year since 1980. After the 2010 season, USA Rugby split Division 1 into two, with the top flight called Division 1-A Rugby (formerly called the College Premier Division), and the second flight called Division 1-AA.
- YEAR; CHAMPION; RUNNER-UP
- 1980 – California 15, Air Force 9
- 1981 – California 6, Harvard 3 (a.e.t.)
- 1982 – California 15, Life College 14
- 1983 – California 13, Air Force 3
- 1984 – Harvard 12, Colorado 4
- 1985 – California 31, Maryland 6
- 1986 – California 6, Dartmouth 4
- 1987 – San Diego St. 10, Air Force 9
- 1988 – California 9, Dartmouth 3
- 1989 – Air Force 25, Penn State 7
- 1990 – Air Force 18, Army 12
- 1991 – California 20, Army 14
- 1992 – California 27, Army 17
- 1993 – California 36, Air Force 6
- 1994 – California 27, Navy 13
- 1995 – California 48, Air Force 16
- 1996 – California 47, Penn State 6
- 1997 – California 41, Penn State 15
- 1998 – California 34, Stanford 15
- 1999 – California 36, Penn State 5
- 2000 – California 62, Wyoming 16
- 2001 – California 86, Penn State 11
- 2002 – California 43, Utah 22
- 2003 – Air Force 45, Harvard 37
- 2004 – California 46, Cal Poly 24
- 2005 – California 44, Utah 7
- 2006 – California 29, BYU 26
- 2007 – California 37, BYU 7
- 2008 – California 59, BYU 7
- 2009 – BYU 25, California 22
- 2010 – California 19, BYU 7
- 2011 – California 21, BYU 14
- 2012 – BYU 49, Arkansas State 42
In 2013, eight of the top college rugby teams withdrew from the USA Rugby D1A competition and organized their own championship called the Varsity Cup. The media and other rugby commentators view the Varsity Cup as equivalent to the USA Rugby D1A championship, given the strength of the teams participating and the fact that the 2013 Varsity Cup finalists – BYU and Cal – finished the spring 2013 season as the consensus #1 and #2 ranked teams in all of college rugby. Four additional schools joined the Varsity Cup for 2014, bringing the number of teams in that tournament to twelve. The Varsity Cup was successful in gaining media exposure, with the 2014 Varsity Cup final televised live on NBCSN. USA Rugby responded to the successful promotion of its Varsity Cup rivals by signing a ten-year contract in October 2014 with IMG that would focus on the marketing and increase exposure of USA Rugby's Collegiate National Championship. The Varsity Cup folded in November 2017 when the organizer, broadcast partner and a major sponsor, Penn Mutual, withdrew their support.
The lists below show the champions for the Division 1-A Rugby and the Varsity Cup championships for each year, along with the teams' final regular season rankings, as ranked by RugbyMag/RugbyToday.com.
- 2018: Life University 60 – 5 California
- 2019: Life University 29 – 26 California
Men's Division 1-AA
- YEAR; CHAMPION; RUNNER-UP
- 2011: Davenport 38 – 19 UC Santa Barbara
- 2012: Davenport 39 – 0 San Diego State (Davenport promoted to D-1A for the following season)
- 2013: Central Florida 27 – 25 Lindenwood (Lindenwood promoted to D-1A for the following season)
- 2014: Central Florida 64 – 13 Arizona
- 2015: UC Davis 18 – 15 Central Florida
- 2016: UC Davis 17 – 13 Notre Dame College
- 2017: Notre Dame College 40 – 20 UC Davis
- 2018: Mary Washington 38 – 30 Dartmouth
Women's College Club Division 1
The following are the results from the D1 women's club national championship, from 1991 to the present. USA Rugby established a new division called "Division I Elite" that began championship competition in 2016.
