City of Westminster

The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough that also holds city status. It occupies much of the central area of Greater London including most of the West End. Historically in Middlesex, it is to the west of the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and its southern boundary is the River Thames. The London borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon its creation, it inherited the city status previously held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1900, which was first awarded to Westminster in 1540.

Seen from the south bank of the Thames in August 2013

Council logo
Westminster shown within Greater London
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Created1 April 1965
Admin HQCity Hall, Victoria Street
  TypeLondon borough council
  BodyWestminster City Council
  LeadershipLeader & Cabinet (Conservative)
  Lord MayorRuth Bush
  London AssemblyTony Devenish (Con) AM for West Central
  MPsKaren Buck (Lab), Mark Field (Con)
  EU ParliamentLondon
  Total8.29 sq mi (21.48 km2)
Area rank309th (of 317)
 (mid-2018 est.)
  Rank66th (of 317)
  Density31,000/sq mi (12,000/km2)
35.2% White British
2.3% White Irish
0% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
24.1% Other White
0.9% White & Black Caribbean
0.9% White & Black African
1.6% White & Asian
1.8% Other Mixed
3.3% Indian
1.1% Pakistani
2.9% Bangladeshi
2.7% Chinese
4.6% Other Asian
4.2% Black African
2% Black Caribbean
1.3% Other Black
7.2% Arab
3.9% Other
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
  Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
Area code(s)020
ONS code00BK
GSS codeE09000033
PoliceMetropolitan Police

Aside from numerous large parks and open spaces, the population density of the district is high. Many sites commonly associated with London are in the borough, including St James's Palace, Buckingham Palace, the Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament) and 10 Downing Street. The borough is divided into a number of localities including the ancient political district of Westminster; the shopping areas around Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Bond Street; and the night-time entertainment district of Soho. Much of the borough is residential, and in 2008 it was estimated to have a population of 236,000. The local government body is Westminster City Council.

A study in 2017 by Trust for London and The New Policy Institute found that Westminster has the third-highest pay inequality of the 32 London boroughs. It also has the second-least affordable private rent for low earners in London, behind only Kensington and Chelsea. The borough performs more positively on education, with 82% of adults and 69% of 19-year-olds having Level 3 qualifications.[2]

Coat of arms

Coat of arms of the City of Westminster at Westminster City Hall
Historic coat of arms of Westminster, in Old Bond Street

The current Westminster coat of arms were given to the city by an official grant on 2 September 1964.[3]

Westminster had other arms before, which had a chief identical to the chief in the present arms. The symbols in the lower two thirds of the shield stand for former municipalities now merged with the city, Paddington and St. Marylebone. The original arms had a portcullis as the main charge, which now forms the crest.[3]


The origins of the City of Westminster pre-date the Norman Conquest of England. In the mid-11th century, King Edward the Confessor began the construction of an abbey at Westminster, only the foundations of which survive today. Between the abbey and the river he built a palace, thereby guaranteeing that the seat of Government would be fixed at Westminster, and inevitably drawing power and wealth west out of the old City of London.[4]

For centuries Westminster and the City of London were geographically quite distinct. It was not until the sixteenth century that houses began to be built over the adjoining fields, eventually absorbing nearby villages such as Marylebone and Kensington, and gradually creating the vast Greater London that exists today.

Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries abolished the abbey at Westminster, although the former abbey church is still called Westminster Abbey. The church was briefly the cathedral of the Diocese of Westminster created from part of the Diocese of London in 1540, by letters patent which also granted city status to Westminster, a status retained after the diocese was abolished in 1550.[5] The Westminster Court of Burgesses was formed in 1585 to govern the Westminster area, previously under the Abbey's control. The City and Liberties of Westminster were further defined by Letters Patent in 1604, and the court of burgesses and liberty continued in existence until 1900, and the creation of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster.[6][7]

The present-day City of Westminster as an administrative entity with its present boundaries dates from 1965, when the City of Westminster was created from the former area of three metropolitan boroughs: St Marylebone, Paddington, and the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster, which included Soho, Mayfair, St. James's, Strand, Westminster, Pimlico, Belgravia, and Hyde Park. This restructuring took place under the London Government Act 1963, which significantly reduced the number of local government districts in London, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger geographical areas and greater populations.

The Westminster Metropolitan Borough was itself the result of an administrative amalgamation which took place in 1900. Sir John Hunt O.B.E was the First Town Clerk of the City of Westminster, 1900–1928.

