Coins of the Indian rupee

Coins of the Indian rupee (INR) were first minted in "1950".[1] New coins have been produced annually since then and they make up a valuable aspect of the Indian currency system. Today, circulating coins exist in denominations of One Rupee, Two Rupees, Five Rupees, Ten Rupees and Twenty Rupees. All of these are produced by four mints located across India,[2] in Kolkata, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Noida.

History

After Indian independence, British Indian coins were in use as a frozen currency until India became a republic in 1950. The first rupee coins of the Republic of India were minted in 1950.[3] These included 1/2 rupee, 1/4 rupee, 2 anna, 1 anna, 1/2 anna & 1 pice coins, and are referred to as the anna series or pre-decimal coinage. Under the anna series, one rupee was divided into 16 annas or 64 pice, with each anna equal to 4 pice.

In 1957, India shifted to the decimal system, though for a short period of time, both decimal and non-decimal coins were in circulation. To distinguish between the two pice coins in circulation, the coins minted between 1957 and 1964 were printed with the legend “Naya Paisa” (“New Paisa”).[4] The denominations in circulation were 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50 (naya) paisa and one rupee. Since rupees retained their pre-decimal value, pre-decimal coins of one, half and quarter rupees remained in circulation after decimalisation.

The word "naya" was dropped in 1964 and a new denomination, the 3 paisa, was introduced into circulation. A 20 paisa coin was minted in 1968. Neither of these coins gained much popularity. The 1, 2 and 3 paisa coins were phased out gradually in the 1970s. In 1982, a new 2 rupee coin was introduced experimentally to replace 2 rupee notes. The 2 rupee coin was not minted again till 1990, after which it was minted every following year.

Stainless steel coinage of 10, 25 and 50 paisa was introduced in 1988. In 1992, a new stainless steel rupee coin, smaller and lighter than the older rupee, was minted, alongside a 5 rupee Cupronickel coin.

In 2005, the 10 rupee coin was minted for the first time. Higher denomination coins were introduced due to an increasing demand for change and the increasing cost of printing 2, 5 and 10 rupee banknotes.

On 30 June 2011, all coins in denominations of 25 paisa and below were officially demonetised.[5]

Commemorative coins in circulation can be found in various denominations. They depict various special events or people, including Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar, Rajiv Gandhi, Dnyaneshwar, the 1982 Asian Games, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Subhas Chandra Bose, Sri Aurobindo, Chittaranjan Das, Chhatrapati Shivaji, the 2010 Commonwealth Games, Bhagat Singh, Rabindranath Tagore, Atal Bihari Bajpai, Jallianwalabag Massacre etc.[6]

Coin series: 1947-1957 (pre-decimalization)

Union of India 1947–1950

At Independence on 15 August 1947, India was partitioned into the new British Dominions of India and Pakistan. The new Dominion (or Union) of India retained the previous imperial currency with images of British monarchs. The basic unit of currency was the Indian rupee, which was itself divided into annas (16 annas to a rupee) and pice (the old spelling of paisa - 64 pice to a rupee).[7] The lowest-denomination Indian coins, the half-pice (128 to a rupee) and the pie (192 to a rupee) were officially demonetized in 1947; while both denominations had continued to circulate up to that time, new examples were not minted after 1942 as they were practically worthless (India remained a member of the sterling area after independence and the rupee remained pegged to the pound sterling. Until 1966, the rupee was worth 1s.6d, or 18 old British pence; a half-pice was therefore worth 0.141 old pence and a pie 0.09 old pence.)[8]

From 15 August 1947 until 26 January 1950, the Indian coinage structure was as follows:

Rupee and its fractions Annas Pice Pies (demonetized after 1947)
Rupee 16 annas 64 pice 192 pies
Half rupee 8 annas 32 pice 96 pies
Quarter rupee 4 annas 16 pice 48 pies
1/8 rupee 2 annas 8 pice 24 pies
1/16 rupee 1 anna 4 pice 12 pies
1/32 rupee Half anna 2 pice 6 pies
1/64 rupee 1/4 anna 1 pice 3 pies

(bold - denominations minted by the Government of India)[7]

This represented the currency arrangements during the transition period up to the establishment of the Indian Republic.