Division I Elite Club
- 2016 – Penn State 15, Brigham Young 5
- 2017 – Penn State 28, Lindenwood 25
- 2018 – Lindenwood 36, Life University 9
- 2019 – Lindenwood 36, Life University 19
- 1991 – Air Force, runner-up Boston College
- 1992 – Boston College, runner-up Connecticut
- 1993 – Connecticut, runner-up Air Force
- 1994 – Air Force, runner-up Boston College
- 1995 – Princeton, runner-up Penn State
- 1996 – Princeton, runner-up Penn State
- 1997 – Penn State, runner-up Radcliffe
- 1998 – Radcliffe, runner-up Penn State
- 1999 – Stanford, runner-up Princeton
- 2000 – Penn State, runner-up Princeton
- 2001 – Chico State, runner-up Penn State
- 2002 – Air Force, runner-up Penn State
- 2003 – Air Force, runner-up Illinois
- 2004 – Penn State, runner-up Princeton
- 2005 – Stanford 53, Penn State 6
- 2006 – Stanford 15, Penn State 12
- 2007 – Penn State 22, Stanford 21
- 2008 – Stanford 15, Penn State 10
- 2009 – Penn State 46, Stanford 7
- 2010 – Penn State 24, Stanford 7
- 2011 – Army 33, Penn State 29
- 2012 – Penn State 32, Stanford 12
- 2013 – Penn State 65, Norwich 10
- 2014 – Penn State 38, Stanford 0
- 2015 – Penn State 61, Central Washington 7
- 2015–16 (fall) Connecticut 19, Air Force 12
College Rugby Sevens
Since the 2009 announcement that rugby sevens will be included in the 2016 Olympics, college rugby sevens has grown in popularity. The addition of Rugby 7s to the 2016 Summer Olympics has led to increasing interest from TV and other media, and an increased emphasis in the collegiate ranks on the 7s game. For example, the University of Texas founded its competitive rugby sevens program in 2010. Cal rugby announced in December 2011 that beginning in 2013 it would use the fall term for sevens.
Collegiate Rugby Championship
The Collegiate Rugby Championship (CRC) is the highest profile college sevens rugby championship in the US. The inaugural CRC, held in Columbus, Ohio in June 2010 was televised live by NBC and NBC Universal. The result was high ratings, with the CRC ratings beating the NCAA lacrosse championship. The success of the inaugural 2010 tournament lead to a second tournament in 2011 at PPL Park in Philadelphia, again televised live by NBC. NBC recognized that rugby is growing in popularity, participation and interest. In 2014, the Penn Mutual Life Insurance company become the title sponsor of the championship. The tournament has grown each year and has recently been signed to a multi-year deal with several large sponsors and Talen Energy Stadium (Formerly PPL Park) for the tournament to be held in Philadelphia for the several more years. As the sport grows, more funding is made available and the success of the tournament in 2016 has shown just how popular this collegiate level event has become. The CRC is run by United World Sports, the same company that organizes the USA Sevens rugby sevens tournament every February in Las Vegas at Sam Boyd Stadium.
- YEAR: CHAMPION; SCORE; RUNNER-UP
- 2010: Utah 31 – 26 California
- 2011: Dartmouth 32 – 10 Army
- 2012: Dartmouth 24 – 5 Arizona
- 2013: California 19 – 14 Life
- 2014: California 24 – 21 Kutztown
- 2015: California 17 – 12 (a.e.t.) Kutztown
- 2016: California 31 – 7 UCLA
- 2017: California 19 – 0 Life
- 2018: Lindenwood 24 – 7 UCLA
- 2019: Lindenwood 21 – 12 Life
USA Rugby National Championship
USA Rugby announced in September 2011 the creation of a new sevens tournament, the USA Rugby Sevens Collegiate National Championships. The tournament is held annually at the end of the fall season and features 24 teams. Qualification is based on performance at sevens tournaments during the fall, where tournament winners receive automatic bids, with the remaining places in the 24-team field filled by invitation. Some of the more high-profile qualifying tournaments include tournaments based on traditional conference rivalries, such as the Atlantic Coast 7s (composed mostly of ACC schools), the Southeastern 7s (composed mostly of SEC schools) and the Heart of America 7s (composed mostly of Big 12 schools).
The inaugural Championship tournament was held December 16–17, 2011 in College Station, Texas, and was contested by 24 teams that qualified based on performance in qualifying tournaments throughout the fall of 2011. The 2011 tournament was won by Life University, defeating Central Washington 22-17 in overtime. Tim Stanfill of Central Washington was the tournament MVP, Derek Patrick of Miami was the tournament's leading try scorer, and Colton Caraiga of Life University was the tournament's leading points scorer. In the first three years, strong teams that won bids have declined to participate.
