A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment. Individuals create their own "subjective social reality" from their perception of the input. An individual's construction of social reality, not the objective input, may dictate their behaviour in the social world. Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.
|Part of a series on|
Some cognitive biases are presumably adaptive. Cognitive biases may lead to more effective actions in a given context. Furthermore, allowing cognitive biases enables faster decisions which can be desirable when timeliness is more valuable than accuracy, as illustrated in heuristics. Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations, resulting from a lack of appropriate mental mechanisms (bounded rationality), or simply from a limited capacity for information processing.
A continually evolving list of cognitive biases has been identified over the last six decades of research on human judgment and decision-making in cognitive science, social psychology, and behavioral economics. Kahneman and Tversky (1996) argue that cognitive biases have efficient practical implications for areas including clinical judgment, entrepreneurship, finance, and management.
The notion of cognitive biases was introduced by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in 1972 and grew out of their experience of people's innumeracy, or inability to reason intuitively with the greater orders of magnitude. Tversky, Kahneman and colleagues demonstrated several replicable ways in which human judgments and decisions differ from rational choice theory. Tversky and Kahneman explained human differences in judgment and decision-making in terms of heuristics. Heuristics involve mental shortcuts which provide swift estimates about the possibility of uncertain occurrences. Heuristics are simple for the brain to compute but sometimes introduce "severe and systematic errors."
For example, the representativeness heuristic is defined as the tendency to "judge the frequency or likelihood" of an occurrence by the extent of which the event "resembles the typical case". The "Linda Problem" illustrates the representativeness heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman, 1983). Participants were given a description of "Linda" that suggests Linda might well be a feminist (e.g., she is said to be concerned about discrimination and social justice issues). They were then asked whether they thought Linda was more likely to be (a) a "bank teller" or (b) a "bank teller and active in the feminist movement." A majority chose answer (b). This error (mathematically, answer (b) cannot be more likely than answer (a)) is an example of the "conjunction fallacy"; Tversky and Kahneman argued that respondents chose (b) because it seemed more "representative" or typical of persons who might fit the description of Linda. The representativeness heuristic may lead to errors such as activating stereotypes and inaccurate judgments of others (Haselton et al., 2005, p. 726).
Alternatively, critics of Kahneman and Tversky such as Gerd Gigerenzer argue that heuristics should not lead us to conceive of human thinking as riddled with irrational cognitive biases, but rather to conceive rationality as an adaptive tool that is not identical to the rules of formal logic or the probability calculus. Nevertheless, experiments such as the "Linda problem" grew into heuristics and biases research programs, which spread beyond academic psychology into other disciplines including medicine and political science.
Biases can be distinguished on a number of dimensions. Examples include:
- Biases specific to groups (such as the risky shift) versus biases at the individual level.
- Biases that affect decision-making, where the desirability of options has to be considered (e.g., sunk costs fallacy).
- Biases, such as illusory correlation, that affect judgment of how likely something is or whether one thing is the cause of another.
- Biases that affect memory, such as consistency bias (remembering one's past attitudes and behaviour as more similar to one's present attitudes).
- Biases that reflect a subject's motivation, for example, the desire for a positive self-image leading to egocentric bias and the avoidance of unpleasant cognitive dissonance.
Other biases are due to the particular way the brain perceives, forms memories and makes judgments. This distinction is sometimes described as "hot cognition" versus "cold cognition", as motivated reasoning can involve a state of arousal. Among the "cold" biases,
- some are due to ignoring relevant information (e.g., neglect of probability),
- some involve a decision or judgment being affected by irrelevant information (for example the framing effect where the same problem receives different responses depending on how it is described; or the distinction bias where choices presented together have different outcomes than those presented separately), and
- others give excessive weight to an unimportant but salient feature of the problem (e.g., anchoring).
The fact that some biases reflect motivation, specifically the motivation to have positive attitudes to oneself, accounts for the fact that many biases are self-serving or self-directed (e.g., illusion of asymmetric insight, self-serving bias). There are also biases in how subjects evaluate in-groups or out-groups; evaluating in-groups as more diverse and "better" in many respects, even when those groups are arbitrarily defined (ingroup bias, outgroup homogeneity bias).
