China Railway CRH380A

The CRH380A Hexie (simplified Chinese: 和谐号; traditional Chinese: 和諧號; pinyin: Héxié Hào; literally: "Harmony") is a Chinese electric high-speed train that was developed by CSR Corporation Limited (CSR) and is currently manufactured by CSR Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. As a continuation of the CRH2-380 program it both replaces foreign technology in the CRH2 with Chinese developments and increases its top speed.[2] The CRH380A is designed to operate at a cruise speed of 350 km/h (217 mph) and a maximum speed of 380 km/h (236 mph) in commercial service. The original 8-car train-set recorded a top speed of 416.6 km/h (258.9 mph) during a trial run.[3] The longer 16-car train-set reached 486.1 km/h (302.0 mph).[4]

China Railways CRH380A EMU
CRH380A train leaving Shanghai Railway Station.
In service2010 - Present
ManufacturerCRRC Qingdao Sifang
Number under constructionCRH380A: 49 trainsets (392 cars)
CRH380A (EC Type): 121 trainsets (968 cars)
CRH380AL: 100 trainsets (1600 cars)
FormationCRH380A / CRH380A (EC Type): 8 cars/trainset (6M2T)
CRH380AL: 16 cars/trainset (14M2T)
CapacityCRH380A: 480
CRH380A (EC Type): 556
CRH380AL: 1061 or 1028[1]
Operator(s)
Line(s) servedBeijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Hangzhou High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Nanjing Intercity Railway, Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
Specifications
Train lengthCRH380A / CRH380A (EC Type): 203 m (666 ft)
CRH380AL: 401.4 m (1,317 ft)
Width3,380 mm (11 ft 1 in)
Height3,700 mm (12 ft 2 in)
Platform height1,250 mm (4 ft 1 in)
Maximum speed300 km/h (186 mph) (operation)
350 km/h (217 mph) (until 2011)
486.1 km/h (302 mph) (testing)
Traction systemIGBT VVVF inverter control
(Zhuzhou CSR Times Electric)
Power outputCRH380A / CRH380A (EC Type): 9.6 MW (12,900 hp)
CRH380AL: 20.44 MW (27,410 hp)
Power supplyOverhead catenary
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC
Current collection methodPantograph
Braking system(s)Regenerative, electronically controlled pneumatic brakes
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

CRH380A is one of four Chinese train series which have been designed for the new standard operating speed of 380 km/h (236 mph) on newly constructed Chinese high-speed main lines. Officially, it is the only series of the four not based on a foreign design, and although it was not produced under a technology transfer agreement, there have been accusations that it is based on unlicensed Shinkansen technology.[5]

The other three series are CRH380C, which uses technology from Siemens, CRH380B, with technology from Hitachi, and CRH380D, with technology from Bombardier Transportation.

History

Development started in early 2008 during the research of CRH2-300 (later CRH2C). CSR Corporation conducted more than 1000 technical tests covering 17 specific areas such as dynamic performance, pantograph-catenary current collection, aerodynamics, and traction performance. These studies enabled CSR to develop technology allowed for increased maximum speed, and the findings were fed into designs for the new-generation high-speed train.[2]

The original project was named "CRH2-350". On February 26, 2008, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Ministry of Railway (MOR) signed the Agreement on Joint and Independent Innovations of China High-speed Trains. CRH2-350 is one of the most important projects of this plan, the purpose of which is the development of Chinese-designed new-generation high speed trains with continuous operating speeds of 350 km/h (217 mph), and maximum operating speeds of 380 km/h (236 mph). The next generation of rolling stock is expected to be used on the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway. The project officially launched in 2009, and was included in the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan"'s technology support program for developing technology and equipment for China' s high speed trains.

The design work includes four categories: schematic, technical, construction, and experimentation/verification. Designs were driven by analysis of data and operational experience from the Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail. The Ministry of Railway completed an initial series of system and subsystem designs, then provided CSR Sifang with primary data and design. CSR presented more than 20 design variations.[6] After further comparison, calculation, optimization, simulation and testing, the final design was published in an official conference held by Sifang on April 12, 2010. The train model was exhibited in May at the China Railway Pavilion in the Shanghai World Expo Park (IRJ July p5).

