Chattanooga is a city in and the county seat of Hamilton County, Tennessee, along the Tennessee River bordering Georgia. With an estimated population of 179,139 in 2017, it is the fourth-largest city in Tennessee and one of the two principal cities of East Tennessee, along with Knoxville. Served by multiple railroads and Interstate highways, Chattanooga is a transit hub. Chattanooga lies 118 miles (190 km) northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, 112 miles (180 km) southwest of Knoxville, Tennessee, 134 miles (216 km) southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, 102 miles (164 km) east-northeast of Huntsville, Alabama, and 147 miles (237 km) northeast of Birmingham, Alabama.
|City of Chattanooga|
Scenic City (official); Chatt, Chattown, Gig City, Nooga, and River City
Location of Chattanooga in Hamilton County, Tennessee
Location within Tennessee
Chattanooga (the United States)
|Coordinates: 35°2′44″N 85°16′2″W|
|• Mayor||Andy Berke (D)|
|• City||144.6 sq mi (374.4 km2)|
|• Land||137.1 sq mi (355.2 km2)|
|• Water||7.4 sq mi (19.2 km2)|
|Elevation||676 ft (206 m)|
|• Density||1,295/sq mi (499.9/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1307240|
The Chattanooga metropolitan statistical area is the fourth largest in Tennessee and the city of Chattanooga anchors a three-state area that includes Southeast Tennessee, Northwest Georgia, and Northeast Alabama. Major industry driving the economy includes automotive, advanced manufacturing, food and beverage production, healthcare, insurance, tourism, and back office and corporate headquarters.
The city, with a downtown elevation of approximately 680 feet (210 m), lies at the transition between the ridge-and-valley portion of the Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau. Surrounded by mountains and ridges, the official nickname for Chattanooga is "Scenic City", reinforced by the city's reputation for outdoor activities. Unofficial nicknames include "River City", "Chatt", "Nooga", "Chattown", and "Gig City", referencing Chattanooga's claims that it has the fastest internet service in the Western Hemisphere.
Chattanooga is internationally known for the 1941 song "Chattanooga Choo Choo" by Glenn Miller and his orchestra. Chattanooga is home to the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) and Chattanooga State Community College.
The city has its own typeface, Chatype, which was launched in August 2012. According to the Nooga.com website, this marks the first time that an American city has its own custom-made typeface and also the first time a crowd-funded custom-made typeface has been used for any municipality in the world.
The first inhabitants of the Chattanooga area were Native Americans. Sites dating back to the Upper Paleolithic period (ca. 10,000 bce) show continuous human occupation through the Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian/Muskogean/Yuchi (900–1714 ce), and Cherokee (1776–1838) periods. The Chickamauga Mound near the mouth of the Chickamauga Creek is the oldest (ca. 750 ce) remaining visible art in Chattanooga.
The Citico town and mound site was the most significant Mississippian/Muscogee landmark in Chattanooga up to 1915. The first part of the name "Chattanooga" derives from the Muskogean word cvto /chắtȯ/ – 'rock'. The latter may be derived from a regional suffix -nuga meaning dwelling or dwelling place. It is also believed to be derived from the Creek Indian word for ‘rock rising to a point.’
The earliest Cherokee occupation of the area dates from 1776, when Dragging Canoe separated himself from the main tribe to establish resistance to European settlement during the Cherokee–American wars. In 1816 John Ross, who later became Principal Chief, established Ross's Landing. Located along what is now Broad Street, it became one of the centers of Cherokee Nation settlement, which also extended into Georgia and Alabama.
In 1838, the U.S. government forced the Cherokees, along with other Native Americans, to relocate to the area designated as Indian Territory, in what is now the state of Oklahoma. Their journey west became known as the "Trail of Tears" for their exile and fatalities along the way. The U.S. Army used Ross's Landing as the site of one of three large internment camps, or "emigration depots", where Native Americans were held before the journey on the Trail of Tears.
In 1839, the community of Ross's Landing incorporated as the city of Chattanooga. The city grew quickly, initially benefiting from a location well-suited for river commerce. With the arrival of the railroad in 1850, Chattanooga became a boom town. The city was known as the site "where cotton meets corn," referring to its location along the cultural boundary between the mountain communities of southern Appalachia and the cotton-growing states to the south.
