China Railway CRH380A
The CRH380A Hexie (simplified Chinese: 和谐号; traditional Chinese: 和諧號; pinyin: Héxié Hào; literally: "Harmony") is a Chinese electric high-speed train that was developed by CSR Corporation Limited (CSR) and is currently manufactured by CSR Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. As a continuation of the CRH2-380 program it both replaces foreign technology in the CRH2 with Chinese developments and increases its top speed. The CRH380A is designed to operate at a cruise speed of 350 km/h (217 mph) and a maximum speed of 380 km/h (236 mph) in commercial service. The original 8-car train-set recorded a top speed of 416.6 km/h (258.9 mph) during a trial run. The longer 16-car train-set reached 486.1 km/h (302.0 mph).
|China Railways CRH380A EMU|
CRH380A train leaving Shanghai Railway Station.
|In service||2010 - Present|
|Manufacturer||CRRC Qingdao Sifang|
|Number under construction||CRH380A: 49 trainsets (392 cars)|
CRH380A (EC Type): 121 trainsets (968 cars)
CRH380AL: 100 trainsets (1600 cars)
|Formation||CRH380A / CRH380A (EC Type): 8 cars/trainset (6M2T)|
CRH380AL: 16 cars/trainset (14M2T)
CRH380A (EC Type): 556
CRH380AL: 1061 or 1028
|Line(s) served||Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Hangzhou High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Nanjing Intercity Railway, Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway|
|Train length||CRH380A / CRH380A (EC Type): 203 m (666 ft)|
CRH380AL: 401.4 m (1,317 ft)
|Width||3,380 mm (11 ft 1 in)|
|Height||3,700 mm (12 ft 2 in)|
|Platform height||1,250 mm (4 ft 1 in)|
|Maximum speed||300 km/h (186 mph) (operation) |
350 km/h (217 mph) (until 2011)
486.1 km/h (302 mph) (testing)
|Traction system||IGBT VVVF inverter control|
(Zhuzhou CSR Times Electric)
|Power output||CRH380A / CRH380A (EC Type): 9.6 MW (12,900 hp)|
CRH380AL: 20.44 MW (27,410 hp)
|Power supply||Overhead catenary|
|Electric system(s)||25 kV 50 Hz AC|
|Current collection method||Pantograph|
|Braking system(s)||Regenerative, electronically controlled pneumatic brakes|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
CRH380A is one of four Chinese train series which have been designed for the new standard operating speed of 380 km/h (236 mph) on newly constructed Chinese high-speed main lines. Officially, it is the only series of the four not based on a foreign design, and although it was not produced under a technology transfer agreement, there have been accusations that it is based on unlicensed Shinkansen technology.
Development started in early 2008 during the research of CRH2-300 (later CRH2C). CSR Corporation conducted more than 1000 technical tests covering 17 specific areas such as dynamic performance, pantograph-catenary current collection, aerodynamics, and traction performance. These studies enabled CSR to develop technology allowed for increased maximum speed, and the findings were fed into designs for the new-generation high-speed train.
The original project was named "CRH2-350". On February 26, 2008, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Ministry of Railway (MOR) signed the Agreement on Joint and Independent Innovations of China High-speed Trains. CRH2-350 is one of the most important projects of this plan, the purpose of which is the development of Chinese-designed new-generation high speed trains with continuous operating speeds of 350 km/h (217 mph), and maximum operating speeds of 380 km/h (236 mph). The next generation of rolling stock is expected to be used on the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway. The project officially launched in 2009, and was included in the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan"'s technology support program for developing technology and equipment for China' s high speed trains.
The design work includes four categories: schematic, technical, construction, and experimentation/verification. Designs were driven by analysis of data and operational experience from the Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail. The Ministry of Railway completed an initial series of system and subsystem designs, then provided CSR Sifang with primary data and design. CSR presented more than 20 design variations. After further comparison, calculation, optimization, simulation and testing, the final design was published in an official conference held by Sifang on April 12, 2010. The train model was exhibited in May at the China Railway Pavilion in the Shanghai World Expo Park (IRJ July p5).
On September 2009, the Ministry of Railway ordered one hundred 16-car and forty 8-car new-generation high-speed trains from CSR Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock in a contract worth ¥45 billion (US$6.64 billion).
- Low-resistance, streamlined head. The nose of the train has a resistance coefficient of less than 0.13, aerodynamic resistance was reduced by 6.1%, aerodynamic noise by 7%, aerodynamic lift by 51.7% and the lateral force acting on the head by 6.1%.