The British India coins which were mostly in circulation from 1947 to 1950 until the first Republic of India (Pre-decimalization Series) coins were introduced as follows:

George VI series (in circulation in India 1947 - 1950)
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
One Rupee Nickel Circular 28 mm 1947
Half Rupee 24 mm 1946 - 1947
Quarter Rupee 19 mm 1946 - 1947
2 Annas Nickel - Brass Square 25.1 mm 1945
Copper - Nickel 22 mm 1946 - 1947
1 Anna Nickel - Brass 12 Scalloped 21 mm 1945
Copper - Nickel 21 mm 1946 - 1947
1/2 Anna Square 19.7 mm 1946 - 1947
1 Pice Bronze Circular with a hole 21.32 mm 1943 - 1947

Republic of India 1950-1957

On 26 January 1950, India became a sovereign republic. This series was introduced on 15 August 1950 and represented the first coinage of Republic India. The British King's portrait was replaced by the Lion Capital of the Ashoka Pillar. A corn sheaf replaced the Tiger on the one rupee coin. In some ways this symbolised a shift in focus to progress and prosperity. Indian motifs were incorporated on other coins. The previous monetary system and the old units of currency were retained unchanged.

Republic of India Pre-decimalization series (1950 - 1957)
DenominationImage Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
One Rupee Nickel Circular 27.9 mm 1950 - 1954
Half Rupee 24 mm 1950 - 1956
Quarter Rupee 19 mm 1950 - 1956
Two Annas Cupro-Nickel Square 25.4 mm 1950 - 1955
One Anna 12 Scalloped 21 mm 1950 - 1955
Half Anna Square 19.5 mm 1950 - 1955
One Pice Bronze Circular 21 mm 1950 - 1955

Decimalization

The move towards decimalization was afoot for over a century. However, it was in September, 1955 that the Indian Coinage Act was amended for the country to adopt a metric system for coinage. The Act came into force with effect from 1 April 1957, after which anna and pice denominations were demonetised. The rupee remained unchanged in value and nomenclature. It, however, was now divided into 100 'paisa' instead of 16 annas or 64 pice. Effective from 30 June 2011, all coins in denominations of 25 paisa and below were officially demonetized.[9]

Pre-decimal currency (1950-1957; minting ceased in 1955) Decimal currency replacement (1957–present) Decimal currency (dates minted)
N/A 10 rupees 2005–present
N/A 5 rupees 1992–present
N/A 2 rupees 1982–present
Rupee Rupee (divided into 100 new paisa 1957-1964; divided into 100 paisa 1964–present). 1962–present
Half rupee 50 paisa 1960–present
Quarter rupee 25 paisa 1957-2002. Demonetized from 2011.
N/A 20 paisa 1968-1994. Demonetized from 2011.
2 annas 10 paisa 1957-1998. Demonetized from 2011.
Anna 5 paisa 1957-1994. Demonetized from 2011.
N/A 3 paisa 1964-1972; proofs minted until 1981. Demonetized from 2011.
Half anna 2 paisa 1957-1979; proofs minted until 1981. Demonetized from 2011.
Pice Paisa 1957-1972; proofs minted until 1981. Demonetized from 2011, but retained as a unit of currency.

Coin series 1957-present (decimal)

Naya paisa series 1957–1963

The antiquated spelling of "pice" was modified to "paisa" in the singular and "paise" in the plural. For public recognition, the new decimal paisa was termed 'Naya Paisa' (New Paisa) till 1 June 1964 when the term 'Naya' was dropped. The coins of 50p, 25p, 10p, 5p, 2p, and 1p had a legend in Devanagari script explaining the value of coin in terms of fraction of a rupee.

Naya Paisa Series (1957 - 1963)
DenominationImage Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
One Rupee Nickel Circular 28 mm 1962 - 1974
Fifty Naye paisa 24 mm 1957 - 1963
Twenty Five Naye paisa 19 mm 1957 - 1963
Ten Naye paisa Cupro-Nickel Eight Scalloped 23 mm (across scallops) 1957 - 1963
Five Naye paisa Square 22 mm (across corners) 1957 - 1963
Two Naye paise Eight Scalloped 18 mm (across scallops) 1957 - 1963
One Naya Paisa Bronze Circular 16 mm 1957 - 1962
Nickel Brass 1962 - 1963

Paisa series I with Devanagari Legend 1964 onwards

In June 1964, the term 'Naya' was dropped and the coins were reminted. The legend in Devanagari script explaining the value of coin in terms of fraction of a Rupee continued till it was finally dropped from the new design minted 1964 onwards.