On September 2009, the Ministry of Railway ordered one hundred 16-car and forty 8-car new-generation high-speed trains from CSR Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock in a contract worth ¥45 billion (US$6.64 billion).[7]

On April 18, 2012, the MTR ordered nine CRH380A train sets for Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link, designated as Vibrant Express (MTR CRH380A).[8]

Technical features

According to CSR, the overall design of CRH380A reflects ten major goals.[2][9][10]

  • Low-resistance, streamlined head. The nose of the train has a resistance coefficient of less than 0.13, aerodynamic resistance was reduced by 6.1%, aerodynamic noise by 7%, aerodynamic lift by 51.7% and the lateral force acting on the head by 6.1%.
  • Vibration mode system matching. The CRH380A uses a lightweight aluminum alloy body whose total weight is no more than 9 t (8.9 long tons; 9.9 short tons), less than 17% of the entire vehicle; CSR has comprehensively improved the body structure, adopting a large number of new vibration damping materials. It also designed the bogie to match the performance of the body and optimized the train body's natural frequencies, which helps reduce structural vibrations at high speeds and improves ride comfort.
  • Highly pressurized tight body. The pressure change rate inside the train is less than 200 Pa (0.029 psi)/s, with the maximum pressure change inside the train remaining below 800 Pa (0.12 psi) compared with the standard value of 1,000 Pa (0.15 psi). This ensures good ride quality at high speed.
  • Safe and reliable high-speed bogies. The train is equipped with SWMB-400/SWTB-400 bolster-less bogies. These are a redesign of the SWMB-350/SWTB-350 bogies used by CRH2C; their critical instability speed is 550 km/h (342 mph). The new train's derail coefficient is 0.34 at a speed of 386 km/h (240 mph) while the maximum derail coefficient of the CRH2A is 0.73.[11]
  • Advanced noise control technology. By reducing sources of noise and adopting new sound absorbing and insulating materials, CSR has been able to control noise inside the train. The noise level is at 67 dB - 69 dB when running at 350 km/h (217 mph), which is similar to the CRH2A running at 250 km/h (155 mph).[11]
  • High-performance traction system, with YQ-365 motors manufactured by CSR Zhuzhou Electric Co., Ltd and CI11 Traction converters by Zhuzhou CSR Times Electric. The CRH380A has a new power unit configuration to maximize traction power. This allows the train to accelerate to 380 km/h (236 mph) in 7 minutes.
  • Regenerative braking with a maximum energy feedback rate of 95%. With each stop nearly 800 kWh of electric power can be fed back to the electric grid.

Test

The prototype vehicle was rolled off on April, 2010, the eight-car train was being tested on the China Academy of Railway Sciences experimental loop line (Beijing loop line) starting from April 26, 2010, and started trial runs on the Zhengzhou-Xi'an high-speed line on June 7, 2010.

The initial standard CRH380A trainsets was delivered on August 2010,[9] The first test on conventional rail, based on a daily-service mode, was conducted on September 28, 2010.

The test was held on the Shanghai–Hangzhou Passenger Railway (also known as the Huhang high-speed railway, "Hu" stands for "Shanghai", "Hang" stands for Hangzhou; Hangzhou is the capital city of Zhejiang Province).[12] The trainset with series number CRH380A-6001 reached the maximum speed of 416.6 km/h (258.9 mph).[12]

The first set of CRH380AL, series number CRH380A-6041L, rolled off line by October 2010. On November 8, 2010, the 16-car train was sent to Beijing loop line for test. On November 20, 2010, the train was sent to Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway for trial run. On November 26, 2010, the first 380 km/h (236 mph) test run at the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway was launched at Zaozhuang - Bengbu section.[13] The trainset with series number CRH380A-6041L reached the maximum speed of 486.1 km/h (302.0 mph) on December 3, 2010.[14] During the test, It traveled 220 km (137 mi) in 34 minutes, at average speed of 388 km/h (241 mph).[1][15]

Commercialization

CRH380A entered service on September 30, 2010 in limited capacity on the Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway line.