Prior to 1900, the area occupied by what would become the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster had been administered by five separate local bodies: the Vestry of St George Hanover Square, the Vestry of St Martin in the Fields, Strand District Board of Works, Westminster District Board of Works and the Vestry of Westminster St James.

The boundaries of the City of Westminster today, as well as those of the other London boroughs, have remained more or less unchanged since the Act of 1963.


1801 220,188    
1811 245,254+11.4%
1821 288,851+17.8%
1831 344,200+19.2%
1841 368,910+7.2%
1851 422,850+14.6%
1861 446,263+5.5%
1871 469,677+5.2%
1881 493,090+5.0%
1891 462,837−6.1%
1901 441,857−4.5%
1911 421,865−4.5%
1921 396,406−6.0%
1931 372,566−6.0%
1941 334,448−10.2%
1951 300,461−10.2%
1961 267,126−11.1%
1971 237,614−11.0%
1981 163,893−31.0%
1991 187,526+14.4%
2001 181,279−3.3%
2011 219,396+21.0%
Source: A Vision of Britain through time, citing Census population


The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2001 and 2011 census in Westminster.

Ethnic Group 2001[8] 2011[9]
Number % Number %
White: British87,93848.51%77,33435.25%
White: Irish6,5743.63%4,9602.26%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller760.03%
White: Other38,20321.07%52,96024.14%
White: Total132,71573.12%135,33061.68%
Asian or Asian British: Indian5,6653.12%7,2133.29%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani1,8281.01%2,3281.06%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi5,0002.76%6,2992.87%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese4,0772.25%5,9172.70%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian3,6141.99%10,1054.61%
Asian or Asian British: Total20,18411.13%31,86214.52%
Black or Black British: Caribbean5,6133.10%4,4492.03%
Black or Black British: African6,6783.68%9,1414.17%
Black or Black British: Other Black1,1900.66%2,8821.31%
Black or Black British: Total13,4817.44%16,4727.51%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean1,3820.76%1,8690.85%
Mixed: White and Black African1,2040.66%1,9270.89%
Mixed: White and Asian2,4361.34%3,5841.63%
Mixed: Other Mixed2,4581.36%4,0151.83%
Mixed: Total7,4804.13%11,3955.19%
Other: Arab15,7247.17%
Other: Any other ethnic group8,6133.93%
Other: Total7,4264.10%24,33711.09%
Black, Asian, and minority ethnic: Total48,57126.79%84,06638.32%


Religion 2001[10] 2011[11]
Number % Number %
No religion29,30016.16%44,54220.30%
Religion not stated15,8778.76%20,5199.35%
Other religion9450.52%1,2800.58%


Local government

The city is divided into 20 wards, each electing three councillors. Westminster City Council is currently composed of 41 Conservative Party members and 19 Labour Party members.[12]

A Lord Mayor is elected annually to serve as the official representative of the city for one year. See List of Lord Mayors of Westminster for a list of former Mayors (1900–1965) and Lord Mayors (1965 to date).

UK Parliament

Evolution of Parliamentary representation
1918 1950 1974 1983 1997 2010
St Marylebone Westminster North Regent's Park and Kensington North Westminster North
Paddington North Paddington
Paddington South Cities of London and Westminster
Westminster St George's Cities of London and Westminster Cities of London and Westminster
Westminster Abbey
City of London


The City of Westminster covers all or part of the following areas of London:


The City of Westminster is home to a large number of companies. Many leading global corporations have chosen to establish their global or European headquarters in the City of Westminster. Mayfair and St. James's within the City of Westminster also have a large concentration of hedge fund and private equity funds. The West End is known as the Theatre District and is home to many of the leading performing arts businesses. Soho and its adjoining areas house a concentration of media and creative companies. Oxford Street is one of the leading shopping destinations in the world. The list of companies includes

The Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office, London is in Westminster.[19][42]

Companies that previously had their head offices in the City of Westminster include Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), British Aircraft Corporation,[19][43] British Midland (Portland House),[44] British United Airways,[45] British Mediterranean Airways,[46] Cadbury,[47] Diageo,[48] BAA Limited,[19][49][50] Lloyd International Airways,[51] and P&O Princess Cruises.[52] In addition, Iran Air previously had its Piccadilly main sales office in the city.[53][54]


The City of Westminster contains the some of the most famous sites in London, including Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey, the Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament) and Big Ben.

Parks and open spaces

These include Green Park, Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens, Regent's Park and St. James's Park. In addition to parks and open spaces within the borough, the City owns and maintains East Finchley Cemetery and crematorium in the London Borough of Barnet.