Men's Division I
- 2011: Life University 22–17 Central Washington
- 2012: Arkansas State 21–7 Life University
- 2013: Arkansas State 32–12 Saint Mary's (CA)
- 2014: (moved from fall 2014 to spring 2015)
- 2015: Lindenwood 28–10 Davenport
- 2016: Saint Mary's 7–5 AIC
- 2017: Lindenwood 26–5 Saint Mary's
- 2018: Lindenwood 26–12 California
- Division 1
- Division 1 Elite:
- 2018: Lindenwood 20–0 Penn State
American Collegiate Rugby Championship Sevens
The American Collegiate Rugby Championship Sevens (ACRC7s) is an annual college sevens tournament played in late April or early May. For some D1 teams, the ACRC7s is the first spring opportunity to play elite-caliber sevens rugby in the run-up to the Collegiate Rugby Championship. In its first three years, the tournament has taken place at the Virginia Beach Sportsplex in Virginia Beach, Virginia.
- The conference champion is invited to the D1A playoffs along with several at large bids for independents or other highly ranked teams.
- The Mid-Eastern conference disbanded in summer 2012, as most members went to the D1-A Big Ten Universities or to the D1-AA Mid-America conference.
- The Midwest conference disbanded in summer 2012, as most members went to the D1-A Big Ten Universities or to Division 2.
Organization and conferences
American college rugby is governed by USA Rugby. In the past, college rugby competitions have been governed by local unions.
The structure of the college game has evolved significantly in recent years. In an effort to increase the marketability of the game, many traditional rivals have been consolidated into conferences resembling major NCAA conferences such as the Pac-12 and Big Ten.
Conferences and conference tournaments
Beginning around 2010, college rugby programs began realigning into conference structures that mirror the traditional NCAA conferences used by the member schools' other athletic programs. The first high-profile example was the formation of the Ivy League Rugby Conference in 2010. Following the organization of the Ivy League schools, the members of the Atlantic Coast Conference and the Southeastern Conference followed suit in 2010.
Ivy Rugby Conference
The Ivy Rugby Conference was formed and had its first full season in 2009. The IRC was formed to foster better competition among rugby teams from the Ivy League schools and to raise the quality of play. The IRC has had consistent success in attracting commercial interests. The IRC formed committees to manage the league, independently of the LAUs and TUs. Prior to formation of the IRC, clubs from the eight Ivy League schools had competed in the Ivy Rugby Championship Tournament since 1969.
Atlantic Coast Rugby League
The formation of the Atlantic Coast Rugby League was announced in March 2010, beginning play in the spring 2011 season. The purpose behind the formation of the ACRL was for the Atlantic Coast schools to schedule rugby union matches against other regional schools, which would both reduce travel and create more competitive matchups with traditional college rivalries. Maryland won the 2011 inaugural ACRL, defeating North Carolina in the title match.
The Atlantic Coast Rugby League schools started moving in the direction of setting up their own conference in 2008, beginning with the Atlantic Coast Invitational (ACI) tournament. The ACI tournament changed to a sevens format in 2010. N.C. State won the 2010 tournament. Beginning in 2011, the winner of the Atlantic Coast Invitational has advanced to the USA Rugby National Championship. N.C. State again won the ACI tournament in 2011 defeating Virginia 24-17 in the final.
In March 2010, nine of the twelve schools that participate in the NCAA's Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) announced that they had formed the Atlantic Coast Rugby League (ACRL) that would begin play in spring 2010. The ACRL quickly gained commercial success, announcing in February 2011, before it had even begun its inaugural season, that it has partnered with Adidas as its corporate sponsor. In addition to its early commercial success, the ACRL expects to improve rugby in the ACRL universities by capitalizing on traditional ACC rivalries, increasing the number of fans, and attracting talented high school rugby players.
Southeastern Collegiate Rugby Conference
In December 2010 a core group of founding schools formed the Southeastern Collegiate Rugby Conference (SCRC). By April 2010 the SCRC had expanded to 11 schools, comprising the entire membership of the NCAA's Southeastern Conference (SEC) at that time except for Arkansas. Tennessee won the 2010 Southeastern Collegiate Rugby Sevens Championship beating LSU 19-17, and repeated in the 2011 SCRC Olympic Sevens Championship, beating Florida 26-14 in the final. Similar to other conferences, the SCRC has also enjoyed commercial success, announcing in fall 2010 that the SCRC had formed commercial partnership agreements with Adidas and the World Rugby Shop.