During the American Civil War, Chattanooga was a center of battle. Chattanooga served as a hub connecting fifty percent the Confederacy's arsenals, those being located in Atlanta, Augusta, Columbus, and Macon. Chattanooga railroads proved vital in the Confederacy's transportation of raw material to processing plants where they were responsible for producing small arms munitions. During the Chickamauga Campaign, Union artillery bombarded Chattanooga as a diversion and occupied it on September 9, 1863. Following the Battle of Chickamauga, the defeated Union Army retreated to safety in Chattanooga. On November 23, 1863, the Battles for Chattanooga began when Union forces led by Major General Ulysses S. Grant reinforced troops at Chattanooga and advanced to Orchard Knob against Confederate troops besieging the city. The next day, the Battle of Lookout Mountain was fought, driving the Confederates off the mountain. On November 25, Grant's army routed the Confederates in the Battle of Missionary Ridge. In regard to victories won by the Union, Chattanooga marks one of three defining moments that turned the Civil War in their favor. The Battle of Gettysburg brought the streak of victories obtained by the Confederacy to an end, while the Siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy itself in half, while Chattanooga served doorway to the deep south. These battles were followed the next spring by the Atlanta Campaign, beginning just over the nearby state line in Georgia and moving southeastward. After the war ended, the city became a major railroad hub and industrial and manufacturing center.
The largest flood in Chattanooga's history occurred in 1867, before the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) system was created in 1933 by Congress. The flood crested at 58 feet (18 m) and completely inundated the city. Since the completion of the reservoir system, the highest Chattanooga flood stage has been nearly 37 feet (11 m), which occurred in 1973. Without regulation, the flood would have crested at 52.4 feet (16.0 m). Chattanooga was a major priority in the design of the TVA reservoir system and remains a major operating priority in the 21st century.
In December 1906, Chattanooga was in the national headlines in United States v. Shipp, as the United States Supreme Court, in the only criminal trial in its history, ruled that Hamilton County Sheriff Joseph H. Shipp had violated Ed Johnson's civil rights when Shipp allowed a mob to enter the Hamilton County jail and lynch Johnson on the Walnut Street Bridge. Chattanooga grew with the entry of the United States in the First World War in 1917, as the nearest training camp was in Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. Effects of the Influenza of 1918 on Chattanooga included having movie theaters and pool halls closed. By the 1930s, Chattanooga was known as the "Dynamo of Dixie", inspiring the 1941 Glenn Miller big-band swing song "Chattanooga Choo Choo". Through Mayor P.R. Olgiati's efforts, Chattanooga became the first city in Tennessee to have a completed interstate highway system in the early 1960s. In February 1958, Chattanooga became one of the smallest cities in the country with three VHF television stations: WROM-TV (now WTVC-TV) channel 9 (ABC), WRGP-TV (now WRCB-TV) channel 3 (NBC), and WDEF-TV channel 12 (CBS).
The same mountains that provide Chattanooga's scenic backdrop also served to trap industrial pollutants which caused them to settle over the community, so much that in 1969, the federal government declared that Chattanooga had the dirtiest air in the nation. But environmental crises were not the only problems plaguing the city. Like other early industrial cities, Chattanooga entered the 1970s with serious socioeconomic challenges, including job layoffs because of de-industrialization, deteriorating city infrastructure, racial tensions, and social division. Chattanooga's population increased by nearly 50,000 in the 1970s. However, this was mostly a result of annexation of existing residential areas into the city. By the mid-1980s, local leaders began a nationally-recognized effort called Vision 2000 to revitalize and reinvent Chattanooga's culture and economy. Chattanooga's population declined by more than 10% in the 1980s. However, Chattanooga was the only major U.S. city to have its population decline by a significant amount in the 1980s and then regain the same proportion in the next two decades.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the city of Chattanooga has continued to see a reverse in the trend of population decline, with many people from out of the state as well as immigrants moving into the area.
Chattanooga launched the first one gigabit per second Internet service in the United States in September 2010, provided through the city-owned utility of EPB.
In August 2012, Chattanooga developed its own typeface, called Chatype, which marks the first time a municipality has its own typeface in the United States and the first crowd-funded, custom-made typeface in the world.
On July 16, 2015, a terrorist attack in the form of a shooting occurred at two U.S. military facilities in Chattanooga. Six people—four U.S. Marines, one sailor, and the gunman—were killed, and two people were wounded.
On November 21, 2016, a school bus carrying students from Woodmore Elementary School crashed in the Brainerd neighborhood, killing 6 and injuring 23. In March 2018, the driver, an employee of Durham School Services was convicted of six counts of criminally negligent homicide, 11 counts of reckless aggravated assault, seven counts of assault, reckless endangerment, reckless driving and illegally using his phone while driving. The crash reignited the debate about whether or not seat belts should be required in school buses.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 144.6 square miles (374.4 km2), of which 137.1 square miles (355.2 km2) are land and 7.4 square miles (19.2 km2), or 5.12%, are water. The most prominent natural features in and around Chattanooga are the Tennessee River and the surrounding mountains. The city is nestled between the southwestern Ridge-and-valley Appalachians and the foot of Walden's Ridge; the river separates the ridge from the western side of downtown. Several miles east, the city is bisected by Missionary Ridge.