Paisa Series I with Devanagari Legend (1964 - 1980s)
DenominationImage Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
50 paisa Nickel Circular 24 mm 1964 - 1971
25 paisa Nickel 19 mm 1964 - 1972
10 paisa Copper Nickel 8 Scalloped 23 mm 1964 - 1967
Nickel Brass 1968 - 1971
5 paisa Copper Nickel Square 22 mm 1964 - 1966
Aluminium 1967 - 1971
2 paisa Copper Nickel 8 Scalloped 18 mm 1964
1 paisa Nickel Brass Circular 16 mm 1964

Series II without the Devanagari Legend (1964 - 1983)

The coin minted from 1965 did not have the legend in Devanagari, explaining the value of the coin as a fraction of the rupee. Small denomination coins which were made of bronze, nickel-brass, cupro-nickel, and aluminium-bronze were gradually minted in aluminium. The first coin minted in such type was the 3 Paisa coin in 1964, which was a new denomination, and continued to be minted till 1971. One and Two paisa coins were changed to Aluminium and were minted without the Devanagari legend from 1965. 20 paisa coin was introduced in 1968, which continued to be minted till 1971.

Series II without Devanagari Legend (1964 - 1983)
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
1 rupee Copper Nickel Circular 28 mm 1975 - 1982
50 paisa 24 mm 1972 - 1973
1974 - 1983
25 paisa 19 mm 1972 - 1990
20 paisa Nickel Brass 22 mm 1968 - 1971
10 paisa Aluminium 12 Scalloped 25.91 mm 1971 - 1982
5 paisa Square 22 mm 1972 - 1984
3 paisa Hexagonal 21 mm 1964 - 1971
2 paisa 8 Scalloped 20 mm 1965 - 1981
1 paisa Square 17 mm 1965 - 1981

Series III 1982 Onwards

From 1982, New series was launched. the 20 paisa coin which was last minted in 1971, was reintroduced again, but in Aluminium. The size and the design of 10 paisa, 50 paisa and 1 rupee was changed, though they continued to be minted in the same metal. Coins of 3p, 2p and 1p were discontinued but continued to be the legal tender.

Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
1 Rupee Copper - Nickel Circular 26 mm 1983 - 1991
50 paisa 24 mm 1984 - 1990
20 paisa Aluminium Hexagonal 26 mm 1982 - 1997
10 paisa 8 Scalloped 23 mm 1983 - 1993
5 paisa Square 22 mm 1984 - 1994

Series IV 1988 Onwards

In Series IV, 5 paisa and 20 paisa coins were discontinued though they continued to be minted in Series III till 1994 and 1997 respectively. 10 paisa, 25 paisa and 50 paisa coins were minted in Stainless Steel. 1992 onwards, 1 Re coin was also minted in Steel and ₹2 and ₹5 coins in Copper Nickel were introduced. The very considerable costs of managing note issues of ₹1, ₹2, and ₹5 led to the gradual coinage of these denominations. These coins continued to be minted till 2004, when the Unity in diversity series was launched.

Cupro-Nickel coins are not minted anymore. Ferritic Stainless Steel coins of Two and Five Rupee denominations are currently in production.[10]

2004 Unity in diversity Series

In 2004, RBI issued a series in denominations of 1 rupee, followed by 2 rupee and 10 rupee in 2005. These issues however came into circulation in 2006, and created a controversy over their design. 10 rupee coins were the first bimetallic coins issued in India, and because of the controversy and being minted in only one mint, most of the coinage never found its way into circulation. The ones which did were hoarded by Coin collectors and Coin hoarders.