Some cognitive biases belong to the subgroup of attentional biases, which refers to paying increased attention to certain stimuli. It has been shown, for example, that people addicted to alcohol and other drugs pay more attention to drug-related stimuli. Common psychological tests to measure those biases are the Stroop task and the dot probe task.
Individuals' susceptibility to some types of cognitive biases can be measured by the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) developed by Frederick (2005).
List of biases
The following is a list of the more commonly studied cognitive biases:
|Fundamental attribution error (FAE)||Also known as the correspondence bias is the tendency for people to over-emphasize personality-based explanations for behaviours observed in others. At the same time, individuals under-emphasize the role and power of situational influences on the same behaviour. Jones and Harris' (1967) classic study illustrates the FAE. Despite being made aware that the target's speech direction (pro-Castro/anti-Castro) was assigned to the writer, participants ignored the situational pressures and attributed pro-Castro attitudes to the writer when the speech represented such attitudes.|
|Priming bias||The tendency to be influenced by what someone else has said to create preconceived idea.|
|Confirmation bias||The tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions. In addition, individuals may discredit information that does not support their views. The confirmation bias is related to the concept of cognitive dissonance, in that individuals may reduce inconsistency by searching for information which re-confirms their views (Jermias, 2001, p. 146).|
|Affinity bias||The tendency to be biased toward people like ourselves|
|Self-serving bias||The tendency to claim more responsibility for successes than failures. It may also manifest itself as a tendency for people to evaluate ambiguous information in a way beneficial to their interests.|
|Belief bias||When one's evaluation of the logical strength of an argument is biased by their belief in the truth or falsity of the conclusion.|
|Framing||Using a too-narrow approach and description of the situation or issue.|
|Hindsight bias||Sometimes called the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect, is the inclination to see past events as being predictable.|
Many social institutions rely on individuals to make rational judgments.
The securities regulation regime largely assumes that all investors act as perfectly rational persons. In truth, actual investors face cognitive limitations from biases, heuristics, and framing effects.
A fair jury trial, for example, requires that the jury ignore irrelevant features of the case, weigh the relevant features appropriately, consider different possibilities open-mindedly and resist fallacies such as appeal to emotion. The various biases demonstrated in these psychological experiments suggest that people will frequently fail to do all these things. However, they fail to do so in systematic, directional ways that are predictable.
Cognitive biases are also related to the persistence of superstition, to large social issues such as prejudice, and they also work as a hindrance in the acceptance of scientific non-intuitive knowledge by the public.
However, in some academic disciplines, the study of bias is very popular. For instance, bias is a wide spread and well studied phenomenon because most decisions that concern the minds and hearts of entrepreneurs are computationally intractable.
Because they cause systematic errors, cognitive biases cannot be compensated for using a wisdom of the crowd technique of averaging answers from several people. Debiasing is the reduction of biases in judgment and decision-making through incentives, nudges, and training. Cognitive bias mitigation and cognitive bias modification are forms of debiasing specifically applicable to cognitive biases and their effects. Reference class forecasting is a method for systematically debiasing estimates and decisions, based on what Daniel Kahneman has dubbed the outside view.
Similar to Gigerenzer (1996), Haselton et al. (2005) state the content and direction of cognitive biases are not "arbitrary" (p. 730). Moreover, cognitive biases can be controlled. One debiasing technique aims to decrease biases by encouraging individuals to use controlled processing compared to automatic processing. In relation to reducing the FAE, monetary incentives and informing participants they will be held accountable for their attributions have been linked to the increase of accurate attributions. Training has also shown to reduce cognitive bias. Morewedge and colleagues (2015) found that research participants exposed to one-shot training interventions, such as educational videos and debiasing games that taught mitigating strategies, exhibited significant reductions in their commission of six cognitive biases immediately and up to 3 months later.