On October 26, 2010, CRH380A entered regular service at the Shanghai–Hangzhou Passenger Railway and Shanghai–Nanjing Intercity Railway. The maximum operational speed reaches 355 km/h (221 mph), and this is always restricted by the software of the computerized control system.[16] The travel time between Shanghai and Hangzhou reduced from 1 hour 18 minutes to 45 minutes.[17] and travel time between Nanjing and Hangzhou reduced from 3 hours 19 minutes to 2 hours 48 minutes.[18]

CRH380A started daily service at the Wuhan-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway as of December 3, 2010.[19]

Train series number

  • CRH380A : CRH380A-2501 ~ CRH380A-2540 and CRH380A-2641 ~ CRH380A-2925.
  • CRH380AL : CRH380AL-2541 ~ CRH380A-2640.

Formation

Each CRH380A has eight coaches, units with standard compartments were formed as follows:

Power Destination

  • M - Motor car
  • T - Trailer car
  • C - Driver cabin
  • P - Pantograph

Coach Type

  • SW - Business Class Coach
  • ZY - First Class Coach
  • ZE - Second Class Coach
  • CA - Buffet Car
  • ZEC - Second Class Coach / Buffet Car
  • ZYG - First Class Coach / Sightseeing Car
  • ZEG - Second Class Coach / Sightseeing Car
  • ZYT - First Class / Premier Coach
  • ZET - Second Class / Premier Coach
  • ZYS - First Class / Business Coach
  • ZES - Second Class / Business Coach

CRH380A

Coach No. 12345678
Type1 ZET ZE ZYT ZY ZEC ZE ZET
Type2 ZYS ZE ZEC ZE ZES
Power Configuration TC M MP M MP M TC
Power Units Unit 1 Unit 2
Capacity1 40+6 85 38+6 51 38+14 85 85 40+6
Capacity2 28+5 85 85 75 63 85 85 40+5
  • ^1 Train No. CRH380A-2501 to CRH380A-2540
  • ^2 Train No. CRH380A-2641 to CRH380A-2807, CRH380A-2809 to CRH380A-2827, CRH380A-2829 to CRH380A-2901

CRH380AL

Coach No. 12345678910111213141516
Type1 ZYG ZY SW ZY ZE CA ZE ZYG
Type2 SW ZY ZE ZEC ZE SW
Power Configuration TC M MP M MP M TC
Power Units Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7
Capacity1 25+2 56 24 56 73 85 85 85 38 85 85 85 85 85 85 25+2
Capacity2 10+3 56 56 85 73 85 85 85 38 85 85 85 85 85 85 10+3
  • ^1 Train No. CRH380AL-2541 to CRH380AL-2570
  • ^2 Train No. CRH380AL-2571 to CRH380AL-2640

Distribution

As of August 2017, there are 443 CRH380A series EMU in service. Three of these sets are testing trains.

