China Railway CRH3
The CRH3 Hexie (simplified Chinese: 和谐号; traditional Chinese: 和諧號; pinyin: Héxié Hào; literally: "Harmony") is a version of the Siemens Velaro high-speed train used in China on the Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway line, Wuhan-Guangzhou Passenger Dedicated Line, Zhengzhou-Xi'an Passenger Dedicated Line and the Shanghai–Nanjing intercity railway. It is capable of service speed of 380 km/h (236 mph) as the very similar Velaro E used in Spain, but, similarly to the Sapsan, it is 300 mm (11.8 in) wider to take advantage of a more generous structure gauge and thus be able to fit in more seats in a 2+3 layout.
|China Railways CRH3 EMU|
CRH3C at Changsha South Railway Station
|In service||CRH3A: October 4, 2017 – present|
CRH3C: August 1, 2008 – present
|Manufacturer||Changchun Railway Vehicles|
Tangshan Railway Vehicle
|Family name||Mixed CJ-Pendolino-Velaro (CRH3A)|
Siemens Velaro (CRH3C)
|Number under construction||CRH380B: 40 trainsets (320 cars)|
CRH380BL: 100 trainsets (1600 cars)
CRH380CL: 25 trainsets (400 cars)
|Number built||CRH3C: 80 trainsets (640 cars)|
CRH380B: 10 trainsets (80 cars)
CRH380BL: 70 trainsets (1120 cars)
CRH380CL: 1 trainset (16 cars)
|Formation||CRH3A (CNR), CRH3C (Siemens), CRH3C (CNR), CRH380B: 8 cars/trainset (4M4T)|
CRH380BL, CRH380CL: 16 cars/trainset (8M8T)
CRH3C (Siemens): 728
CRH3C (CNR): 556-601
|Operator(s)||China Railway Corporation|
|Train length||CRH3C (Siemens), CRH3C (CNR), CRH380B: 200 m (656 ft 2 in)|
CRH380BL: 399.27 m (1,309 ft 11 1⁄4 in)
|Width||3,265 mm (10 ft 8 1⁄2 in)|
|Height||3,890 mm (12 ft 9 1⁄8 in)|
|Platform height||1,250 mm (4 ft 1 in)|
|Maximum speed||CRH3C (Siemens): 160 km/h (99 mph) to 250 km/h (155 mph) |
CRH3C (CNR): 350 km/h (217 mph)
CRH380B, CRH380BL, CRH380CL: 380 km/h (236 mph)
|Weight||CRH3C: 447 t (440 long tons; 493 short tons)|
CRH380BL: 980 t (960 long tons; 1,080 short tons)
|Traction system||Siemens or Hitachi IGBT VVVF inverter control|
|Power output||CRH3C (Siemens): 5.12 MW (6,870 hp)|
CRH3C (CNR): 8.8 MW (11,800 hp)
CRH380B: 9.2 MW (12,300 hp)
CRH380BL: 18.4 MW (24,700 hp)
CRH380CL: 19.2 MW (25,700 hp)
|Electric system(s)||25 kV 50 Hz ACOverhead line|
|Current collection method||Pantograph|
|Braking system(s)||Regenerative, electronically controlled pneumatic brakes|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The first three trains were built in Germany by Siemens, and these imported trains were labelled CRH3A (CRH3-002A, CRH3-003A and CRH3-004A), different than the CRH3A-5218 developed independently and manufactured by CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles in 2017, designed to operate at a cruise speed of 250 km/h (155 mph). These trains are based on the German Deutsche Bahn's ICE 3 high-speed trains and were given initial designations of CRH3A. Of these German trains, the first one was shipped from Bremerhaven on 19 December 2007.
After December 2008, the three imported CRH3A were repainted and renamed to CRH3C (CRH3-002C, CRH3-003C and CRH3-004C). The last letter C means that each rolling stock of this model consists of 8 cars and runs with a maximum speed of 350 km/h (217 mph). The rest of the trains are now being built by Tangshan Railway Vehicle with some components from Germany.
The 8-car CRH3C trains are similar to the Velaro E design in Spain, but 300 mm (11.8 in) wider to fit more seats in a 2+3 layout; a 200 m (656 ft) CRH3 train will seat 572 passengers: 16 deluxe-class (8 sold publicly), 56 in first-class, 528 in second-class.
