Chief of Staff of the Army (Spain)
The Chief of Staff of the Army (JEME) is a military office held by a four-star general in the Spanish Army. Because of this, the JEME is the principal advisor to the Chief of the Defence Staff on ground warfare and it's also an advisor to the Minister of Defence, the Secretary of State for Defence and the Under Secretary of Defence.
|Chief of Staff of the Army
Jefe de Estado Mayor del Ejército de Tierra
Coat of Arms of the Office of the JEME
Flag of the Chief of Staff of the Army
Ministry of Defence
|Style||The Most Excellent|
|Status||Highest-ranking officer in the Army|
|Member of||Army Staff|
National Defence Council
Council of Chiefs of Staff
|Reports to||Minister of Defence|
|Seat||Buenavista Palace, Army Headquarters, Madrid|
After being discussed in the Council of Ministers
Countersigned by the Defence Minister
|Term length||No fixed term|
|Constituting instrument||Law of July 17, 1904|
|Formation||December 13, 1904|
|First holder||Camilo García de Polavieja|
|Deputy||Second Chief of Staff of the Army|
|Website||(in Spanish) Website of the Spanish Army Staff|
Under the authority of the defence minister, the Chief of Staff of the Army exercises command over the land branch of the Armed Forces.
The JEMA has two main roles: the support role by which advices the Minister of Defence about the land military policy, the JEMAD about how to use the personnel and their operative status, the SEDEF about the economic, armamentistic and infraestructure policies and the Under Secretary about the personnel and teaching policy, and the operative role by which prepare the force for combat, instructs the military personnel, establishes the organization of its military branch and watches over the welfare of the personnel under his command and evaluates the needs of the Army.
The Chief of the Staff of the Army convenes the meetings and coordinates the efforts of the Army Staff (EME), the main support body of the JEMA responsible for providing the necessary elements of judgment to base its decisions, translate these into orders and ensure their fulfillment. The EME has a whole body of military officers at its service, and among the main officers include the Second Chief of Staff of the Army, General Chief of the Terrestrial Headquarters of High Availability, the Chief of the Land Force and the General Chief of the Command of Personnel of the Army, among others.
The position is currently held by Army General Francisco Javier Varela Salas.
The creation of an Army Staff (Estado Mayor Central del Ejército) (EMCE) was planned on the Law of 17 July 1904 by which the Ministry of War was authorized to modify its structure. On December 13, 1904, the Minister of War approved a Regulation developing that structure and creating the Army Staff and in front of it a Chief of Staff. The JEME needed to be a lieutenant general and at the same time was created the office of the Second Chief of Staff of the Army with the rank of divisional general. On May 30, 1907, the National Defence Board and the JEME was part of it.
The need to recover the Army Staff did not take long to appear and in November 1915 the Council of Ministers approved the draft bill of the Army Staff that was approved by the Cortes Generales and on January 26, 1916 the EMCE was re-created with mere technical functions, because it had no executive functions and was only granted such in times of war.
In this new law the position was reserved to captain general or lieutenant general officers and in times of war it was granted to the JEME total command of the Army unless the King put himself in charge of it. The JEME was indistinctly titled Chief of the Army Staff or General Chief of the Army Staff.
In 1925, the EMCE was once again suppressed and the functions of the JEME were assumed directly by the Minister of War, and the Directorate-General of Campaign Preparation, which served as the Army Staff, was created. It was recovered by the provisional government of the second republic in July 1931.
During the Civil War, as with the rest of the military branches, each side created its own General Staff. With the end of the civil war, the Francoist government maintained the structure of the Army Staff that existed previously, and did not change until the arrival of democracy, which changed the name of Chief of the Central Staff of the Army to Chief of Staff of the Army in 1977.