The Southeastern Collegiate Rugby Conference, formed by the aforementioned 11 SEC schools, was created in late 2010 and began play in the 2011–12 season. Florida won the conference title in the inaugural season, defeating Tennessee in the championship match. Although the SEC has since expanded to 14 schools, the SCRC membership remains at 11.
Pacific Athletic Conference
Nine D1A rugby programs currently compete in the Big Ten Universities conference, which was founded in 2012. The Red River Conference, which replaced the Allied Rugby Conference in 2014–15, is composed mostly of teams from what had been the Big 12 South from 1996 to 2011. The Southwest Conference (SWC) was created in 2011 with the charter members from seven Texas schools. University of Texas was immediately added, and Texas won the conference in the inaugural 2011–12 season.
Other competitions: rivalry trophies
College rugby includes rivalry trophies such as the World Cup between the University of California, Berkeley and the University of British Columbia (Canada), the Wasatch Cup between BYU and Utah, the University Cup between Texas and Texas A&M, the Koranda Cup between Yale and Princeton, and the Common Wealth Shield between Virginia and Virginia Tech.
Other competitions: Bowl Series
The ACRC Bowl Series annual championship 15s tournament takes place in November. College conference champions and select elite sides participate. The tournament provides an opportunity for teams to play outside of their conferences, and is therefore important to establishing final fall 15s college rankings.
Division II is governed by USA Rugby.
Division II Sevens
- USA Rugby
- 2013: Principia def. UW–Stout
- 2014: (moved from fall 2014 to spring 2015)
- 2015: James Madison 40–22 Wisconsin–Whitewater
- 2016: Minnesota–Duluth 17–5 Saint Louis
- 2017: Wisconsin–Whitewater 26-5 North Carolina–Charlotte
- 2018: North Carolina State University 38–10 Wisconsin–Whitewater
- 2019: North Carolina State University 28–12 Wisconsin–Whitewater
- 2017: (D1 and D2 combined)
- 2018: (excluding D1 Elite) Air Force 20, Chico State 17
Small College Rugby, formerly known as Division III, is governed by the National Small College Rugby Organization (NSCRO). The National Small College Rugby Organization was created to give a competitive outlet to small colleges which would not otherwise have an opportunity to compete on a national stage. Each year, the NSCRO hosts rugby tournaments for Men's and Women's college teams, and during 2006–2011 it also conducted a Division IV Women's college tournament.
|2014||Wayne State College (Nebraska)|
|2015||Wayne State College 22, Mt. Saint Mary's 17|
|2016||Wayne State College 20, Colorado College 0|
|2017||Colgate 15, Wayne State College 12|
|2018||Wayne State College 24, Lee 5|
The National Small College Rugby Organization conducted a Women's only Division IV championship from 2006 to 2011.
- 2006 – University of Rhode Island; Runner Up: Ursinus College
- 2007 – Roger Williams University; Runner Up: Gettysburg College
- 2008 – College of the Holy Cross; Runner Up: Albright College
- 2009 – Drexel University; Runner-Up: Wentworth Institute of Technology
- 2010 – Lock Haven University; Runner-Up: Mount Holyoke College
- 2011 – Johnson State College; Runner-up: Albright College
- Forbes, "Why Pro Rugby Could Win In The United States", February 25, 2011.
- USA Rugby, "Membership Statistics, 2010-2011".
- Delco Times, "Notre Dame and Boston College to Represent Catholic College Rugby in National Sevens Championship", June 2, 2011.
- Florida Rugby Union, "Latest stats from USAR membership", May 7, 2009.
- "Need Scholarship? Join Scrum", New York Times, John Otis, May 21, 2014.
- Rugby Rugby, "NSCRO Changes D3 Reference to Small College Rugby", August 24, 2012.
- WV Metro News – Sports
- Bleacher Report, "Rugby: NBC's Collegiate Sevens Championship Preview".
- 2011 USA Sevens Collegiate Rugby Championship
- Clifton, Pat. "CRC Attendance Record Shattered". www.rugbytoday.com. Retrieved 2016-02-22.
- Royall Rugby, "College Premier Division Set to Launch" Archived March 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- College Contacts Archived 2013-07-08 at the Wayback Machine, USA Rugby.
- About Ivy Rugby, Ivy Rugby Conference.