Each train sets consists of four motor cars and four trailer cars, equipped with two driving units, and each of them is in charge of the driving of two motor cars and two trailer cars.
The bogies are improved versions of the SF500 bogie. Innovations include the body bolster, vibration damper, spring parameters, transmission ratio, widening the carbody and increasing the speed of the trainsets.
On 9 December 2009, a pair of CRH3 EMUs (CRH3-013C + CRH3-017C) reached a top speed of 394.2 km/h (245 mph) during a test on the Zhengzhou to Xi'an high speed line, setting a world record for double-link EMUs.
In March 2009, a new contract was signed with China Northern Railways (CNR) to supply 100 16-car trainsets for 39.2B RMB with delivery from October 2010 onwards. This order for a total of 1600 railway cars is greater than the total production of all Velaro and ICE trains that have ever been manufactured in the past. It is planned that the trains will be produced by CNR subsidiaries, Tangshan Railway Vehicle and Changchun Railway Vehicles, using technology from the previous technology transfer agreement. In this contract, Siemens acts as a component supplier, with 85% of the content actually made by the company. An additional order for 40 16-car sets and 40 8-car sets was made on 28 September 2009 for 25.32B RMB.
Top travel speed for this variant is 380 km/h (236 mph), though it is capable of attaining even higher speeds. These trains have been designated as CRH380B (8-car set) and CRH380BL (16-car set) in September 2010. The first CRH380BL set with series number CRH380B-6401L rolled off the production line and was unveiled to the public in September 2010. it was manufactured by Tangshan Railway Vehicle. On October 2010, the 16-car train was sent to Beijing loop line for test. On November 2010, the train was sent to Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway for trial run. The trainset reached the maximum speed of 457 km/h (284 mph) on 5 December 2010. More recently, during a subsequent test on 10 January 2011, a CRH380BL set reached a new record speed of 487.3 km/h (302.8 mph), breaking the previous record held by the CRH380A.
All 54 CRH380BL trainsets were recalled in mid-August 2011 due to operational problems on the new Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway. The new trains were reported as being "too sensitive" and the subject of frequent breakdowns in stormy weather. They will be temporarily replaced by the CRH380A and CRH380AL.
As of December 2011, the recalled trainsets have returned to service.
Changchun Railway Vehicle released a redesigned nose fitted onto a CRH380B body at the Modern Railways 2010 on 6 December 2010. The new design will be designated the CRH380CL, with the Bombardier Zefiro redesignated the CRH380D, and will incorporate electrical equipment from Hitachi. 25 16-car trainsets have been ordered by the MOR, replacing 25 previously ordered CRH380BL units. The first trainset was delivered underwent testing starting in 2011. The trains entered regular service in the Spring of 2013.
CJ1 was built based on CRH380B, CRH380C and CRH5.
Based on CJ1 and CRH5.
- M – Motor car
- T – Trailer car
- C – Driver cabin
- P – Pantograph
- SW – Business Class Coach
- ZY – First Class Coach
- ZE – Second Class Coach
- CA – Buffet Car
- ZEC – Second Class Coach／Buffet Car
- ZES – Second Class／Business Coach
- ZYS – First Class／Business Coach
- ZYG – First Class Coach／Sightseeing Car
- ZET – Second Class Coach／Premier Coach
- ZYT – First Class Coach／Premier Coach
|Power Units||Unit 1||Unit 2|
- Train No. 3001～3080
|Power Units||Unit 1||Unit 2|
- Train No. 3571～3731, 3738～3754, 5637～5681, 5730～5761, 5787～5802, 5829～5888
|Power Units||Unit 1||Unit 2|
|Power Units||Unit 1||Unit 2||Unit 3||Unit 4|
|Power Units||Unit 1||Unit 2||Unit 3||Unit 4|
As of August 2017, there are 80 CRH3C series EMU, 661 CRH380B series EMU and 25 CRH380C series EMU in service.
Accidents and incidents
On the 25th of January, 2018 the train number G284/281 from Qingdao railway station to Hangzhou East railway station, served by CRH380BL-5522 (staffed by Jinan Railway Bureau) was forced to make an emergency stop at Dingyuan railway station due to fire at one of the main transformers installed in Coach 2 (ZY 552202). Some 1400 passengers have been evacuated, while the car affected by the fire has been completely burnt out. No personal injury or casualties have been reported.
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