National Rail stations

Four National Rail stations serve the City of Westminster:

Railway stations in the City of Westminster[55]
Station Image Line Destinations
London Charing Cross
South Eastern Main Line South East London and Kent including London Bridge, Lewisham, Dartford, Orpington, Sevenoaks and Tunbridge Wells. Services operated by Southeastern.[56]
London Marylebone

Chiltern Main Line North West London, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Midlands including Wembley Stadium, Harrow, Aylesbury, Oxford and Birmingham Moor Street. Services operated by Chiltern Railways.[57]
London Paddington


Great Western Main Line West London, South West England and South Wales including Ealing Broadway, Reading, Bristol, Cardiff, Exeter, Oxford, Plymouth and Worcester. Services operated by Great Western Railway and TfL Rail ().

Heathrow Airport

Services operated by Heathrow Express and TfL Rail ().[58][59]

London Victoria

Brighton and Chatham Main Lines South East London and Kent including Peckham Rye, Dartford, Gravesend, Dover Priory and Ashford International. Services operated by Southeastern.[56]

South London, Sussex and the South Coast including Clapham Junction, Sutton, Brighton, Eastbourne, Gatwick Airport (), Guildford, Portsmouth, and Southampton. Services operated by'Southern.

Gatwick Airport

Services operated by Gatwick Express.[60]

London Underground

The City of Westminster is served by 27 London Underground stations and 10 lines.

Electric charging points

By 2009 Westminster City Council had electric vehicle charging points in 15 locations through the city (13 car parks and two on-street points). Users pay an annual fee to cover administration costs to register and use the points.[61] By 2018 there were 60 electric vehicle charging locations.[62]

Travel to work

In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, metro, light rail, tram, 21.0% of all residents aged 16–74; on foot, 9.3%; bus, minibus or coach, 9.3%; driving a car or van, 6.0%; work mainly at or from home, 5.5%; bicycle, 3.1%; train, 3.0%.[63]


Westminster Children's Services administers many primary and secondary schools. In addition, there are several state-funded faith schools, primarily Church of England (CE), and Roman Catholic (RC), but Christian non-denominational (ND) schools are also in the borough,[64] and there are several non-profit-making junior and senior independent schools.

Universities and colleges

Public libraries

The London Library, an independent lending library, is at 14 St. James Square.[65][66]

The city operates two reference libraries; Westminster Reference Library and Marylebone Information Service.[67] Westminster Reference Library holds several special collections: of which the Sherlock Holmes, Arts and Business collections are the most comprehensive.[68] In addition to the collections in Westminster Reference Library the city has two specialist libraries: the Westminster Music Library, the largest music library in the UK[69] and the Westminster Chinese Library in the Charing Cross Library.[70]

Free City of Westminster operated public lending libraries in Westminster include:

  • Charing Cross Library[71]
  • Church Street Library[72]
  • The Maida Vale Library[73]
  • Marylebone Library[74]
  • Mayfair Library[75]
  • Paddington Library[76]
  • Pimlico Library[77]
  • Queen's Park Library[78]
  • St. John's Wood Library[79]
  • Victoria Library[80]

Home ownership

In terms of tenure, the borough ranks highest on one standard criteria in analysing housing supply and demand, the proportion of private rented accommodation relative to other types of housing in England. This is indicative of a high density of development and higher investment demand relative to other districts in England and most of the 15 highest-ranking local authorities are boroughs of Greater London. Tourism also increases the proportion of willing third-party landlords, as the two authorities which are outside London in the list are England's largest south coast holiday resorts.

Highest-ranked local authorities by proportion of Social Housing (2011 Census)[81]
Local AuthorityPrivately rentedSocially rentedShared ownership
City of Westminster London Borough37.611.90.8
Kensington and Chelsea London Borough349.20.9
City of London London Borough33.110.40.3
Newham London Borough32.618.31.8
Tower Hamlets London Borough30.817.32.4
Camden London Borough30.5230.7
Haringey London Borough30.3171.5
Hammersmith and Fulham London Borough3015.71.6
Wandsworth London Borough3012.81.5
Brent London Borough28.89.71.5
Bournemouth Unitary Authority28.25.90.7
Brighton and Hove Unitary Authority289.80.9
Lambeth London Borough27.719.61.5
Hackney London Borough27.623.82.3

Notable people

Freedom of the City

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Westminster.


Military Units

See also


  • Gray, Robert, A History of London, Hutchinson & Co, London, 1978, ISBN 0-09-133140-4


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