Operator Quantity Serial number Depot Lines serving Notes
CRH380A
Taiyuan Railway Bureau232641, 2642, 2648, 2654, 2668, 2669, 2674~2679,
2689, 2690, 2845~2848, 2921~2925
TaiyuanShijiazhuang–Taiyuan High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Tianjin–Baoding Intercity Railway, Tianjin–Qinhuangdao High-Speed Railway
Beijing Railway Bureau172501~2505, 2507, 2516, 2527, 2521~2524, 2526~2528, 2530, 2540BeijingBeijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway
122506, 2508~2510, 2512, 2519, 2520, 2525, 2529, 2533~2535ShijiazhuangBeijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway
Jinan Railway Bureau112511, 2513~2515, 2518, 2531, 2532, 2536, 2537, 2539, 2657QingdaoQingdao–Jinan Passenger Railway, Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Hefei–Bengbu High-Speed Railway, Hefei–Fuzhou High-Speed Railway, Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, Hefei–Wuhan high-speed railway, Wuhan–Yichang Railway, Yichang−Wanzhou Railway, Chongqing−Lichuan Railway
Guangzhou Railway Group192662~2664, 2705, 2706, 2715, 2796~2800,
2867, 2874, 2888, 2900, 2904, 2906~2908
Guangzhou SouthBeijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link, Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Kunming High-Speed Railway
Nanchang Railway Bureau502658, 2659, 2683, 2684, 2691~2694, 2697~2704,
2707~2714, 2716, 2717, 2726~2731, 2737,
2741~2745, 2750~2753, 2849, 2850, 2855~2858, 2865, 2866
Nanchang WestXiangtang–Putian Railway, Hefei–Fuzhou High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Kunming High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link, Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway, Nanjing–Hangzhou Passenger Railway
262754, 2755, 2760, 2761, 2784, 2785, 2787, 2794, 2805, 2806, 2817,
2825, 2833, 2834, 2839, 2840, 2843, 2844, 2886, 2887, 2890~2895
Fuzhou SouthHefei–Fuzhou High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Kunming High-Speed Railway, Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway
92786, 2788~2793, 2803, 2804Xiamen NorthLongyan–Xiamen Railway, Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway, Hefei–Bengbu High-Speed Railway, Hefei–Fuzhou High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Kunming High-Speed Railway, Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway
72795, 2802, 2807, 2815, 2816, 2819, 2824LongyanLongyan–Xiamen Railway, Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, Hefei–Fuzhou High-Speed Railway, Hefei–Bengbu High-Speed Railway, Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Kunming High-Speed Railway
Wuhan Railway Bureau272643, 2646, 2647, 2651~2653, 2655, 2661, 2666, 2681, 2682,
2722, 2723, 2738, 2739, 2746~2749, 2859, 2860, 2878~2883
WuhanBeijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link, Nanjing–Hangzhou Passenger Railway, Hangzhou–Ningbo High-Speed Railway, Hefei–Nanjing Passenger Railway, Hefei–Wuhan high-speed railwaySome running solely on Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
Zhengzhou Railway Bureau92720, 2721, 2733, 2809, 2810, 2861, 2863, 2864, 2876Zhengzhou EastXuzhou–Lanzhou High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link
72644, 2645, 2672, 2673, 2680, 2862, 2877ZhengzhouZhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway, Shijiazhuang–Wuhan High-Speed Railway, Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link
Nanning Railway Bureau272649, 2650, 2656, 2670, 2671, 2685~2688,
2695, 2696, 2718, 2719, 2724, 2725, 2732,
2734~2736, 2740, 2766, 2767, 2826, 2827, 2832, 2851, 2852
NanningLiuzhou–Nanning Intercity Railway, Hengyang–Liuzhou Intercity Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Nanning–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link
Chengdu Railway Bureau162762, 2763, 2769~2771, 2801, 2811~2813,
2830, 2831, 2835, 2836, 2842, 2853, 2854
Chengdu EastShanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Chengdu–Chongqing Intercity Railway, Chengdu–Mianyang–Leshan Intercity Railway
312660, 2665, 2667, 2756~2759, 2764, 2765, 2768, 2772~2783,
2814, 2820~2823, 2829, 2837, 2838, 2841
Guiyang NorthShanghai–Kunming High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Jinhua–Wenzhou High Speed Railway, Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, Nanjing–Hangzhou Passenger Railway
Kunming Railway Bureau272868~2873, 2875, 2884, 2885, 2889,
2896~2899, 2901~2903, 2905, 2909~2912
Kunming SouthShanghai–Kunming High-Speed Railway, Guiyang–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
MTR Corporation90251~0259Shek KongGuangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail LinkAll vehicles being test in progress.
China Railway32538, 2808, 2818N/AExecutive trains
CRH380AL
Beijing Railway Bureau182541, 2544~2551, 2553~2556, 2559~2561, 2563, 2570ShijiazhuangBeijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link
122542, 2543, 2552, 2557, 2558, 2562, 2564~2569BeijingBeijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway, Hengyang–Liuzhou Intercity Railway, Liuzhou–Nanning Intercity Railway
Wuhan Railway Bureau322573~2583, 2585~2588, 2605, 2613, 2614, 2621~2632, 2635, 2636WuhanBeijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link, Nanjing–Hangzhou Passenger Railway, Hangzhou–Ningbo High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu High-Speed Railway, Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed RailwaySome running solely on Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
Xi'an Railway Bureau162572, 2589~2593, 2596~2599, 2603, 2603, 2611, 2633, 2634, 2637, 2638Xi'an NorthZhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link
Zhengzhou Railway Bureau132594, 2595, 2600~2602, 2604, 2606~2610, 2617, 2619Zhengzhou EastXuzhou–Lanzhou High-Speed Railway, Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway, Hengyang–Liuzhou Intercity Railway
42571, 2584, 2612, 2620ZhengzhouZhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway, Shijiazhuang–Wuhan High-Speed Railway, Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link
Guangzhou Railway Group182615, 2616, 2618, 2639, 2640, 2913~2920, 2926~2930Guangzhou SouthBeijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link
Nanchang Railway Bureau62544, 2548~2550, 2555, 2560Xiamen NorthLongyan–Xiamen Railway, Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway, Hefei–Bengbu High-Speed Railway, Hefei–Fuzhou High-Speed Railway, Shanghai–Kunming High-Speed Railway, Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway
Chengdu Railway Bureau22915, 2916Chengdu EastShanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Chengdu–Chongqing Intercity Railway, Chengdu–Mianyang–Leshan Intercity Railway
CRH380AJ (formerly: CIT400A)
China Railway40201~0203, 0206N/AComprehensive inspection trains in orange livery
CRH380AM (formerly: CIT500)
China Railway10204N/AExperimental trainset