2004 Unity in Diversity Series
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
10 rupee Bimetalic Copper Nickel center Aluminum Bronze ring Circular 27 mm 2005 - 2007
2 rupee Stainless Steel 26.75 mm
1 rupee 25 mm 2004 - 2006

2007 Hasta Mudra Series

In 2007 RBI issued a new series of Coins, The Hasta Mudra Series, in coins of 50 paisa, 1 rupee and 2 rupee denominations. These coins are stainless steel and feature various Hasta Mudras (hand gestures in Indian Classical dance). The 5 rupee piece that features waves in its design was also issued in 2007, along with a new 10 rupee coin. However, the design of the 10 rupee piece changed in 2008. The 5 rupee coin design was again reverted to the previous design, though it was issued in Nickel-brass instead of Copper-nickel. However, these 5 rupee and 10 rupee coins were not the part of the Hasta Mudra series.

2007 Hasta Mudra Series
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
2 rupee Stainless Steel Circular 27 mm 2007 - 2011
1 rupee 25 mm
50 paisa 22 mm 2008 - 2010

The 5 rupee and 10 rupee coins were issued for common circulation in 2007, 2008, 2009 with changed designs and continued to be minted until the introduction of the Rupee Symbol series in 2011.

2007 - 2010 Common Circulation Coins for 5 rupee and 10 rupee
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
5 rupee Stainless Steel Circular 23 mm 2007 - 2008
10 rupee Bimetallic Copper Nickel center Aluminum Bronze ring 27 mm 2008 - 2010
5 rupee Nickel - Brass 23 mm 2009 - 2010

2011 Series with the Rupee Symbol (₹)

In 2011, RBI issued a series in denominations of 50p, ₹1, ₹2, ₹5, and ₹10. The 50p, ₹1, ₹2, and ₹5 designs are identical except the absence of the rupee symbol in 50p coin. The ₹10 coin continued to be issued in bimetallic issues as previously.

2011 Rupee Symbol Series
Denomination Image Single/

Bi-metallic

Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
₹10

Ten rupees

Bimetallic Center: Copper-Nickel

Ring: Aluminium-Bronze

Circular 27 mm 2011 - 2018
₹ 5

Five Rupees

Singlemetallic Nickel-brass 27 mm 2011 - 2018
₹ 2

Two Rupees

Singlemetallic Stainless Steel 25 mm 2011 - 2018
₹ 1

One Rupee

Singlemetallic Stainless Steel 21.93 mm 2011 - 2018
50 p

Fifty paise

Singlemetallic Stainless Steel 19 mm 2011 - 2018

2019 Grain Series

The Ministry of Finance has issued a notification on March 6 announcing the launch of 5 new coins in the country, namely the new 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20. The new series of coins are accessible to those with visual impairments and have an enhanced design. The coins were launched by PM Narendra Modi and Finance Minister Arun Jaitley. The design of the coins were prepared by the National Institute of Design while Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited and the Ministry of Finance played the key role in the introduction of new coins in the country.

Various new features have been incorporated in the new series of circulation coins to make them more easy for the visually impaired people to use. The coins are characterized by increasing size and weight from lower to higher denominations from 1 to 20. All of the denominations would be of round shape, except the newly included coin of 20, which will be a 12 sided coin with no serrations.

2019 Grain Series
Denomination Image Single/

Bi-metallic

Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
₹ 20

Twenty rupees

Bimetallic Center: Nickel-brass

Ring: Nickel silver

Dodecagonal 27 mm 2019
₹10

Ten rupees

Bimetallic Center: Copper-Nickel

Ring: Aluminium-Bronze

Circular 27 mm 2019
₹ 5

Five Rupees

Singlemetallic Nickel-brass 27 mm 2019
₹ 2

Two Rupees

Singlemetallic Stainless Steel 25 mm 2019
₹ 1

One Rupee

Singlemetallic Stainless Steel 21.93 mm 2019

Mints

Domestic Mint Marks

  • Kolkata - either no mint mark beneath the date of coin or a C is seen at 6'o clock position in British India coins.
  • Mumbai - diamond mint mark under the date of the coin.
  • Hyderabad - split diamond or a dot in diamond or five pointed star under the date of coin.
  • Noida - a small or thick dot under the date of the Coin.

Because of the increasing demand for coins, the Indian government was forced to mint coins in foreign countries at various points in the country's history.

