Clifford Benjamin Brown (October 30, 1930 – June 26, 1956) was an American jazz trumpeter. He died at the age of 25 in a car accident, leaving behind four years' worth of recordings. He was also a composer of note: his compositions "Sandu," "Joy Spring," and "Daahoud" have become jazz standards.
|Birth name||Clifford Benjamin Brown|
|Born||October 30, 1930|
Wilmington, Delaware, United States
|Died||June 26, 1956 25) (aged|
|Genres||Jazz, bebop, hard bop|
|Associated acts||Max Roach, Harold Land, Lionel Hampton, Sonny Rollins|
Brown won the Down Beat critics' poll for New Star of the Year in 1954; he was inducted into the DownBeat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1972 in the critics' poll. He influenced later jazz trumpeters such as Booker Little, Freddie Hubbard, and Lee Morgan.
Brown was born into a musical family in a progressive East-Side neighborhood of Wilmington, Delaware. His father organized his four youngest sons, including Clifford, into a vocal quartet. Around age ten, Brown started playing trumpet at school after becoming fascinated with the shiny trumpet his father owned. At age thirteen, upon entering senior high, his father bought him his own trumpet and provided him with private lessons. As a junior in high school, he received lessons from Robert Boysie Lowery and played in "a jazz group that Lowery organized." He even began making trips to Philadelphia. Brown took pride in his neighborhood and earned a good education from Howard High.
Brown briefly attended Delaware State University as a math major, before he switched to Maryland State College, which was a more prosperous musical environment. As Nick Catalano points out, Brown's trips to Philadelphia grew in frequency after he graduated from high school and entered Delaware State University; it could be said that, although his dorm was in Dover, his classroom was in Philadelphia. Brown played in the fourteen-piece, jazz-oriented, Maryland State Band. In June 1950, he was seriously injured in a car accident after a successful gig. During his year-long hospitalization, Dizzy Gillespie visited the younger trumpeter and pushed him to pursue his musical career. Brown's injuries limited him to the piano for months; he never fully recovered and would routinely dislocate his shoulder for the rest of his life. Brown moved into playing music professionally, where he quickly became one of the most highly regarded trumpeters in jazz.
Brown was influenced and encouraged by Fats Navarro, whom he first met at the age of 15, sharing Navarro's virtuosic technique and brilliance of invention. His sound was warm and round, and notably consistent across the full range of the instrument. He could articulate every note, even at very fast tempos which seemed to present no difficulty to him; this served to enhance the impression of his speed of execution. His sense of harmony was highly developed, enabling him to deliver bold statements through complex harmonic progressions (chord changes), and embodying the linear, "algebraic" terms of bebop harmony. In addition to his up-tempo prowess, he could express himself deeply in a ballad performance.
His first recordings were with R&B bandleader Chris Powell, following which he performed with Tadd Dameron, J. J. Johnson, Lionel Hampton, and Art Blakey before forming his own group with Max Roach. The Clifford Brown & Max Roach Quintet was a high-water mark of the hard bop style, with all the members of the group except for bassist George Morrow contributing original songs. Brown's trumpet was originally partnered with Harold Land's tenor saxophone. After Land left in 1955 in order to spend more time with his wife, Sonny Rollins joined and remained a member of the group for the rest of its existence. In their hands, the bebop vernacular reached a peak of inventiveness.
The clean-living Brown escaped the influence of heroin and alcohol on the jazz world. Brown stayed away from drugs and was not fond of alcohol. Rollins, who was recovering from heroin addiction, said that "Clifford was a profound influence on my personal life. He showed me that it was possible to live a good, clean life and still be a good jazz musician."
In June 1956, Brown and Richie Powell embarked on a drive to Chicago for their next appearance. Powell's wife Nancy was at the wheel so that Clifford and Richie could sleep. While driving at night in the rain on the Pennsylvania Turnpike, west of Bedford, she is presumed to have lost control of the car, which went off the road, killing all three in the resulting crash. Brown is buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery, in Wilmington, Delaware.
On June 26, 1954, in Los Angeles, Brown married Emma LaRue Anderson (maiden; 1933–2005), who he called "Joy Spring," the namesake of one of his compositions. The two had been introduced by Max Roach. They actually celebrated their marriage vows three times, partly because their families were on opposite coasts and partly because of their differing religions – Brown was Methodist and Anderson was Catholic. They were first married in a private ceremony June 26, 1954, in Los Angeles (on Anderson's 21st birthday). They again celebrated their marriage in a religious setting on July 16, 1954 – the certificate being registered in Los Angeles County – and a reception was held at the Tiffany Club where the Art Pepper/Jack Montrose Quintet had been replaced a few days earlier by the Red Norvo Trio with Tal Farlow and Red Mitchell. Then, Anderson's parish priest followed them to Boston, where, on August 1, 1954, they performed their marriage ceremony at Saint Richards Church in the Roxbury neighborhood. They had a son, Clifford Benjamin Brown, Jr. (born 1955).