The Tennessee River is impounded by the Chickamauga Dam north of the downtown area. Five automobile bridges, one railroad trestle, and one pedestrian bridge cross the river.
Road transport is facilitated by Interstate 75 to Atlanta and Knoxville, Interstate 24 to Nashville, and Interstate 59 to Birmingham. Chattanooga and portions of southeast Tennessee and northern Georgia are served by the Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport. CSX transports rail freight to Atlanta and Nashville, and Norfolk Southern conveys rail cargo to Atlanta, Birmingham, Cincinnati, Knoxville, and Memphis.
Downtown Chattanooga showcases a wide variety of entertainment, dining, cultural and architectural attractions. Since the completion of the Tennessee Aquarium in 1992, the downtown area has experienced a wide array of development projects, including the Creative Discovery Museum and the reopening of the historic Walnut Street Bridge. The downtown footprint is structured by interstate highway I-24 on the south to Frazier Avenue in the Northshore, as well as US highway 27 in the west to Central Avenue in the east.
The modern downtown skyline is dominated by the Tennessee Aquarium, the Republic Centre (tallest building in Chattanooga), John C. Portman Jr.’s the Westin (Gold Building), the James Building (Chattanooga's first skyscraper), and The Block, a state of the art climbing gym steps away from the aquarium boosting an 11,000 square foot public art piece with 5,000 square feet of functional climbing space. Chattanooga holds claim to a number of buildings with historical significance, such as The Read House Hotel (the longest continuously operating hotel in the Southeastern United States), the Chattanooga Choo-Choo Hotel (a converted railroad terminal), the Maclellan Building, the Dome Building (once the home to the Chattanooga Times), and the Tivoli Theatre. The BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee headquarters, situated on top of Cameron Hill, is the second-largest LEED Gold-certified corporate campus in the nation.
Other major features of Downtown Chattanooga's diverse cityscape are four main bridges over the Tennessee River. These include the Walnut Street Bridge, the Market Street Bridge, the Olgiati Bridge, and the Veterans Memorial Bridge. These bridges have made Chattanooga the walkable city it is today by connecting the Riverfront and Northshore to the Tennessee Riverwalk and Bluff View Art District. Downtown Chattanooga also features a multitude of parks such as Coolidge Park, Renaissance Park, Miller Park, Miller Plaza and Main Terrain Art Park. The Martin Luther King District runs parallel to the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga’s campus and features the largest mural in Chattanooga. The 40,000 square foot mural was created by Philadelphia-based muralist Meg Saligman and seven other local artists.
In late 20th and early 21st centuries, substantial private and governmental resources have been invested in transforming the city's tarnished image. In 1993, restoration of the Walnut Street Bridge was completed. An excellent specimen of the Camelback truss bridge, it is the oldest surviving bridge of its kind in the Southeastern United States, having been built in 1891. Efforts to improve the city include the "21st Century Waterfront Plan" – a $120 million redevelopment of the Chattanooga waterfront area, which was completed in 2005. The Tennessee Aquarium, which opened in 1992, has become a major waterfront attraction that has helped to spur neighborhood development. Since the opening of the aquarium, downtown Chattanooga has experienced over $5 billion of private investment. Nearly $1 billion of those private dollars have been invested in downtown Chattanooga since 2014.
Chattanooga has garnered numerous accolades for its transformation of its image. The city has won three national awards for outstanding "livability", and nine Gunther Blue Ribbon Awards for excellence in housing and consolidated planning. Public art experts chose Passageways 2.0 City Thread from among 50 outstanding public art projects created in 2018 through the Public Art Network Year in Review program, a national program that recognizes compelling public art. In addition to winning various national and regional awards, Chattanooga has been in the national limelight numerous times. Chattanooga was the profile city of the August 2007 edition of US Airways Magazine. Chattanooga based businesses have been recognized for their investment in solar energy. In December 2009, Chattanooga was ranked 8th out of America's 100 largest metro areas for the best "Bang For Your Buck" city, according to Forbes magazine, which measured overall affordability, housing rates, and more.
Chattanooga has many buildings on the National Register of Historic Places as well as three neighborhoods: Ferger Place, Fort Wood, and St. Elmo. Additionally, Chattanooga has several local historic districts: Battery Place, Glenwood, Missionary Ridge, M.L. King, and Stringer's Ridge. Four of these are formally managed as local historic districts by the city.