Foreign Mint Marks

List of coins minted in foreign mint[11]
Mint Country Year Coin Mint Mark
Birmingham Mint UK 1985 ₹1.00 'H' below last digit of the year
Royal Mint UK 1985 ₹1.00 '◆' below first digit of the year
Taegu Mint South Korea 1985 ₹0.50 '★' below first digit of the year
Royal Canadian Mint Canada 1985 ₹0.25 'C' below mid of the year
Royal Canadian Mint Canada 1988 ₹0.10

₹0.25

₹0.50

'C' below mid of the year
Mexican Mint Mexico 1997 ₹1.00 below mid of the year
Seoul Mint South Korea 1997

1998

₹2.00 '★' below last digit of the year
Kremnica Mint   Slovakia 1998

1999

2000

2001

₹1.00 below mid of the year
Pretoria Mint South Africa 1998 ₹2.00 (M) below mid of the year (oval shape)
Tower Mint UK 1999 ₹2.00 '⊔' below mid of the year
Moscow Mint Russia 2000 ₹2.00 'MMD' below mid of the year
Moscow Mint Russia 1999

2000

₹5.00 'MMD' below mid of the year

Commemorative coins

The first Indian commemorative coin was issued in 1964 in remembrance of Jawaharlal Nehru's birth anniversary. Since then, numerous coins from 5 paise (INR 0.05) to ₹1000 (INR 1000.00) have been issued. These coins based on birth or death centenary of famous personalities or on recently died, commemoration of special government programs or sport events, anniversaries of historical incidents, government organisation etc.

The First Commemorative Coins

The first commemorative coins was dated 1964 and had a bust of Jawaharlal Nehru on observe and was issued in one and half rupee.

List of Commemorative Coins[6]