- USA Rugby, College Archived 2007-04-29 at the Wayback Machine
- "USA Rugby: 'What BYU won ... was a mythical championship'", Deseret News, May 17, 2013.
- Rugby Mag, College Rugby State of the Union: Part Deux, Oct. 12, 2011, http://rugbymag.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2303:college-rugby-state-of-the-union-part-deux&catid=101:op-eds&Itemid=302 Archived 2011-12-19 at the Wayback Machine
- "Three UC Berkeley athletic teams to be preserved", Berkeley News, February 11, 2011.
- Cal Maritime, Cal Maritime's Highly Successful Rugby Coach Announces Departure, August 25, 2010, http://www.csum.edu/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=1a48d66d-7506-4e55-aec4-88776bcd4a14&groupId=61902
- AIC Rugby Archived 2015-10-29 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed October 14, 2015. ("We're a young varsity model program that enjoys full time coaching, and all the other trimmings of varsity collegiate athletics.")
- "VARSITY RUGBY TEAM RUNS OVER SOUTH CAROLINA", Life University, February 4, 2015.
- "Bayer Named Head Coach of WJU Rugby Program" Archived 2015-09-10 at the Wayback Machine, Wheeling Jesuit University, August 28, 2015. ("the first full-time head coach of the varsity program.")
- "NDC Rugby Announces Coach Terry Han Addition to Staff", Notre Dame Falcons, January 8, 2014. ("the NDC Falcon Varsity program is becoming known for and is excited to be part of National Championship caliber American rugby.")
- Rugby Mag, CWU Goes Varsity for Men and Women, Feb. 26, 2014, http://www.rugbymag.com/college-news/10583-cwu-goes-varsity-for-men-and-women.html%5B%5D
- "Army Makes Varsity Move Official", Rugby Today, August 1, 2014.
- "Bethel Athletics Introduces Three New Programs", October 24, 2014.
- "Queens University of Charlotte Adds Rugby", March 6, 2017.
- Penn State Men's Rugby, http://rugby.psu.edu/men/
- Extramural sports at BYU, BYU Cougar Club. Accessed October 14, 2015.
- Spring Hill College, USA Rugby. Accessed October 17, 2015.
- "Rugby Apps: Davenport University - P", Rugby Today, March 11, 2013. ("the rugby teams operate like varsity squads with full access to resources" and "It's a varsity environment").
- "Rugby Teams Granted Elite Club Status".
- "Mount Saint Mary's Rugby Gets Elevated Status", Goff Rugby Report, April 16, 2018.
- "Mount makes men’s rugby program a premier team sport" Archived 2018-05-07 at the Wayback Machine, The Frederick News-Post, April 10, 2018
- "Emerging Sports for Women". www.ncaa.org. NCAA. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- NCAA News Archive, Rugby advocates work to emerge from scrummage, July 2, 2007, http://fs.ncaa.org/Docs/NCAANewsArchive/2007/Association-wide/rugby+advocates+work+to+emerge+from+scrummage+-+07-02-07+ncaa+news.html Archived 2012-08-16 at the Wayback Machine
- Washington Post, Maryland athletics' financial woes reveal a broken college sports revenue model, June 28, 2012, https://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-06-28/sports/35459616_1_college-sports-maryland-athletics-public-universities
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2014-12-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- USA Rugby, NCAA Women's Rugby.
- Rugby Mag, Brown Elevated to Varsity, April 14, 2014.
- "Sacred Heart Women Go Varsity", Goff Rugby Report, November 5, 2014.
- "Women's Rugby to be Dartmouth's 35th Varsity Sport"
- "Women's Rugby Elevates to Varsity Status", February 5, 2015.
- "Women's Rugby Transitions To Varsity Sport Status", 6/17/2016.
- "University of New England to Promote Womens Rugby to Varsity Status", Rugby Wrap Up, December 6, 2014.
- "Plans for adding rugby continue to move forward", University of New England, August 20, 2015.
- "Castleton Women's Rugby Elevated to Varsity Status", Castleton Spartans, March 03, 2016.
- "Women's rugby coming to LIU Post" Archived 2016-02-15 at the Wayback Machine, The Island Now, February 11, 2016. ("The plan is for women's rugby to open up as a club sport in 2016–2017, with the intention of moving to varsity a year later. ").
- "Mount St. Mary's Women Go Varsity", March 30, 2017.
