Close-mid central unrounded vowel

The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɘ. This is a mirrored letter e, and should not be confused with the schwa ə, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ë (Latin small letter e with umlaut, not Cyrillic small letter yo). Certain older sources[2] transcribe this vowel ɤ̈.

Close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɘ
ë
ɤ̈
ə̝
IPA Number397
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɘ
Unicode (hex)U+0258
X-SAMPA@\
Braille
Audio sample
source · help

The ɘ letter may be used with a lowering diacritic ɘ̞, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel.

Conversely, ə, the symbol for the mid central vowel may be used with a raising diacritic ə̝ to denote the close-mid central unrounded vowel, although that is more accurately written with an additional unrounding diacritic ə̝͑ to explicitly denote the lack of rounding (the canonical value of IPA ə is undefined for rounding).

To type this symbol on Windows, press and hold the ALT key while typing "600" using the number pad keys.

Features

  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AzerbaijaniTabriz[3]qız قیز[ɡɘz]'girl'Typically transcribed in IPA with ɯ.
Cotabato Manobo[4]May be transcribed in IPA with ə.
DinkaLuanyjang[5]ŋeŋ[ŋɘ́ŋ]'jawbone'Short allophone of /e/.[5]
EnglishAustralian[6][7]bird[bɘːd]'bird'Typically transcribed in IPA with ɜː. See Australian English phonology
Southern Michigan[8][bɚ̝ːd]Rhotacized; typically transcribed in IPA with ɚ.
Cardiff[9]foot[fɘt]'foot'Less often rounded [ɵ];[10] corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
New Zealand[11]bit[bɘt]'bit'Merger of /ə/ and /ɪ/ found in other dialects. See New Zealand English phonology
Southern American[12]nut[nɘt]'nut'Some dialects.[12] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Estonian[13]kõrv[kɘrv]'ear'Typically transcribed in IPA with ɤ; can be close-mid back [ɤ] or close back [ɯ] instead, depending on the speaker.[13] See Estonian phonology
IrishMunster[14]sáile[ˈsˠɰaːlʲə̝]'salt water'Usually transcribed in IPA with [ɪ̽]. It is an allophone of /ə/ next to non-palatal slender consonants.[14] See Irish phonology
Jebero[15][ˈiʃɘk]'bat'
Kaingang[16][ˈᵐbɘ]'tail'Varies between central [ɘ] and back [ɤ].[17]
Kalagan Kaagan[18][miˈwə̝ːʔ]'lost'Allophone of /ɨ/ in word-final stressed syllables before /ʔ/; can be transcribed in IPA with ə.[18]
Kensiu[19][ɟɚ̝h]'to trim'Rhotacized; may be transcribed in IPA with ɚ.[19]
Kera[20][t͡ʃə̝̄wā̠a̠]'fire'Allophone of /a/; typically transcribed in IPA with ə.[20]
Korean[21][ə̝ːɾɯ̽n]'senior'May be transcribed in IPA with əː. See Korean phonology
Lizu[22][Fkə̝]'eagle'Allophone of /ə/ after velar stops.[22]
Mapudungun[23]elün[ë̝ˈlɘn]'to leave (something)'
Mongolian[24]үсэр[usɘɾɘ̆]'jump'
Mono[25]dœ[də̝]'be (equative)'May be transcribed in IPA with ə.[25]
Polish[26]mysz[mɘ̟ʂ] 'mouse'Somewhat fronted;[26] typically transcribed in IPA with ɨ. See Polish phonology
RomanianMoldavian dialects[27]casă[ˈkäsɘ]'house'Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Shiwiar[28]
Temne[29]pər[pə̝́r]'incite'Typically transcribed in IPA with ə.[29]
Vietnamese[30]v[vɘ˨˩ˀ]'wife'Typically transcribed in IPA with ɤ. See Vietnamese phonology
XumiUpper[31][LPmɘ̃dɐ]'upstairs'Nasalized; occurs only in this word.[31] It is realized as mid [ə̃] in Lower Xumi.[32]
ZapotecTilquiapan[33]ne[nɘ]'and'Most common realization of /e/.[33]