Cognitive bias modification refers to the process of modifying cognitive biases in healthy people and also refers to a growing area of psychological (non-pharmaceutical) therapies for anxiety, depression and addiction called cognitive bias modification therapy (CBMT). CBMT is sub-group of therapies within a growing area of psychological therapies based on modifying cognitive processes with or without accompanying medication and talk therapy, sometimes referred to as applied cognitive processing therapies (ACPT). Although cognitive bias modification can refer to modifying cognitive processes in healthy individuals, CBMT is a growing area of evidence-based psychological therapy, in which cognitive processes are modified to relieve suffering from serious depression, anxiety, and addiction. CBMT techniques are technology assisted therapies that are delivered via a computer with or without clinician support. CBM combines evidence and theory from the cognitive model of anxiety, cognitive neuroscience, and attentional models.
Common theoretical causes of some cognitive biases
Bias arises from various processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. These include:
- Bounded rationality — limits on optimization and rationality
- Attribute substitution — making a complex, difficult judgment by unconsciously replacing it with an easier judgment
- Attribution theory
- Cognitive dissonance, and related:
- Information-processing shortcuts (heuristics), including:
- Availability heuristic — estimating what is more likely by what is more available in memory, which is biased toward vivid, unusual, or emotionally charged examples
- Representativeness heuristic — judging probabilities based on resemblance
- Affect heuristic — basing a decision on an emotional reaction rather than a calculation of risks and benefits
- Emotional and moral motivations deriving, for example, from:
- Introspection illusion
- Misinterpretations or misuse of statistics; innumeracy.
- Social influence
- The brain's limited information processing capacity
- Noisy information processing (distortions during storage in and retrieval from memory). For example, a 2012 Psychological Bulletin article suggests that at least eight seemingly unrelated biases can be produced by the same information-theoretic generative mechanism. The article shows that noisy deviations in the memory-based information processes that convert objective evidence (observations) into subjective estimates (decisions) can produce regressive conservatism, the belief revision (Bayesian conservatism), illusory correlations, illusory superiority (better-than-average effect) and worse-than-average effect, subadditivity effect, exaggerated expectation, overconfidence, and the hard–easy effect.
Individual differences in decision-making biases
People do appear to have stable individual differences in their susceptibility to decision biases such as overconfidence, temporal discounting, and bias blind spot. That said, these stable levels of bias within individuals are possible to change. Participants in experiments who watched training videos and played debiasing games showed medium to large reductions both immediately and up to three months later in the extent to which they exhibited susceptibility to six cognitive biases: anchoring, bias blind spot, confirmation bias, fundamental attribution error, projection bias, and representativeness.
There are criticisms against theories of cognitive biases based on the fact that both sides in a debate often claim each other's thoughts to be in human nature and the result of cognitive bias, while claiming their own viewpoints as being the correct way to "overcome" cognitive bias. This is not due simply to debate misconduct but is a more fundamental problem that stems from psychology's making up of multiple opposed cognitive bias theories that can be non-falsifiably used to explain away any viewpoint.
- Baconian method § Idols of the mind (idola mentis)
- Cognitive bias mitigation
- Cognitive bias modification
- Cognitive dissonance
- Cognitive distortion
- Cognitive inertia
- Cognitive psychology
- Cognitive traps for intelligence analysis
- Critical thinking
- Cultural cognition
- Emotional bias
- Evolutionary psychology
- Expectation bias
- False consensus effect
- Implicit stereotype
- Jumping to conclusions
- List of cognitive biases
- Magical thinking
- Presumption of guilt
- Systemic bias
- Haselton, M. G.; Nettle, D. & Andrews, P. W. (2005). The evolution of cognitive bias (PDF). In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 724–746.
- Bless, H.; Fiedler, K. & Strack, F. (2004). Social cognition: How individuals construct social reality. Hove and New York: Psychology Press.
- Kahneman, D.; Tversky, A. (1972). "Subjective probability: A judgment of representativeness" (PDF). Cognitive Psychology. 3 (3): 430–454. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(72)90016-3.
- Baron, J. (2007). Thinking and Deciding (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Ariely, Dan (2008). Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. New York, NY: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-135323-9.