- Vibration mode system matching. The CRH380A uses a lightweight aluminum alloy body whose total weight is no more than 9 t (8.9 long tons; 9.9 short tons), less than 17% of the entire vehicle; CSR has comprehensively improved the body structure, adopting a large number of new vibration damping materials. It also designed the bogie to match the performance of the body and optimized the train body's natural frequencies, which helps reduce structural vibrations at high speeds and improves ride comfort.
- Highly pressurized tight body. The pressure change rate inside the train is less than 200 Pa (0.029 psi)/s, with the maximum pressure change inside the train remaining below 800 Pa (0.12 psi) compared with the standard value of 1,000 Pa (0.15 psi). This ensures good ride quality at high speed.
- Safe and reliable high-speed bogies. The train is equipped with SWMB-400/SWTB-400 bolster-less bogies. These are a redesign of the SWMB-350/SWTB-350 bogies used by CRH2C; their critical instability speed is 550 km/h (342 mph). The new train's derail coefficient is 0.34 at a speed of 386 km/h (240 mph) while the maximum derail coefficient of the CRH2A is 0.73.
- Advanced noise control technology. By reducing sources of noise and adopting new sound absorbing and insulating materials, CSR has been able to control noise inside the train. The noise level is at 67 dB - 69 dB when running at 350 km/h (217 mph), which is similar to the CRH2A running at 250 km/h (155 mph).
- High-performance traction system, with YQ-365 motors manufactured by CSR Zhuzhou Electric Co., Ltd and CI11 Traction converters by Zhuzhou CSR Times Electric. The CRH380A has a new power unit configuration to maximize traction power. This allows the train to accelerate to 380 km/h (236 mph) in 7 minutes.
- Regenerative braking with a maximum energy feedback rate of 95%. With each stop nearly 800 kWh of electric power can be fed back to the electric grid.
The prototype vehicle was rolled off on April, 2010, the eight-car train was being tested on the China Academy of Railway Sciences experimental loop line (Beijing loop line) starting from April 26, 2010, and started trial runs on the Zhengzhou-Xi'an high-speed line on June 7, 2010.
The test was held on the Shanghai–Hangzhou Passenger Railway (also known as the Huhang high-speed railway, "Hu" stands for "Shanghai", "Hang" stands for Hangzhou; Hangzhou is the capital city of Zhejiang Province). The trainset with series number CRH380A-6001 reached the maximum speed of 416.6 km/h (258.9 mph).
The first set of CRH380AL, series number CRH380A-6041L, rolled off line by October 2010. On November 8, 2010, the 16-car train was sent to Beijing loop line for test. On November 20, 2010, the train was sent to Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway for trial run. On November 26, 2010, the first 380 km/h (236 mph) test run at the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway was launched at Zaozhuang - Bengbu section. The trainset with series number CRH380A-6041L reached the maximum speed of 486.1 km/h (302.0 mph) on December 3, 2010. During the test, It traveled 220 km (137 mi) in 34 minutes, at average speed of 388 km/h (241 mph).
CRH380A entered service on September 30, 2010 in limited capacity on the Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway line.
On October 26, 2010, CRH380A entered regular service at the Shanghai–Hangzhou Passenger Railway and Shanghai–Nanjing Intercity Railway. The maximum operational speed reaches 355 km/h (221 mph), and this is always restricted by the software of the computerized control system. The travel time between Shanghai and Hangzhou reduced from 1 hour 18 minutes to 45 minutes. and travel time between Nanjing and Hangzhou reduced from 3 hours 19 minutes to 2 hours 48 minutes.
CRH380A started daily service at the Wuhan-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway as of December 3, 2010.
Train series number
- CRH380A : CRH380A-2501 ～ CRH380A-2540 and CRH380A-2641 ～ CRH380A-2925.
- CRH380AL : CRH380AL-2541 ～ CRH380A-2640.
Each CRH380A has eight coaches, units with standard compartments were formed as follows:
- M - Motor car
- T - Trailer car
- C - Driver cabin
- P - Pantograph
- SW - Business Class Coach
- ZY - First Class Coach
- ZE - Second Class Coach
- CA - Buffet Car
- ZEC - Second Class Coach / Buffet Car
- ZYG - First Class Coach / Sightseeing Car
- ZEG - Second Class Coach / Sightseeing Car
- ZYT - First Class / Premier Coach
- ZET - Second Class / Premier Coach
- ZYS - First Class / Business Coach
- ZES - Second Class / Business Coach
|Power Units||Unit 1||Unit 2|
|Power Units||Unit 1||Unit 2||Unit 3||Unit 4||Unit 5||Unit 6||Unit 7|
As of August 2017, there are 443 CRH380A series EMU in service. Three of these sets are testing trains.
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