His nephew, drummer Rayford Griffin (né Rayford Galen Griffin; born 1958), modernized Brown's music on his 2015 album Reflections of Brownie. Brown's grandson, Clifford Benjamin Brown III (born 1982), plays trumpet on one of the tracks, "Sandu".
Benny Golson, who had done a stint in Lionel Hampton's band with Brown, and was a member along with Brown of Tadd Dameron's Big 10, wrote "I Remember Clifford" to honor his memory. The piece became a jazz standard, as musicians paid tribute by recording their own interpretations of it.
Duke Pearson who had yet to record for Blue Note records wrote "Tribute To Brownie", which was recorded by the Cannonball Adderley Quintet on his 1957 album, Sophisticated Swing. It also appeared on an album by trumpeter Louis Smith, Here Comes Louis Smith with Cannonball again on alto saxophone.
Helen Merrill, who recorded with Brown in 1954 (Helen Merrill, EmArcy), recorded a tribute album in 1995 entitled Brownie: Homage to Clifford Brown. The album features solos and ensemble work by trumpeters Lew Soloff, Tom Harrell, Wallace Roney, and Roy Hargrove.
Each year, Wilmington hosts the Clifford Brown Jazz Festival.
Brownie Speaks, a video documentary, is the culmination of years of research by Wilmington-born jazz pianist Don Glanden, research that has included interviews with Brown's friends, family, contemporaries, and admirers. Glanden's son Brad edited these interviews, along with archival materials and newly shot video footage. The documentary premiered in 2008 at the "Brownie Speaks" Clifford Brown Symposium hosted by the University of the Arts in Philadelphia. The three-day symposium featured performances from close friends and bandmates of Brown such as Golson and Lou Donaldson and other artists inspired by Brown, including Marcus Belgrave, Terence Blanchard, and John Fedchock.
Spanish film director Jesús Franco often used Clifford Brown as a screen pseudonym in homage to one of his musical heroes.
In 1994, Brown's widow, LaRue Brown Watson, established the Clifford Brown Jazz Foundation, a 501(c)(3) organization dedicated to Brown's memory and inspiring a love for jazz among young people. The Foundation is under the direction of Clifford Brown III, Brown's grandson and a respected Bay Area trumpeter and music producer.
In 2014 a campaign was launched to restore Brown's grave site at Mt. Zion Cemetery on Lancaster Pike, just outside the city limits in Wilmington, Delaware.
As leader or co-leader
- New Star On The Horizon (Blue Note 5032 [10" LP], 1953) - sextet with Gigi Gryce, Charlie Rouse, and John Lewis
- Clifford Brown Quartet (Vogue Productions – L.D. 179, rec. 1953 in Paris; rel. 1954)
- Memorial Album (Blue Note 1526, 1953; rel. 1956; CD reissue: Blue Note/Capitol-EMI 32141, rel. 2001)
- Clifford Brown And Art Farmer With The Swedish All Stars (Prestige 167 [10" LP], 1953)
- Memorial (Prestige 7055, 1953; rel. 1955; CD reissue: OJC-Fantasy 017, rel. 1990) - note: this 12" reissues both Prestige 10" albums, #159 and #167.
- Clifford Brown Quartet In Paris (1953) (Prestige 7761, 1969)
- Clifford Brown Sextet In Paris (1953) (Prestige 7794, 1970)
- Clifford Brown Big Band In Paris (1953) (Prestige 7840, 1969)
- Clifford Brown In Paris (Paris 1953 consolidated master takes from above plus Prestige Memorial) 2 LP set (Prestige 24020, 1971)
- Max Roach and Clifford Brown In Concert (Gene Norman Presents Vol. 5 [10" LP], 1954) - with Teddy Edwards, and Carl Perkins
- Max Roach and Clifford Brown In Concert (Gene Norman Presents Vol. 7 [10" LP], 1954) - with Harold Land, and Richie Powell
- The Best Of Max Roach and Clifford Brown In Concert (Gene Norman Presents GNP-18 [12" LP], rel. 1956)
- Clifford Brown Ensemble / Arranged by Montrose (Pacific Jazz PJLP-19 [10" LP], 1954) - septet with Stu Williamson, Zoot Sims, Bob Gordon, and Russ Freeman (re-released as Jazz Messages on Jazztone J 1281)
- Clifford Brown: Jazz Immortal (Pacific Jazz PJ-3, 1954; rel. 1955; CD reissue: Pacific Jazz/Capitol-EMI 32142 [remastered Rudy Van Gelder edition], rel. 2001)
- Clifford Brown & Max Roach (EmArcy 26043 [10" LP], 1954; EmArcy 36036 [12" LP], rel. 1955) - with Harold Land
- Jam Session (EmArcy 36002, 1954) - with Clark Terry, Maynard Ferguson, Harold Land and Herb Geller
- Clifford Brown with Strings (EmArcy 36005, 1955)
- Brown and Roach Incorporated (EmArcy 36008, 1954; rel. 1955) with Harold Land
- Study in Brown (EmArcy 36037, 1955) - with Harold Land
- Best Coast Jazz (EmArcy 36039, 1954; rel. 1955) - with Herb Geller, Walter Benton, and Joe Maini
- Clifford Brown and Max Roach at Basin Street (EmArcy 36070, 1956) - with Sonny Rollins
- Clifford Brown All Stars (EmArcy 36102, 1954; rel. 1956) - album AKA Caravan - with Herb Geller Walter Benton Joe Maini
- Daahoud (Mainstream 386, 1954; rel. 1972) - note: all alternate takes of EmArcy material.