List of Chiefs of Staff of the Army
|No.||Image||Name||Appointed||Dismissed||Time in office|
Camilo García de Polavieja
|25 December 1904||19 March 1906||1 year, 84 days|
|23 March 1906||8 November 1908||2 years, 230 days|
Diego de los Ríos
|8 March 1909||14 January 1910||312 days|
Julián González Parrado
|14 January 1910||27 December 1912||2 years, 348 days|
|Office suppressed between 1916 and 1922|
|5||Captain general of the Army|
|14 January 1916||5 January 1922||5 years, 356 days|
Luis Aizpuru y Mondéjar
|7 January 1922||27 May 1923||1 year, 140 days|
|(5)||Captain general of the Army|
|28 July 1923||6 October 1925||2 years, 70 days|
|Office suppressed between 1925 and 1931|
Manuel Goded Llopis
|31 July 1931||30 June 1932||335 days|
|17 February 1933||4 April 1935||2 years, 46 days|
|19 May 1935||23 February 1936||280 days|
José Sánchez-Ocaña Beltrán
|23 February 1936||19 July 1936||147 days|
Toribio Martínez Cabrera
|19 July 1936||20 May 1937||305 days|
Vicente Rojo Lluch
|20 May 1937||9 February 1939||1 year, 265 days|
Fidel Dávila Arrondo
|2 October 1936||30 September 1939||2 years, 363 days|
|End of the Civil War|
Carlos Martínez de Campos y Serrano
|30 September 1939||12 May 1941||1 year, 224 days|
Carlos Asensio Cabanillas
|12 May 1941||4 September 1942||1 year, 115 days|
Rafael García Valiño
|4 September 1942||24 March 1950||7 years, 201 days|
|24 March 1950||9 November 1952||2 years, 230 days|
Emilio Esteban Infantes
|9 November 1952||5 October 1955||2 years, 330 days|
Antonio Alcubilla Pérez
|5 October 1955||27 April 1959||3 years, 204 days|
José Cuesta Monereo
|27 April 1959||30 December 1961||2 years, 247 days|
Valero Valderrábanos Samitier
|30 December 1961||16 November 1962||321 days|
Ramón Gotarredona Prats
|16 November 1962||25 October 1963||343 days|
Rafael Cavanillas Prosper
|25 October 1963||13 July 1965||1 year, 261 days|
César Mantilla Lautrec
|6 August 1965||18 June 1968||2 years, 317 days|
Fernando González-Camino y Aguirre
|18 June 1968||2 July 1971||3 years, 14 days|
Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba y Ziburu
|2 July 1971||12 November 1973||2 years, 133 days|
Emilio Villaescusa Quilis
|12 November 1973||1 July 1976||2 years, 232 days|
Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado
|1 July 1976||26 October 1976||117 days|
Ramón Cuadra Medina
|3 November 1976||13 January 1977||71 days|
José Vega Rodríguez
|13 January 1977||24 May 1978||1 year, 131 days|
Tomás de Liniers y Pidal
|24 May 1978||18 May 1979||359 days|
|18 May 1979||15 January 1982||2 years, 242 days|
Ramón Ascanio y Togores
|15 January 1982||11 January 1984||1 year, 361 days|
José Sáenz de Tejada y Fernández de Bobadilla
|11 January 1984||31 October 1986||2 years, 293 days|
Miguel Íñiguez del Moral
|31 October 1986||18 May 1990||3 years, 199 days|
Ramón Porgueres Hernández
|18 May 1990||14 February 1994||3 years, 272 days|
José Faura Martín
|14 February 1994||1 October 1998||4 years, 229 days|
|35||General of the Army|
Alfonso Pardo de Santayana y Coloma
|1 October 1998||17 January 2003||4 years, 108 days|
|36||General of the Army|
Luis Alejandre Sintes
|17 January 2003||25 June 2004||1 year, 160 days|
|37||General of the Army|
José Antonio García González
|25 June 2004||28 April 2006||1 year, 307 days|
|38||General of the Army|
Carlos Villar Turrau
|28 April 2006||18 July 2008||2 years, 81 days|
|39||General of the Army|
Fulgencio Coll Bucher
|18 July 2008||27 July 2012||4 years, 9 days|
|40||General of the Army|
Jaime Domínguez Buj
|27 July 2012||31 March 2017||4 years, 247 days|
|41||General of the Army|
Francisco Javier Varela Salas
|31 March 2017||Incumbent||2 years, 249 days|
- Promoted posthumously to General of the Army in 1999.
- Promoted to General of the Army ad honorem in 1999.
- El Consejo de Ministros aprueba el nombramiento de los nuevos jefes de Estado Mayor de Tierra, Armada y Aire
- "Real decreto reorganizando el Ministerio de la Guerra y demás dependencias de la Administración central" (PDF). 13 December 1904.
- "Real decreto disponiendo que el Subsecretario del Ministerio de la Guerra forme parte, en reemplazo del Jefe del Estado Mayor Central del Ejército, de la Junta de Defensa Nacional, creada por el Real decreto de 30 de Mayo de 1907" (PDF).
- "Royal decree suppressing the Central Staff of the Army and the General Inspectorate of the Establishments of Instruction and Military Industry; organizing a Section that will be called the General Staff and Campaign and reorganizing the distribution of personnel affairs and staff of this Ministry, in accordance with the provisions of the Budget Law for 1913" (PDF). 29 December 1912.
- "Royal Decree authorizing the Minister of War to present a bill to the Cortes organizing the Army Staff" (PDF). 9 November 1915.
- "Royal decree that creates the Army Staff" (PDF). 26 January 1916.
- "Royal decree suppressing the Central Staff of the Army and the Undersecretariat of the Ministry of War, and creating an auxiliary Secretariat and two General Directorates that will be called Instruction and Administration and Campaign Preparation respectively" (PDF). 15 December 1925.
- "Decree providing that, depending on the Central Staff, there is an organization with the title of "Center for Higher Military Studies", whose essential mission is to prepare and develop the preparation courses of Coroneles for promotion" (PDF). 23 July 1931.
- "Royal Decree 2723/1977, of November 2, by which the Ministry of Defense is structured organically and functionally". 2 November 1977.