Commemorative Year 5P 10P 20P 25P 50P 1₹ 2₹ 5₹ 10₹ 20₹ 25₹ 50₹ 60₹ 75₹ 100₹ 125₹ 150₹ 200₹ 500₹ 1000₹
Jawaharlal Nehru1964KMKM
Mahatma Gandhi1969KHMKMKMKM
Food For All1970KMKM
Food For All1971KMM
25th Independence1972KMKM
Grow More Food1973KMMMM
Planned Families Food for All1974KHM
Women Year1975KHMMM
Food & Work For All1976KHMKMMM
Save for Development1977KHMKMMM
Food & Selter For All1978KHMKHMMM
International Year of the Child (P)1978M
International Year of the Child1979KHMKHMMMM
Rural Women's Advancement1980KHMKHMMM
World Food Day1981KMKHMMM
IX Asian Games1982KHMKHMKMMM
World Food Day1982KHMKH
National Integration1982KMKMMM
Fisheries1983KH
Forestry for Development1985KHM
Reserve Bank of India1985KHMM
Indira Gandhi1985KHMHMM
International Youth Year1985KHMKM
Fisheries1986KHMMM
Small Farmer1987KHMMM
Rainfed Farming1988KHM
Jawaharlal Nehru1989KHMHMMM
World Food Day1989KHM
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar1990HM
ICDS1990HM
SAARC Year - Girl Child1990HM
Food For the Future1990KH
Rajiv Gandhi1991HM
Commonweath Parliamentary1991M
Tourism Year1991HM
Food & Nutrition1992K
Land Vital Resource1992K
Quit India Movement1993KHMMMM
Inter Parliamentary Union1993M
Small Family Happy Family1993HM
Bio Diversity1993HM
International Year of the Family1994MN
Water for Life1994KHM
ILO1994HMNMM
World Tamil Conference1995KHMNMMN
Globalizing Indian Agriculture1995KM
UNO1995MN
FAO1995HMN
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel1995M
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel1996KHMNMMM
Mother's Health is Child's Health1996KHMN
International Crop Science1996K
Subhash Chandra Bose1996KN
Subhash Chandra Bose1997KHMNMMM
50 year of Independence1997KHMNM
Cellular Jail1997KHMN
Sri Aurobindo1998KMNMMM
Deshbandhu Chittranjan Das1998KHNK
Saint Dnyaneshwar1999KMNM
Chattrapati Shivaji1999KHMNMM
Supreme Court of India2000KMNM
Dr. Syama Prasad2001KHNKMK
Bhagwan Mahabir2001MNM
Loknayak Jayprakash Narayan2002HM
Saint Tukaram2002KHMNKMM
Maharana Pratap2003HMMM
Veer Durgadas2003HMMM
Indian Railway2003KHMNK
Dadabhai Naoraji2003KHM
Kumarasami Kamraj2003KHMM
India Post2004KK
Telecommunication2004KK
Lal Bahadur Sastri (CuNi)2004KK
Lal Bahadur Sastri (SS)2004KHM
Dandi March (CuNi)2005MM
Dandi March (SS)2005M
Mahatma Basaveshwara (CuNi)2006MM
Mahatma Basaveshwara (SS)2006M
ONGC (CuNi)2006KM
ONGC (SS)2006KH
Sree Narayan Gurudev (CuNi)2006MM
Sree Narayan Gurudev (SS)2006M
SBI (CuNi)2006KK
SBI (SS)2006KH
Kuka Movement2006KHMNM
Indian Airforce2007KK
Lokamanya Bal Gandhar Tilak (CuNi)2007MK
Lokamanya Bal Gandhar Tilak (SS)2007M
Tilakji Error (CuNi)2007M
First War of Independence2007MM
Khadi & Village Industries (CuNi)2007MM
Khadi & Village Industries (SS)2007M
Bhagat Singh2007KHK
Shri Guru Granth Sahib2008HMM
Saint Alphonsa2009KHMM
Louis Braille2009KHMK
Perarignar Anna2009KHMK
60 years of Commonwealth2009KHMM
Dr. Rajendra Prasad2009KHMNK
Homi Bhaba2009MNM
Reserve Bank of India2010HMKHMHMHMNKMHN
XIX Commonwealth Games2010KHNKHMN
C. Subramaniam2010KHMNHM
Brihadeswarar Temple Thanjaveer2010KHMNM
Mother Teresa2010KHMNK
Comptroller & Auditor General2010KHMNK
Income Tax - Chanakya2010KHMK
Income Tax - Chanakya2011KN
Civil Aviation2010H
Civil Aviation2011KHMNM
Rabindra Nath Tagore2011KHMNK
Indian Council of Medical Research2011KHMNHM
Madan Mohan Malviya2011KHMNM
Parliament of India2012MMN
Shree Mata Vaishno Devi2012HMNHMNM
Kolkata Mint2012KHMNK
Motilal Nehru2012KHMNM
Swami Vivekananda2013KHMNK
Coir Board2013KHMNM
Acharya Tulsi2014KHMNM
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad2014KHMNK
Jawaharlal Nehru2014KHMNK
Komagata Maru Incident2014HMN
Jamshetji Nusserawanji Tata2015KM
Begum Aktar2015KMK
Rani Gaidiliu2015K
1965 Operation2015MM
BHEL2015KMK
Biju Patnaik2015KK
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar2015HMK
Dr. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan2015MK
3rd Indo Africa Forum2015KK
Maharana Pratap2015MM
Swami Chimayananda2015KMK
Gandhi Return from Africa2015KHMN
International Yoga Day2015MN
Nabakalebar Rath Yatra2015MM
Allahabad High Court2016HMM
University of Mysore2016MM
Lala Lajpat Rai2016K
Tatya Tope2016KK
Banaras Hindu University2016MM
National Archive of India2016KK
Pt Dindayal Upadhyai2016MM
Biju Patnik2016MM
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu2016MM
Shrimad Rajchandra2017MM
Dr. M.S.Subbulakshmi 2017 M M
PC Mahalanobis 2018 K M
75 Years of Tricolour 2018 K
Atal Bihari Vajpayee 2018 M
Paika Bidroha 2018 M
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 2019 K

Note: Bold Marks are Silver Coins, Mint index: K = Kolkata (no mark), H = Hyderabad (⋆), M = Mumbai (◆ or B), Noida = (●).

Interesting Pointers-

There are marks on the Indian coins (Talking about recent ones). The purpose of these is to let us know where they are minted.

There are four places in India where coins are minted.