- "Queens University of Charlotte Adds Rugby", March 6, 2017.
- Cal Rugby at Inaugural CCI Sevens Friday-Sunday - The University of California Official Athletic Site Archived September 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Men's National Collegiate Champions: D I (1980-present). eRugbyNews. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- "Cal Defeats BYU for CPD Title". Archived from the original on 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
- This Is American Rugby, College Top Ten: Final Edition, May 22, 2013, http://www.thisisamericanrugby.com/2013/05/college-top-ten-final-edition.html
- Rugby Mag, All Divisions College Top 25 May 22, 2013, presented by Selective Service, May 22, 2013, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-05-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "VC or DIA, Which is Better?", Goff Rugby Report, Alex Goff, April 15, 2015.
- "USA RUGBY ANNOUNCES NEW 10-YEAR AGREEMENT WITH IMG", D1A Rugby, October 27, 2014.
- "Varsity Cup's Death D1As Rebirth", Rugby Today, November 28, 2017. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
- "VARSITY CUP SHUFFLE, BYU STRIPPED OF TITLE". Rugby Today. February 6, 2017. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
At the 2016 Varsity Cup annual general meeting, participating universities voted unanimously, with one abstention, to strip BYU of its 2015 title for using an ineligible player in the 2015 Varsity Cup postseason.
- Chaney, Jeff (May 14, 2011). "Davenport rugby team beats University of California-Santa Barbara for national title". Mlive.com. The Grand Rapids Press. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- Staff (May 20, 2012). "Davenport claims second consecutive club rugby title in a rout". MLive.com. Grand Rapids Press. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- Clifton, Pat (May 12, 2013). "UCF upends Lindenwood for DI-AA title". rugbymag.com. RugbyMag. Archived from the original on June 21, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "2013–14 Men's DI-AA College National Championship".
- "The UC Davis Aggies are the Men's DIAA college champions after defeating Central Florida in a hard slog of a final 18-15 at Kennesaw State University's Fifth Third Bank Stadium Saturday". May 9, 2015.
- "Mens College Finals Latest". May 7, 2016.
- Wise, Chad (6 May 2017). "NOTRE DAME COLLEGE BESTS REIGNING CHAMP UC DAVIS FOR D1AA TITLE". USA Rugby. Retrieved 2017-05-27.
- Cahill, Calder (May 6, 2018). "Lindenwood, Chico State, Tulane Women – Mary Washington Men secure 2018 Championships". Lafayette, Colorado USA: USA Rugby. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
- Women's National Collegiate Champions: D I Archived 2009-06-17 at the Wayback Machine (1991-present). eRugbyNews. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- Lee Sparks Army Women Victory Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine
- National Championships: Stanford 12 Penn St 32 | Stanford Women's Rugby Archived 2012-12-18 at the Wayback Machine
- "Emirates Airlines Collegiate National Championship Archive". Retrieved 2014-05-11.
- Clarke, Aidan (Dec 6, 2015). "UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT WOMEN WIN USA RUGBY WOMEN'S DIVISION I FALL CHAMPIONSHIP". Retrieved 2017-05-07.
- "Women's College Finals Latest". Goff Rugby Report. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
- Wise, Chad (Dec 4, 2016). "AIR FORCE REDEEMED WITH DI FALL CHAMPIONSHIP WIN OVER CONNECTICUT". Retrieved 2017-05-07.
- "Women's College Finals Latest". Goff Rugby Report. May 7, 2016. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- Bishop, Angus (December 3, 2017). "Davenport, Mary Washington, Winona and UWW crowned fall champions in South Carolina". Lafayette, Colorado USA: USA Rugby. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
- Sevens Main Page
- Cal Withdraws From USAR Premier Division | U.S.News | Rugby News Archived 2012-04-09 at the Wayback Machine
- Rugby sevens championships to get plenty of TV exposure - Philly.com
- NBC To Broadcast Collegiate Sevens Rugby Championship | Bleacher Report
- "This Is American Rugby: The CRC: Better Than Ever". www.thisisamericanrugby.com. Retrieved 2016-06-05.
- "This Is American Rugby: The Rise Of Rugby". www.thisisamericanrugby.com. Retrieved 2016-06-05.
- Americanrugbynews.com Archived 2010-06-11 at the Wayback Machine
- "Army Inaugural Women 7s Champions". Archived from the original on 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2011-06-06.
