|Linguistic classification||Macro-Jibaro ?|
Jivaroan (violet) and Cahuapanan (pink) languages. Spots are documented locations, shadowed areas probable extension in 16th century.
Jivaroan consists of 4 languages:
The extinct Palta language was classified as Jivaroan by Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño about 1940 and was followed by Čestmír Loukotka. However, only a few words are known, and Kaufman (1994) states that there is "little resemblance".
The most promising external connections are with the Cahuapanan languages and perhaps a few other language isolates in proposals variously called Jívaro-Cahuapana (Hívaro-Kawapánan) (Jorge Suárez and others) or Macro-Jibaro or Macro-Andean (Morris Swadesh and others, with Cahuapanan, Urarina, Puelche, and maybe Huarpe).
The unclassified language Candoshi has also been linked to Jivaroan, as David Payne (1981) provides reconstructions for Proto-Shuar as well as Proto-Shuar-Candoshi. However, more recently, linguists have searched elsewhere for Candoshi's relatives.
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- Dean, Bartholomew (1990). The State and the Aguaruna: Frontier Expansion in the Upper Amazon, 1541-1990. M.A. thesis in the Anthropology of Social Change and Development, Harvard University.
- Greenberg, Joseph H. (1987). Language in the Americas. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
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- Payne, David L (1981). "Bosquejo fonológico del Proto-Shuar-Candoshi: evidencias para una relación genética." Revista del Museo Nacional 45. 323-377.
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