Churchill White Paper

The Churchill White Paper of 3 June 1922 (...sometimes referred to as "British Policy in Palestine". The official name of the document was Palestine Correspondence with the Palestine Arab Delegation and the Zionist Organisation. It was made up of nine documents and "Churchill's memorandum" was an enclosure to document #5.[1]) was drafted at request of Sir Winston Churchill partly in response to the 1921 Jaffa Riots. While maintaining Britain's commitment to the Balfour Declaration and its promise of a Jewish national home in Palestine, the paper emphasized that the establishment of a national home would not impose a Jewish nationality on the Arab inhabitants of Palestine. To reduce tensions between the Arabs and Jews in Palestine the paper called for a limitation of Jewish immigration to the economic capacity of the country to absorb new arrivals. This limitation was considered a great setback to many in the Zionist movement, though it acknowledged that the Jews should be able to increase their numbers by immigration as of right and not on suffrance.

See also

References

  1. David W. Schmidt (2011). Partners Together in This Great Enterprise. Xulon Press. pp. 388–. ISBN 978-1-61996-058-9.
  2. Hansard, : HC Deb 31 October 1918 vol 110 c1640W
  3. Porath 1974, p. 32.
  4. United Nations 1978, p. 43.
  5. Palestine Factionalism in the National Movement (1919-1939)
  6. A Survey of Palestine - prepared in December 1945 and January 1946 for the information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. Reprinted 1991 by The Institute of Palestine Studies, Washington. Volume II. ISBN 0-88728-214-8. p.946
  7. Kayyali, Abdul-Wahhab Said (1981) Palestine. A Modern History Croom Helm. ISBN 086199-007-2. pp.60-63.
  8. Kuhn, Anthony John (15 April 2011). "Broken Promises:The French Expulsion of Emir Feisal and the Failed Struggle for Syrian Independence". Carnegie Mellon University/H&SS Senior Honors Thesis: 60.
  9. Antonius, George (1938). The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement (Reprint ed.). H. Hamilton. p. 104. ISBN 1626540861.
  10. Itamar Rabinovich, Symposium: The Greater-Syria Plan and the Palestine Problem in The Jerusalem Cathedra (1982), p. 262.
  11. Porath 1974, p. 102.
  12. https://www.un.org/unispal/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lecture-by-Prof.-Rashid-Khalidi-100-years-since-Balfour-Decl-UN-2Nov2017.pdf
  13. Khalidi, Rashid (2 November 2017). "100 years of the Balfour Declaration and its impact on the Palestinian People". United nations The Question of Palestine. United Nations. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  14. Sahar Huneidi; Sarah Huneidi (7 April 2001). A Broken Trust: Sir Herbert Samuel, Zionism and the Palestinians. I.B.Tauris. pp. 28, 43. ISBN 978-1-86064-172-5.
  15. Khalidi, Rashid (2006) The Iron Cage. The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1-85168-582-0. p.42.
  16. Abd al-Wahhāb al- Kayyali (1968). Palestine: A Modern History. Croom Helm. p. 99.
  17. Report on Middle East Conference held in Cairo and Jerusalem, March 12th to 30th, 1921, Appendix 19, p. 109-111. British Colonial Office, June 1921 (CO 935/1/1)
  18. Bernard Regan (30 October 2018). The Balfour Declaration: Empire, the Mandate and Resistance in Palestine. Verso Books. pp. 110–112. ISBN 978-1-78663-248-7.
  19. Mctague 1983, p. 183.
  20. Linda Marie Saghi Aidan, PhD (13 September 2005). Beliefs and Policymaking in the Middle East: Analysis of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-4535-0663-9.
  21. Ingrams 2009, pp. 137–139.
  22. Porath 1974, pp. 141-146.
  23. McTague 1983, pp. 159–163.
  24. Eldin, Munir Fakher (2014). "British Framing of the Frontier in Palestine, 1918– 1923: Revisiting Colonial Sources on Tribal Insurrection, Land Tenure, and the Arab Intelligentsia" (PDF). Journal of Palestine Studies. 60: 42.
  25. , HC Deb 14 June 1921 vol 143 cc265-334|quote ="These words (national home) mean that the Jews, who are a people scattered throughout the world, but whose hearts are always turning to Palestine, should he enabled to found here their home, and that some amongst them, within the limits fixed by numbers and the interests of the present population, should come to Palestine in order to help by their resources and efforts to develop the country to the advantage of all its inhabitants."
  26. McTague 1983, p. 167.
  27. Howard Morley Sachar. A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time. Knopf, 2007. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-375-71132-9.
  28. Elie Kedourie; Sylvia G. Haim (22 May 2015). Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel. Routledge. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-1-317-44273-8.
  29. Huneidi 2001, p. 58.
  30. Hansard, Palestine Mandate: HL Deb 21 June 1922 vol 50 cc994-1033 (outcome of the vote cc1033 on next page)
  31. Hansard, Colonial Office: HC Deb 04 July 1922 vol 156 cc221–343 (outcome of the vote cc343)
  32. Mathew 2011, p. 36.
  33. M. Cherif Bassiouni; Shlomo Ben Ami (23 April 2009). A Guide to Documents on the Arab-Palestinian/Israeli Conflict: 1897–2008. BRILL. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-90-474-2878-7.
  34. D. K. Fieldhouse (6 April 2006). Western Imperialism in the Middle East 1914–1958. OUP Oxford. pp. 155 and 199. ISBN 978-0-19-928737-6.
  35. Friesel, Evyatar (1993). "Through a peculiar lens:Zionism and Palestine in British diaries, 1927–31". Middle Eastern Studies. 29 (3): 435–436.
  36. James Renton (2010). "Chapter 1:Flawed Foundations the Balfour declaration and the Palestine mandate". In Rory Miller (ed.). Britain, Palestine, and Empire: The Mandate Years. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-7546-6808-4.
  37. Elie Kedourie (19 February 1976). In the Anglo-Arab Labyrinth: The McMahon-Husayn Correspondence and Its Interpretations 1914–1939. Cambridge University Press. pp. 248–249. ISBN 978-0-521-20826-0.
  38. Quigley 2011, p. 269.
  39. Huneidi 1998, p. 33.
  40. Cohen 2010, p. 6.
  41. Quigley 2011, p. 279.
  42. Huneidi 1998, p. 37.
  43. Renton 2016, p. 16.
  44. Quigley 2011, p. 280-2.
  1. Churchill concluded the Commons debate with the following argument: "Palestine is all the more important to us... in view of the ever-growing significance of the Suez Canal; and I do not think £1,000,000 a year... would be too much for Great Britain to pay for the control and guardianship of this great historic land, and for keeping the word that she has given before all the nations of the world."[31] Mathew described Churchill's manoeuvre as follows: "...the judgment was overturned by a large majority in the Commons, a result not of a sudden opinion shift but of Churchill's skillful opportunism in turning at the last minute a general debate on funding for the colonies worldwide into a vote of confidence on the government's Palestine policy, emphasizing in his concluding remarks not a Zionist argument but imperial and strategic considerations.[32]

Bibliography

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