- For instance: Gigerenzer, G.; Goldstein, D. G. (1996). "Reasoning the fast and frugal way: Models of bounded rationality" (PDF). Psychological Review. 103 (4): 650–669. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.174.4404. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.103.4.650. PMID 8888650.
- Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1974). "Judgement under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases". Science. 185 (4157): 1124–1131. Bibcode:1974Sci...185.1124T. doi:10.1126/science.185.4157.1124. PMID 17835457.
- Haselton, M. G.; Nettle, D. & Andrews, P. W. (2005). The evolution of cognitive bias. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 724–746.
- Bless, H.; Fiedler, K. & Strack, F. (2004). Social cognition: How individuals construct social reality. Hove and New York: Psychology Press.
- Morewedge, Carey K.; Kahneman, Daniel (2010-01-10). "Associative processes in intuitive judgment". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 14 (10): 435–440. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2010.07.004. ISSN 1364-6613. PMC 5378157. PMID 20696611.
- Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1996). "On the reality of cognitive illusions" (PDF). Psychological Review. 103 (3): 582–591. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.174.5117. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.103.3.582. PMID 8759048.
- S.X. Zhang; J. Cueto (2015). "The Study of Bias in Entrepreneurship". Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 41 (3): 419–454. doi:10.1111/etap.12212.
- Kahneman, Daniel; Shane Frederick (2002). "Representativeness Revisited: Attribute Substitution in Intuitive Judgment". In Thomas Gilovich; Dale Griffin; Daniel Kahneman (eds.). Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-0-521-79679-8.
- Baumeister, R. F.; Bushman, B. J. (2010). Social psychology and human nature: International Edition. Belmont, USA: Wadsworth. p. 141.
- Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1983). "Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: The conjunction fallacy in probability judgement" (PDF). Psychological Review. 90 (4): 293–315. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.90.4.293.
- Gigerenzer, G. (2006). "Bounded and Rational". In Stainton, R. J. (ed.). Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science. Blackwell. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4051-1304-5.
- Schacter, D.L. (1999). "The Seven Sins of Memory: Insights From Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience". American Psychologist. 54 (3): 182–203. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.3.182. PMID 10199218.
- Kunda, Z. (1990). "The Case for Motivated Reasoning" (PDF). Psychological Bulletin. 108 (3): 480–498. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.108.3.480. PMID 2270237. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-07-06. Retrieved 2017-10-27.
- Hoorens, V. (1993). "Self-enhancement and Superiority Biases in Social Comparison". In Stroebe, W.; Hewstone, Miles (eds.). European Review of Social Psychology 4. Wiley.
- Jensen AR, Rohwer WD (1966). "The Stroop color-word test: a review". Acta Psychologica. 25 (1): 36–93. doi:10.1016/0001-6918(66)90004-7. PMID 5328883.
- MacLeod CM (March 1991). "Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: an integrative review". Psychological Bulletin. 109 (2): 163–203. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.475.2563. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.109.2.163. PMID 2034749.
- Frederick, Shane (2005). "Cognitive Reflection and Decision Making". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 19 (4): 25–42. doi:10.1257/089533005775196732. ISSN 0895-3309.
- Oechssler, Jörg; Roider, Andreas; Schmitz, Patrick W. (2009). "Cognitive abilities and behavioral biases" (PDF). Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 72 (1): 147–152. doi:10.1016/j.jebo.2009.04.018. ISSN 0167-2681.
- Baumeister, R. F.; Bushman, B. J. (2010). Social psychology and human nature: International Edition. Belmont, USA: Wadsworth.
- Jones, E. E. & Harris, V. A (1967). "The attribution of attitudes". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 3: 1–24. doi:10.1016/0022-1031(67)90034-0.
- Mahoney, M. J. (1977). "Publication prejudices: An experimental study of confirmatory bias in the peer review system". Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1 (2): 161–175. doi:10.1007/bf01173636.
- Jermias, J. (2001). "Cognitive dissonance and resistance to change: The influence of commitment confirmation and feedback on judgement usefulness of accounting systems". Accounting, Organizations and Society. 26 (2): 141–160. doi:10.1016/s0361-3682(00)00008-8.