- The Beginning And The End (Columbia, rel. 1973) - note: contains material from 1952 with Chris Powell and His Blue Flames, plus a club gig with Billy Root and Ziggy Vines in Philadelphia recorded on either 31 May 1955 (from Nick Catalano's biography) or 25 June 1956 (from the liner notes).
With Art Blakey
- A Night at Birdland Vol. 1 (Blue Note 5037 [10" LP], 1954)
- A Night at Birdland Vol. 2 (Blue Note 5038 [10" LP], 1954)
- A Night at Birdland Vol. 3 (Blue Note 5039 [10" LP], 1954)
- A Night at Birdland Vol. 1 (Blue Note 1521 [12" LP], released 1956)
- A Night at Birdland Vol. 2 (Blue Note 1522 [12" LP], released 1956)
With Tadd Dameron
- A Study In Dameronia (Prestige 159 [10" LP], 1953) part of Prestige Memorial Album
With Lou Donaldson
- Lou Donaldson/Clifford Brown: New Faces-New Sounds (Blue Note 5030 [10" LP], 1953) part of Blue Note Memorial Album
With Gigi Gryce
- Gigi Gryce/Clifford Brown Sextet (Blue Note 5048 [10" LP], rec. 1953 in Paris; rel. 1954)
- Gigi Gryce And His Big Band, Vol. 1 (Blue Note 5049 [10" LP], rec. 1953 in Paris; rel. 1954)
- Gigi Gryce And His Little Band, Vol. 2 (Blue Note 5050 [10" LP], rec. 1953 in Paris; rel. 1954)
With J. J. Johnson
- Jay Jay Johnson With Clifford Brown (Blue Note 5028 [10" LP], 1953)
- The Eminent Jay Jay Johnson Volume 1 (Blue Note 1505 [12' LP], rel. 1956)
With Helen Merrill
- Helen Merrill (EmArcy 36006, 1954; rel. 1955)
With Sonny Rollins
- Sonny Rollins Plus 4 (Prestige 7038, 1956)
With Sarah Vaughan
- Sarah Vaughan with Clifford Brown (EmArcy 36004, 1954; rel. 1955)
With Dinah Washington
- Dinah Jams (EmArcy 36000, 1954)
Selected CD sets
- The Complete EmArcy Recordings Of Clifford Brown (Verve-Universal, 2013 [UPC: 600753422526]; 10-CD set)
- Brownie Speaks: The Complete Blue Note Albums (Blue Note-UMe B0020657 02, 2014 [UPC: 602537816125]; 3-CD set) - note: includes all of the material from the six original 10" LP releases: 5028, 5030, 5032, 5037, 5038, 5039, plus 11 alternate takes.
- Max Roach: Alone Together: The Best of the Mercury Years (Verve 2CD, 1954-60 )
- Catalano, Nick (2000). Clifford Brown: The Life and Art of the Legendary Jazz Trumpeter. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-19-510083-2.
- allmusic Biography
- "Jazz Standards Songs and Instrumentals (Joy Spring)". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- "Jazz Standards Songs and Instrumentals (Daahoud)". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- Carr, Ian; Fairweather, Digby; Priestley, Brian (2004). The Rough Guide to Jazz. Rough Guides. pp. 102. ISBN 1-84353-256-5.
- Catalano, Nick (2000). Clifford Brown: The Life and Art of the Legendary Jazz Trumpeter. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 208. ISBN 0-19-510083-2.
- Carson, Charles (July 10, 2010). "Clifford Brown's Philadelphia". Scribd. p. 5. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- Rosenthal, David, H. Hard Bop: Jazz and Black Music 1955–1965. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505869-0.
- "Brown, Clifford". Archived from the original on 2013-08-30.
- Catalano, Nick (2001-01-01). Clifford Brown: The Life and Art of the Legendary Jazz Trumpeter. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195144000.
- "Clifford Brown Jazz Festival, cemetery campaign to begin". delawareonline. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Clifford Brown in Los Angeles," by Eddie Spencer Meadows, PhD; born 1939; Black Music Research Journal, published by the Center for Black Music Research, Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois Press, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring 2011, pps. 45–63; JSTOR www
.jstor; OCLC 729620529, 6733333114, 778359559; ISSN 0276-3605 .org /stable /10 .5406 /blacmusiresej .31 .1 .0045
- Nick Catalano, Clifford Brown: The Life and Art of the Legendary Jazz Trumpeter (Oxford University Press, 2001)