  1. Mumbai
  2. Alipore (Kolkata)
  3. Saifabad, Cherlapally (Hyderabad)
  4. Noida (UP)
  • If there’s a diamond sign on the coin, it was minted in Mumbai.
  • If there’s no mark, it was minted in Kolkata.
  • If star, it was minted in Hyderabad.
  • If it’s a solid dot, it’s from Noida.

Controversies

Controversy over 2006 two-rupee coin

The two-rupee coin issued from 2006 by the Reserve Bank, in stark contrast to the earlier coin, is rounded and simpler in design, without the map of India. The coin has already been criticized for being difficult to recognize by the visually impaired.[12]

Most controversially, it features an equal-armed cross with the beams divided into two rays and with dots between adjacent beams. According to RBI, this design represents "four heads sharing a common body" under a new "unity in diversity" theme.[13] However, Hindu nationalists have charged that the symbol is a Christian cross resembling the symbol on the deniers issued by Louis the Pious.[14]

Bimetallic Coin

From 2005, India's first bimetallic ₹10/- coin was introduced under the theme of double line crossed "Unity in Diversity" with the Bi-Metallic composition of Copper-nickel center in Aluminium-bronze ring and the weight of approx. 7.75 grams. But, due to its controversial design resembling a cross, it was criticised and was not minted in large numbers. Another reason for its availability being scarce is that it was minted only in one (Noida) of four mints in India.

From 2008 coins based on the second theme, "Connectivity and Information technology", were also released. The coin depicts 15 rays above the numeric 10. It was again minted only by the Noida mint and was not easily available in circulation.

From 2011, the same theme was continued with a slight design change showing 10 rays instead of the earlier 15 and the introduction of the new Re symbol. Now it is being minted in all four mints, which are Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, and Noida.

From 2008, apart from above definitive coins, ₹10/- bi-metallic commemorative coins have also been released. The first 3 coins are such as

2008 – Tri Centenary of Gur-ta-Gaddi in circulated sets

2009 – Homi Bhabha Birth Centenary

2010 – RBI Platinum Jubilee.

On 6 March 2019, Finance Ministry announced that ₹20/- coin will be introduced soon. Its shape will be dodecagonal and the weight will be 8.54 grams. The Bi-Metallic composition will be Nickel-Brass Center in Nickel Silver ring.

See also

References

  1. "Modern Coins | Modern Indian Coins | Coins of Modern India | Mintage World". mintageworld.com. Retrieved 2019-05-16.
  2. "History". spmcil.com. Retrieved 2019-05-16.
  3. "Republic India Coins, Proof Set, Currencies: Definitive Coins". Republic India Coins, Proof Set, Currencies. Retrieved 2019-05-16.
  4. "Republic India Coins, Proof Set, Currencies: Interesting Facts". Republic India Coins, Proof Set, Currencies. Retrieved 2019-05-16.
  5. "Coins of 25 paise and below will not be Legal Tender from June 30, 2011". rbi.org.in. May 18, 2011.
  6. "Republic India Coins, Proof Set, Currencies: Commemorative Coins". Republic India Coins, Proof Set, Currencies. Retrieved 2019-05-16.
  7. India - Currency, Weights and Measures, The Statesman's Year Book 1947, pg 133, Macmillan & Co.
  8. Schedule of Par Values, Currencies of Metropolitan Areas, The Statesman's Year Book 1947, pg xxiii, Macmillan & Co.
  9. Krause, Chester. Mishler, Clifford. "India-Republic," 2005 Standard Catalog of World Coins 1901-present, 32nd edition. Krause Publications. Iola, WI
  10. Contemporary Steel Coins Archived 2011-11-19 at the Wayback Machine, Reserve Bank of India
  11. "Mint Marks of Foreign Mints on Indian Coins". Mintage World. 2016-12-10. Retrieved 2019-05-16.
  12. Janwalkar, Mayura (January 31, 2007). "New two-rupee coin is confusing for the blind". DNA India.
  13. "RBI to circulate new steel Rs 2 coins". https://www.oneindia.com. December 29, 2006. External link in |website= (help)
  14. "Boloji.com - A Study in Diversity - News, Views, Analysis, Literature, Poetry, Features - Express Yourself". boloji.com.
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