- Finlan, Jackie (3 June 2013). "PSU Women, CRC 7s' Best". Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-26.
- USA Rugby Press Release, Sep. 1, 2011, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-05-12. Retrieved 2012-09-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Rugby In Texas, Order Of Finish For Collegiate 7s Championship, Dec. 20, 2011, http://rugbyintexas.com/?p=1264
- Rugby Mag, 7s Nationals Men's All-Tourney Team, Dec. 18, 2011, http://rugbymag.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2994:7s-nationals-mens-all-tourney-team&catid=73:collegiate-sevens&Itemid=91 Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine
- "College 7s Nationals Fields Finalized". RugbyMag.com. 12 November 2013. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014.
- "One Out, One in for College 7s Nats". RugbyMag.com. 2 November 2011. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014.
- "Razorbacks to 7s Nats, One Spot Left". RugbyMag.com. 27 November 2011. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013.
- "Champions Crowned in Men's College 7s". Retrieved 2016-05-29.
- Wise, Chad (21 May 2017). "COLLEGE 7s TITLE HEADS BACK TO MISSOURI IN HANDS OF LINDENWOOD LIONS". USA Rugby. Retrieved 2017-05-27.
- "Women's Historical Champions – College 7s". Retrieved 2016-05-29.
- "Champions Crowned Women's College 7s". Retrieved 2016-05-29.
- Wise, Chad (21 May 2017). "LINDENWOOD WINS FIRST NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIP AT COLLEGE 7s". USA Rugby. Retrieved 2017-05-27.
- "Dog Days for James Madison Rugby". American Collegiate Rugby: URugby. 2016-04-12. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- "Amazing Finish to ACRC 7s at Surfside-Virginia Beach". URugby Bowl Series. 2014-05-05. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- "Sunday Results: Amazing Finish to the ACRC7s". American Collegiate Rugby: URugby. 2015-04-26. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- "Navy Wns ACRC 7s in Dramatic Style". Goff Rugby Report. 2016-05-01. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- ", Goff Rugby Report.
- This Is American Rugby: Tracking College Rugby Changes
- "DI-AA Conferences Set". Archived from the original on 2012-09-22. Retrieved 2012-12-26.
- "BYU, Utah Conference in DI-AA". Archived from the original on 2012-09-19. Retrieved 2012-12-26.
- "This Is American Rugby: Keystone Conference West Division Preview". www.thisisamericanrugby.com. Retrieved 2016-06-05.
- "This Is American Rugby: Keystone Conference East Division Preview". www.thisisamericanrugby.com. Retrieved 2016-06-05.
- Cal superleague exit spurs conference gains - Gainline.us
- ACC launch unveiled, national league gains steam - Gainline.us
- Rugby, Rugby, The Future of D1-A Rugby, May 22, 2012, http://www.rugbyrugby.com/news/features/this_is_american_rugby/7003152/the_future_of_di_a_rugby%5B%5D
- Ivy Rugby Conference, About Ivy Rugby, http://www.ivyrugby.com/about-ivy-rugby
- Ivy Rugby, http://www.ivyrugby.com/about-ivy-rugby
- ACI Rugby, University Men's Rugby Clubs Form New Atlantic Coast Rugby League, March 17, 2010, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-23. Retrieved 2012-02-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- The Atlantic Coast Rugby League, 2011 All ACRL Teams announced, April 21, 2011, http://www.atlanticcoastrugby.com/1/post/2011/4/2011-all-acrl-teams-announced.html%5B%5D
- ACI Rugby, Winner of Atlantic Coast Invitational Will Advance to USA Rugby Men's Collegiate Sevens Championship, March 17, 2010, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-23. Retrieved 2012-02-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Wolfpack Repeat as Atlantic Coast 7s Champs, Sep. 18, 2011, http://ncsu.edu/stud_affairs/campus_rec/club-sports/results/documents/ACCTournamentRugby7Champions.pdf%5B%5D
- Men's rugby scores big | News Center | Wake Forest University
- Atlantic Coast teams in breakthrough sponsor pact - Gainline.us
- Southeastern Collegiate Rugby Conference, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-28. Retrieved 2012-03-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Rugby Mag, Pac-12 Rugby On the Horizon, May 27, 2012, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-19. Retrieved 2012-06-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- The Wasatch Cup-College Rugby's Rivalry
- Texas And A&M Go All Rivalry On Us » Rugby In Texas
- "A Video History of the Koranda Cup | Ivy Rugby Conference". www.ivyrugby.com. 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- "Virginia, Virginia Tech Introduce Rivalry Trophy". Archived from the original on 2011-10-13. Retrieved 2011-07-02.