Notes

  1. While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. For example Collins & Mees (1990).
  3. Mokari & Werner (2016).
  4. Kerr (1988:110)
  5. Remijsen & Manyang (2009:117, 119)
  6. Cox (2006:?)
  7. Durie & Hajek (1994:?)
  8. Hillenbrand (2003:122)
  9. Collins & Mees (1990:93)
  10. Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  11. Bauer et al. (2007)
  12. Roca & Johnson (1999:186)
  13. Asu & Teras (2009), pp. 368–369.
  14. Ó Sé (2000)
  15. Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013:101)
  16. Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  17. Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
  18. Wendel & Wendel (1978:198)
  19. Bishop (1996:230)
  20. Pearce (2011:251)
  21. Lee (1999:121)
  22. Chirkova & Chen (2013a:79)
  23. Sadowsky et al. (2013:92)
  24. Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  25. Olson (2004:235)
  26. Jassem (2003:105) The source transcribes this sound with the symbol ɨ but one can see from the vowel chart at pag. 105 that the Polish sound is closer to [ɘ] than to [ɨ].
  27. Pop (1938), p. 29.
  28. Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  29. Kanu & Tucker (2010:249)
  30. Hoang (1965:24)
  31. Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013:389)
  32. Chirkova & Chen (2013b:370)
  33. Merrill (2008:109–110)

References

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
  • Bishop, Nancy (1996), "A preliminary description of Kensiu (Maniq) phonology" (PDF), Mon–Khmer Studies Journal, 25
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013a), "Lizu" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 75–86, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000242
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013b), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (1990), "The Phonetics of Cardiff English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 87–103, ISBN 1-85359-032-0
  • Cox, F.M. (2006), "The acoustic characteristics of /hVd/ vowels in the speech of some Australian teenagers", Australian Journal of Linguistics, 26: 147–179, doi:10.1080/07268600600885494
  • Durie, M.; Hajek, J. (1994), "A revised standard phonemic orthography for Australian English vowels", Australian Journal of Linguistics, 14 (1): 93–107, doi:10.1080/07268609408599503
  • Fast Mowitz, Gerhard (1975), Sistema fonológico del idioma achual, Lima: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano
  • Hillenbrand, James M. (2003), "American English: Southern Michigan" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 121–126, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001221
  • Hoang, Thi Quynh Hoa (1965), A phonological contrastive study of Vietnamese and English (PDF), Lubbock, Texas: Texas Technological College
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685
  • Kanu, Sullay M.; Tucker, Benjamin V. (2010), "Temne", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 247–253, doi:10.1017/S002510031000006X
  • Kerr, Harland (1988), "Cotabato Manobo Grammar" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 7 (1): 1–123, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-11
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Mokari, Payam Ghaffarvand; Werner, Stefan (2016), Dziubalska-Kolaczyk, Katarzyna (ed.), "An acoustic description of spectral and temporal characteristics of Azerbaijani vowels", Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 52 (3), doi:10.1515/psicl-2016-0019
  • Olson, Kenneth S. (2004), "Mono" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 233–238, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001744
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0
  • Pearce, Mary (2011), "Kera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41 (2): 249–258, doi:10.1017/S0025100311000168
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Remijsen, Bert; Manyang, Caguor Adong (2009), "Luanyjang Dinka" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (1): 113–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003605, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-09
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21345-7
  • Sadowsky, Scott; Painequeo, Héctor; Salamanca, Gastón; Avelino, Heriberto (2013), "Mapudungun", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 87–96, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000369
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2013), "Shiwilu (Jebero)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 97–106, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000370
  • Wendel, Åsa; Wendel, Dag (1978), "Kaagan-Kalagan phonemic statement" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 2 (1): 191–203, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-11
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