- Sutherland, Stuart (2007) Irrationality: The Enemy Within Second Edition (First Edition 1994) Pinter & Martin. ISBN 978-1-905177-07-3
- Günter Radden; H. Cuyckens (2003). Motivation in language: studies in honor of Günter Radden. John Benjamins. p. 275. ISBN 978-1-58811-426-6.
- Marcus Buckingham; Ashley Goodall. "The Feedback Fallacy". Harvard Business Review. No. March–April 2019.
- Gigerenzer, G. (1996). "On narrow norms and vague heuristics: A reply to Kahneman and Tversky (1996)". Psychological Review. 103 (3): 592–596. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.314.996. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.103.3.592.
- Vonk, R. (1999). "Effects of outcome dependency on correspondence bias". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 25 (3): 382–389. doi:10.1177/0146167299025003009.
- Tetlock, P. E. (1985). "Accountability: A social check on the fundamental attribution error". Social Psychology Quarterly. 48 (3): 227–236. doi:10.2307/3033683. JSTOR 3033683.
- Morewedge, Carey K.; Yoon, Haewon; Scopelliti, Irene; Symborski, Carl W.; Korris, James H.; Kassam, Karim S. (2015-08-13). "Debiasing Decisions Improved Decision Making With a Single Training Intervention". Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 2: 129–140. doi:10.1177/2372732215600886. ISSN 2372-7322.
- MacLeod, C.; Mathews, A.; Tata, P. (1986). "Attentional Bias in Emotional Disorders". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 95 (1): 15–20. doi:10.1037/0021-843x.95.1.15. PMID 3700842.
- Bar-Haim, Y.; Lamy, D.; Pergamin, L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2007). "Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: a meta-analytic study". Psychol Bull. 133 (1): 1–24. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.324.4312. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.1. PMID 17201568.
- Holmes, E. A.; Lang, T. J.; Shah, D. M. (2009). "Developing interpretation bias modification as a "cognitive vaccine" for depressed mood: imagining positive events makes you feel better than thinking about them verbally". J Abnorm Psychol. 118 (1): 76–88. doi:10.1037/a0012590. PMID 19222316.
- Hakamata, Y.; Lissek, S.; Bar-Haim, Y.; Britton, J. C.; Fox, N. A.; Leibenluft, E.; Pine, D. S. (2010). "Attention bias modification treatment: a meta-analysis toward the establishment of novel treatment for anxiety". Biol Psychiatry. 68 (11): 982–990. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.07.021. PMC 3296778. PMID 20887977.
- Eberl, C.; Wiers, R. W.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E. S.; Lindenmeyer, J. (2013). "Approach bias modification in alcohol dependence: Do clinical effects replicate and for whom does it work best?". Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 4: 38–51. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2012.11.002. PMID 23218805.
- Clark, D. A., & Beck, A. T. (2009). Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders: Science and Practice. London: Guildford.
- Browning, M.; Holmes, E. A.; Murphy, S. E.; Goodwin, G. M.; Harmer, C. J. (2010). "Lateral prefrontal cortex mediates the cognitive modification of attentional bias". Biol Psychiatry. 67 (10): 919–925. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.10.031. PMC 2866253. PMID 20034617.
- Eysenck, M. W.; Derakshan, N.; Santos, R.; Calvo, M. G. (2007). "Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory". Emotion. 7 (2): 336–353. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.453.3592. doi:10.1037/1528-3522.214.171.1246. PMID 17516812.
- Kahneman, Daniel; Shane Frederick (2002). "Representativeness Revisited: Attribute Substitution in Intuitive Judgment". In Thomas Gilovich; Dale Griffin; Daniel Kahneman (eds.). Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 49–81. ISBN 978-0-521-79679-8. OCLC 47364085.
- Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., & Tversky, A. (1982). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Tversky, Amos; Daniel Kahneman (September 27, 1974). "Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases". Science. 185 (4157): 1124–1131. Bibcode:1974Sci...185.1124T. doi:10.1126/science.185.4157.1124. PMID 17835457.