- "Why the ACRC Bowls are Important". Goff Rugby Report. 2015-11-30. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2013-05-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Warhawks Edge Middlebury, Win DII National Title". Archived from the original on 2011-05-06. Retrieved 2011-05-19.
- Clifton, Pat (May 19, 2012). "Lindenwood Finishes in Stride". Rugby Magazine. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- Rugby Mag, Salisbury Stonewalls Duluth, Wins DII, May 12, 2013, http://www.rugbymag.com/men's-dii-college-/8022-salisbury-stonewalls-duluth-wins-dii.html Archived 2013-06-24 at the Wayback Machine
- Anker, Brett. "Whitewater Defeats Furman for DII Title". Retrieved 2016-12-04.
- Goff, Alex (6 Dec 2017). "The lesson from the Men's DII college final and semifinals is that the division is getting tighter". Goff Rugby Report.
- "Radcliffe Best in DII". Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-05-19.
- Norwich : Women's Rugby: Norwich claims USA Rugby DII title
- USA Rugby: Women's Division II Archived 2014-03-25 at the Wayback Machine
- Mary Washington finishes Women's Division II National Championship run with defeat of Cal State Northridge
- Wise, Chad (May 7, 2016). "DAVENPORT CELEBRATES DII NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIP AT COLLEGE 15s". USA Rugby. Retrieved 2016-12-11.
- Wise, Chad (May 6, 2017). "PANTHERS REPEAT AS WOMEN'S DII NATIONAL CHAMPIONS". Retrieved 2017-05-07.
- "College Men's Historical Champions". Retrieved 2016-05-29.
- "JMU Turns it Around to Win DII Men College 7s". Retrieved 2016-05-29.
- Wise, Chad (21 May 2017). "WHITEWATER COMPLETES NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIP DOUBLE AT COLLEGE 7s". Retrieved 2017-06-04.
- Goff, Alex (29 May 2016). "Champions Crowned Women's College 7s". Goff Rugby Report. Retrieved 2016-05-29.
- "NSCRO DIII Title Report". Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-05-19.
- Salve Regina rugby team wins national championship | College Sports | providencejournal.com | The Providence Journal
- "NATIONAL SMALL COLLEGE RUGBY ORGANIZATION 2015–16 MEN'S SMALL COLLEGE NATIONAL PLAYOFFS CHAMPIONS CUP". National Small College Rugby Organization. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 2016-06-03.
- "NSCRO and Conference/Union Small College Men's Playoffs for 2016-17, FINAL RESULTS". April 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
- "National Small College Rugby Organization: Brackets & Results". Archived from the original on 2012-03-05. Retrieved 2011-06-08.
- "NATIONAL SMALL COLLEGE RUGBY ORGANIZATION 2015 WOMEN'S SMALL COLLEGE NATIONAL PLAYOFFS". National Small College Rugby Organization. 7 Dec 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-17.
- Young, Wendy (December 3, 2016). "2016 Women's Rugby National Small College Championships (NSCRO) – Dec 3-4". YSCRugby. Retrieved 2016-12-11.
- "NSCRO Scores and Schedule". Retrieved 2014-05-10.
- "National Small College Rugby Organization LLC: NSCRO 7s: NSCRO 7s National Championship Results". 1 June 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-03.
- Lefton, Clara (June 9, 2016). "Vatos Win Back-to-Back NSCRO 7s Championships". National Small College Rugby Organization. Retrieved 2016-12-10.
- "National Small College Rugby Organization LLC: NSCRO 7s: NSCRO's Inaugural Women's 7s National Championship – A Big Success". 2014-05-07. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- "2016 NSCRO Women's 7s National Champions, Wayne State College". Retrieved 2016-06-03.
- "Colgate Claims NSCRO 7s Trophy". The Rugby Breakdown. May 3, 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
- "Johnson State Rugby: From Zeroes To Heroes". Dec 3, 2011. Retrieved 2015-06-03.