# Christoffel–Darboux formula

In mathematics, the Christoffel–Darboux theorem is an identity for a sequence of orthogonal polynomials, introduced by Elwin Bruno Christoffel (1858) and Jean Gaston Darboux (1878). It states that

${\displaystyle \sum _{j=0}^{n}{\frac {f_{j}(x)f_{j}(y)}{h_{j}}}={\frac {k_{n}}{h_{n}k_{n+1}}}{\frac {f_{n}(y)f_{n+1}(x)-f_{n+1}(y)f_{n}(x)}{x-y}}}$

where fj(x) is the jth term of a set of orthogonal polynomials of squared norm hj and leading coefficient kj.

There is also a "confluent form" of this identity:

${\displaystyle \sum _{j=0}^{n}{\frac {f_{j}^{2}(x)}{h_{j}}}={\frac {k_{n}}{h_{n}k_{n+1}}}\left[f_{n+1}'(x)f_{n}(x)-f_{n}'(x)f_{n+1}(x)\right].}$