- Slovic, Paul; Melissa Finucane; Ellen Peters; Donald G. MacGregor (2002). "The Affect Heuristic". In Thomas Gilovich; Dale Griffin; Daniel Kahneman (eds.). Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment. Cambridge University Press. pp. 397–420. ISBN 978-0-521-79679-8.
- Pfister, H.-R.; Böhm, G. (2008). "The multiplicity of emotions: A framework of emotional functions in decision making". Judgment and Decision Making. 3: 5–17.
- Wang, X. T.; Simons, F.; Brédart, S. (2001). "Social cues and verbal framing in risky choice". Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 14 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1002/1099-0771(200101)14:1<1::AID-BDM361>3.0.CO;2-N.
- Simon, H. A. (1955). "A behavioral model of rational choice". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 69 (1): 99–118. doi:10.2307/1884852. JSTOR 1884852.
- Martin Hilbert (2012). "Toward a synthesis of cognitive biases: How noisy information processing can bias human decision making" (PDF). Psychological Bulletin. 138 (2): 211–237. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.432.8763. doi:10.1037/a0025940. PMID 22122235. Lay summary.
- Scopelliti, Irene; Morewedge, Carey K.; McCormick, Erin; Min, H. Lauren; Lebrecht, Sophie; Kassam, Karim S. (2015-04-24). "Bias Blind Spot: Structure, Measurement, and Consequences". Management Science. 61 (10): 2468–2486. doi:10.1287/mnsc.2014.2096.
- Morewedge, Carey K.; Yoon, Haewon; Scopelliti, Irene; Symborski, Carl W.; Korris, James H.; Kassam, Karim S. (2015-10-01). "Debiasing Decisions Improved Decision Making With a Single Training Intervention". Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 2 (1): 129–140. doi:10.1177/2372732215600886. ISSN 2372-7322.
- Eiser, J.R. and Joop van der Pligt (1988) Attitudes and Decisions London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-01112-9
- Fine, Cordelia (2006) A Mind of its Own: How your brain distorts and deceives Cambridge, UK: Icon Books. ISBN 1-84046-678-2
- Gilovich, Thomas (1993). How We Know What Isn't So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 0-02-911706-2
- Haselton, M.G., Nettle, D. & Andrews, P.W. (2005). The evolution of cognitive bias. In D.M. Buss (Ed.), Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, (pp. 724–746). Hoboken: Wiley. Full text
- Heuer, Richards J. Jr. (1999). "Psychology of Intelligence Analysis. Central Intelligence Agency".
- Young, S. (2007) Micromessaging - Why Great Leadership Is Beyond Words New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-146757-5
- Kahneman D., Slovic P., and Tversky, A. (Eds.) (1982) Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. New York: Cambridge University Press ISBN 978-0-521-28414-1
- Kahneman, Daniel (2011) Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux ISBN 978-0-374-27563-1
- Kida, Thomas (2006) Don't Believe Everything You Think: The 6 Basic Mistakes We Make in Thinking New York: Prometheus. ISBN 978-1-59102-408-8
- Nisbett, R., and Ross, L. (1980) Human Inference: Strategies and shortcomings of human judgement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall ISBN 978-0-13-445130-5
- Piatelli-Palmarini, Massimo (1994) Inevitable Illusions: How Mistakes of Reason Rule Our Minds New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-15962-X
- Stanovich, Keith (2009). What Intelligence Tests Miss: The Psychology of Rational Thought. New Haven (CT): Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12385-2. Lay summary (PDF) (21 November 2010).
- Sutherland, Stuart (2007) Irrationality: The Enemy Within Second Edition (First Edition 1994) Pinter & Martin. ISBN 978-1-905177-07-3
- Tavris, Carol and Elliot Aronson (2007) Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me): Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions and Hurtful Acts Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Books. ISBN 978-0-15-101098-1
- Funder, David C.; Joachim I. Krueger (June 2004). "Towards a balanced social psychology: Causes, consequences, and cures for the problem-seeking approach to social behavior and cognition" (PDF). Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 27 (3): 313–376. doi:10.1017/s0140525x04000081. PMID 15736870. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Cognitive bias|