Criticism

Kawasaki Heavy Industries claims the trains design was Shinkansen derived without citation to the previous technology.[5]

See also

References

  1. Dingding, Xin (4 December 2010). "Record-breaking train on track". China Daily.
  2. "First Chinese designed HS train breaks cover". International Railway Journal. September 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
  3. "Tren chino bate récord mundial al transitar a 416 km/h". CrónicaViva (in Spanish). 29 September 2010. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013.
  4. "沪杭高铁首发列车侧记" [Shanghai and Hangzhou high-speed rail starting train side note] (in Chinese). Peoplerail. 26 October 2010. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012.
  5. Fitzpatrick, Michael (15 April 2013). "Did China steal Japan's high-speed train?". Fortune.
  6. "南车动车组跑出416.6公里世界最高速". www.chnrailway.com. Archived from the original on 2010-10-15. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
  7. "First Chinese--designed HS train breaks cover: CSR is building a fleet of very-high-speed trains will be the first such trains built in China to use only Chinese technology. They will be launched on the new Beijing - Shanghai high-speed line, due to open next year, as well as the Beijing - Guangzhou line". International Railway Journal. 1 September 2010. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2015 via HighBeam Research.
  8. "中国南车获香港高铁13.6亿元350公里动车组订单" [China South Locomotive won the Hong Kong high-speed rail 3.36 billion 350 km EMU orders]. Yahoo! News (in Chinese). 18 April 2010. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012.
  9. "CSR equips Shanghai-Hangzhou intercity high-speed railway with CHR380A EMUs". CSR Official sites. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012.
  10. "和谐号"CRH380A十大技术创新" ["Harmony" CRH380A ten technical innovation]. CNR Radio (in Chinese). 10 December 2010. Archived from the original on 18 March 2012.
  11. "中国南车在国际市场上拓展品牌" [China South Locomotive in the international market to expand the brand] (in Chinese). www.cqn.com.cn. 25 August 2010.
  12. "Speed test of Huhang high-speed rail sets new record of 416.6 km/h". People's Daily Online. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  13. "视频:京沪高铁进行首次380公里时速试验" [Video: Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail for the first time 380 km speed test] (in Chinese). www.iqilu.com. 27 November 2010. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012.
  14. "时速486.1公里!中国再度演绎"高铁奇迹"" [Speed 486.1 km per hour! China re-interpretation of "high-speed rail miracle"]. CNTV (in Chinese). 3 December 2010.
  15. "京沪高铁将全程设摄像头确保运营安全[]" [Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail will be set to ensure full operational safety camera [map]]. Xinhua (in Chinese). 4 December 2010.
  16. "沪杭高铁"贴地飞行" 设计堪比星级酒店" [Shanghai-Hangzhou high-speed rail "paste to fly" design comparable to star hotel] (in Chinese). zjnews.zjol.com.cn. 25 October 2010.
  17. "世界运营铁路第一速领跑长三角" [The world operates the first speed of the railway leading the Yangtze River Delta] (in Chinese). news.163.com. 27 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  18. "沪杭高铁26日正式开通运营全程最快2小时48分" [Shanghai-Hangzhou high-speed rail on the 26th officially opened the entire operation of the fastest 2 hours and 48 minutes] (in Chinese). news.163.com. 22 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  19. "新一代高速动车组CRH380A明起亮相武广高铁" [A new generation of high-speed EMU CRH380A debut Wu Guang high-speed rail] (in Chinese). news.hexun.com. 2 December 2010.
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