Ci Tanduy (Sundanese "Ci" means "river", so the whole name means "Tanduy River"; Indonesian: Sungai Citanduy) is a river in the island of Java, Indonesia, about 270 km to the southeast of the capital Jakarta. It flows from West Java to Central Java province, exiting through the Bay of Citanduy (Indonesian: Teluk Citanduy) to the Indian Ocean, forming a delta called "Muara Citanduy."
Citandui, Tjilandoh, Tji Tandoei,
Tjitandoej, Tji Tanduj, Tjitandoeli,
Chi Tando, Tjitanduj, Tji Tandoej
Location of the mouth
Ci Tanduy (Indonesia)
|State||Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah|
|Mouth||Muara Citanduy, Indian Ocean|
The river flows along the southwest area of Java with predominantly tropical monsoon climate. The annual average temperature in the area is 22 °C. The warmest month is March, when the average temperature is around 23 °C, and the coldest is February, at 20 °C. The average annual rainfall is 3547 mm. The wettest month is December, with an average of 533 mm rainfall, and the driest is September, with 56 mm rainfall.
On the Ci Tanduy river bank, around the construction area of the Leuwikeris Dam in Ciamis Regency, a peculiarly carved stone with human foot track was discovered. This stone may be related to the ancient kingdoms of Bojong Galuh and Galuh established along the river around the 7th century.
An intact steel tank from the former Netherlands Armed Force was found buried for about 70 years at the bottom of Ci Tanduy near the City of Banjar. The body could be clearly seen when the river water level dropped very low. The armored vehicle was thought to be stranded during the Independence War of 1945-1949 on the way to Yogyakarta. An effort was made in 2012 to pull it out, but failed as the rain fell hard, increasing the river water level again.
The high debit of river water during the rainy season often caused the damages of dams, bridges, farm lands, and also loss of lives. On 10 October 2016 the Ketapangjaya bridge, a national bridge connecting West and Central Java, was damaged by the erosion of Ci Tanduy tributaries near the City of Banjar. To manage the flood, the government continuously builds, maintains and repairs the dams along the river in steps.
The drainage basin of Citanduy covers a number of administrative area in West Java and Central Java as the river passes through Tasikmalaya Regency, Ciamis Regency, City of Banjar, Majalengka Regency, Kuningan Regency and Cilacap Regency. It becomes a priority to manage in Java due to high rate of sedimentation in the downstream area. Geographically the river area is located between 108°04' and 109°30' E, 7°03' and 7°52' S, extending from mountainous north of Cakrabuana mountain range (1,721 m; the location of the main spring of the river) to lowland south of Segara Anakan, bordering the island of Nusa Kambangan and Indian Ocean to the south. Mount Galunggung (2168 m), Mount Telaga Bodas (2201 m) and Mount Sadakeling (1676 m) form the western border, Mount Simpang Tiga is the eastern border, and in the center upstream area stands Mount Sawal (1784 m).
The downstream area has a unique mangrove ecosystem in Segara Anakan and Nusa Kambangan. However, the high rate of sedimentation threatens its existence. In 1970 the total Segara Anakan Bay area was about 4580 hectare, then in 2002 down to 850 hectare. In 2005, the lagoon drops further to 700 hectare, and in early 2012 is only 600 hectares. As the main cause of sedimentation is identified at the border of Ciamis Regency and Cilacap Regency, a new canal is built in 2012 from Citanduy River to pass the Ciamis Regency, exiting directly to Indian Ocean in Nusawiru near Pangandaran Beach.
Dozens of species of fish live in Ci Tanduy. In the neighborhood Jatiluhur course, Kartamihardja (2008) noted the presence of 20 species of fish. And this figure has actually changed shrunk in the last 40 years (1977-2007); initially recorded as many as 34 species with a composition of 23 native species and 11 newcomers (introduction). Changes in ecosystems, from relatively shallow streams and rushing into a reservoir in the neighborhood and quiet, obviously affect the existence of the types of fish. But the species disappeared from the reservoir still have the possibility to survive in other parts Ci Tanduy. A summary obtained an observer NGO Ci Tanduy, they found dozens of species of fish from various locations on the river. However, until now it has not provided sufficient data regarding the diversity, distribution, and population of fish in this Ci Tanduy.
- Rand McNally, The New International Atlas, 1993.
- Ci Tanduy at Geonames.org (cc-by); Last updated 2013-06-04; Database dump downloaded 2015-11-27
- Muara Citanduy: Indonesia - National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Bethesda, MD, USA.
- "NASA Earth Observations Data Set Index". NASA. 30 January 2016.
- "NASA Earth Observations: Rainfall (1 month - TRMM)". NASA/Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission. 30 January 2016.
- (in Indonesian) Sungai Citanduy di Area Bendungan Leuwikeris Ciamis Simpan Segudang Sejarah. Harapan Rakyat. 02 Maret 2017.
- (in Indonesian) Tank Peninggalan Belanda di Sungai Citanduy Kembali Terlihat. Oleh: Nurhandoko. Pikiran Rakyat. 23 Agustus 2015.
- (in Indonesian) Tanggul Sungai Citanduy di Pangandaran Longsor. Syamsul Maarif. Sindonews. 31 Januari 2017.
- (in Indonesian) Asyik Main di Dermaga Sungai Citandui, Dua Bocah Hanyut. Okezone News. 11 Maret 2016.
- (in Indonesian) Jembatan Amblas Tergerus Sungai Citanduy. Tirto. 10 Oktober 2016.
- (in Indonesian)Ambrol Sungai Citanduy Ditangani Bertahap. Gugum Rachmat Gumilar. Pikiran Rakyat. 2 Februari 2017
- (in Indonesian) Pembangunan Tanggul Sungai Citanduy Masuk Kategori Penanganan Bencana. Syamsul Maarif. Sindonews. 5 Juni 2017.
- (in Indonesian) Prasetyo, Lilik Budi (2004) Deforestasi dan degradasi lahan DAS Citanduy. Pusat Studi Pembangunan - Institut Pertanian Bogor/Partnership For Governance Reform in Indonesia UNDP.
- (in Indonesian) DAS Citanduy. Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai Citanduy 2009.
- White, Alan T; Martosubroto, Purwito; Sadorra, Marie Sol M, eds. (1989). The Coastal Environmental Profile of Segara Anakan-Cilacap, South Java, Indonesia. WorldFish. ISBN 9789711022549.
- "Citanduy akan Disodet untuk Pulihkan Segara Anakan". March 3, 2012.
- Liputan6.com. "DPR Mendesak Penyodetan Sungai Citanduy Direalisasikan". liputan6.com. Retrieved 2016-06-08.
- Fakhrudin, M; Hamid, Abdul; Irwansyah, Iwan (2007) Sistem Informasi DAS Sebagai Dasar Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Air, Studi Kasus Di DAS Citanduy. Pusat Pengembangan LIPI. Abstracts in English.