RhoV (or Chp or Wrch2) is a small (~21 kDa) signaling G protein (more specifically a GTPase), and is a member of the Rho family of GTPases. Chp was identified in 1998 as a GTPase interacting with the p21 activated kinase PAK2. RhoV/Chp delineates with RhoU/Wrch a Rho subclass related to Rac and Cdc42, which emerged in early multicellular organisms during evolution. RhoV/Chp depends on palmitoylation rather than prenylation for association with plasma and intracellular membranes. In Xenopus embryos, RhoV is encoded by a canonical Wnt response gene and is induced in the developing neural crest at specification. RhoV activity cooperates with the Snai1 (Snail) transcription factor for the subsequent induction of the pro-invasive transcription factors Snai2 (Slug), Sox9 or Twist.
Further reading: Rho family of GTPases
- Aronheim A, Broder YC, Cohen A, Fritsch A, Belisle B & Abo A (1998). "Chp, a homologue of the GTPase Cdc42Hs, activates the JNK pathway and is implicated in reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton". Curr Biol. 8 (20): 1125–8. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(98)70468-3. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 9778532.
- Boureux A, Vignal E, Faure S, Fort P (2007). "Evolution of the Rho family of ras-like GTPases in eukaryotes". Mol. Biol. Evol. 24 (1): 203–16. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl145. PMC 2665304. PMID 17035353.
- Chenette EJ, Mitin NY & Der CJ (2006). "Multiple Sequence Elements Facilitate Chp Rho GTPase Subcellular Location, Membrane Association, and Transforming Activity". Mol Biol Cell. 17 (7): 3108–21. doi:10.1091/mbc.E05-09-0896. ISSN 1059-1524. PMC 1483044. PMID 16641371.
- Guemar L, de Santa Barbara P, Vignal E, Maurel B, Fort P, Faure S (2007). "The small GTPase RhoV is an essential regulator of neural crest induction in Xenopus". Dev Biol. 310 (1): 113–28. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2007.07.031. ISSN 0012-1606. PMID 17761159.