- Apison, Tennessee
- Chickamauga, Georgia
- Collegedale, Tennessee
- East Brainerd, Tennessee
- East Ridge, Tennessee
- Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia
- Harrison, Tennessee
- Hixson, Tennessee
- Lookout Mountain, Georgia
- Lookout Mountain, Tennessee
- Ooltewah, Tennessee
- Red Bank, Tennessee
- Ridgeside, Tennessee
- Ringgold, Georgia
- Rossville, Georgia
- Sale Creek, Tennessee
- Signal Mountain, Tennessee
- Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee
- Walden, Tennessee
Chattanooga, like much of Tennessee, has a four-season humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa). Winter days are usually mild, but most years have at least one day (average 3.2) where the high remains at or below freezing. Snowfall is highly variable from year to year. 11 inches (28 cm) were recorded between January 9–10, 2011. Summers are hot and humid, with a July daily mean of 80.0 °F (26.7 °C) and 52 days annually with 90 °F (32 °C) or greater temperatures.
Average annual precipitation is over 52 inches (1,300 mm). On average, November through March represents an extended relatively wet period, because of Chattanooga's frequent placement (in the winter season) in a zone of conflict between warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and cold, dry air from Canada, amplified by jet-stream energy and abundant Gulf moisture. July presents a secondary maximum in precipitation, due to frequent thunderstorm activity. Despite the mountains that surround the city, Chattanooga has been affected by tornadoes. These tornadoes include the 2011 Super Outbreak, which impacted the city and nearby locations, including Apison and Cherokee Valley in Catoosa County, Georgia, where fifteen people died, eight in Apison and seven in Cherokee Valley.
|Climate data for Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport, Tennessee (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1879–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||78
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||67.9
|Average high °F (°C)||50.2
|Average low °F (°C)||30.7
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||13.1
|Record low °F (°C)||−10
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||4.91
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||1.7
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.7||10.2||10.7||9.5||10.6||10.4||11.7||9.4||8.0||7.7||9.6||11.1||119.6|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||1.0||0.9||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||0.4||2.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||71.2||68.2||65.9||63.8||71.5||73.1||74.9||76.0||77.0||74.6||73.5||72.9||71.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||147.0||155.6||200.5||240.2||275.6||275.5||265.2||256.8||227.9||218.8||158.7||140.4||2,562.2|
|Percent possible sunshine||47||51||54||61||64||63||60||62||61||63||51||46||58|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)|
As of the census of 2010, there were 167,674 people, 70,749 households, and 40,384 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,222.5 people per square mile (472.5/km²). There were 79,607 housing units at an average density of 588.8 per square mile (226.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 58.0% White, 34.9% Black, 2.0% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.8% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin (regardless of race) constituted 5.5% of the total population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 55.9% of the population in 2010, down from 67.3% in 1980. There were 70,749 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36% were married couples living together, 17.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 26% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the city, the population was spread out with 21.3% under the age of 18, 11.5% from 18 to 24, 27% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, and 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.1 years. 46.1% of the population was male and 53.9% of the population was female.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,817, and the median income for a family was $43,314. Males had a median income of $36,109 versus $31,077 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,756. About 14% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over.
Chattanooga's Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Hamilton, Marion, and Sequatchie counties in Tennessee and Catoosa, Dade, and Walker counties in Georgia, grew from 476,531 people, as of the 2000 census, to 529,222 people, as of the 2010 census, an 11% increase during the 2000s.
The single largest religious group in Chattanooga is Christianity. According to 2010 statistics, the Southern Baptist Convention was the largest denomination with 225 congregations and 122,300 members; followed by the United Methodist Church with 31,500 members and 83 churches. The third-largest group of Christians identified as non-denominational congregations; and the fourth-largest organized denomination was the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) with 82 churches and 17,900 members. The 5th largest Christian religious group, according to 2010 statistics, was the Roman Catholic Diocese of Knoxville which had 12 congregations and 14,300 members. As of 2016, the second-largest religion in Chattanooga has been Islam, with 2,200 adherents.
Chattanooga's economy includes a diversified and growing mix of manufacturing and service industries.
Notable Chattanooga businesses include Access America Transport, BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, CBL & Associates, The Chattanooga Bakery, Chattem, the world's first Coca-Cola bottling plant, Coker Tire, U.S. Xpress Inc., Covenant Transport, Double Cola, CraftWorks Restaurants & Breweries, Luken Communications, Miller & Martin, the National Model Railroad Association, Reliance Partners, Republic Parking System, Rock/Creek, Tricycle Inc., and Unum. The city also hosts large branch offices of Cigna, AT&T, T-Mobile USA, and UBS. McKee Foods Corporation, the maker of nationally known Little Debbie brand snack cakes, is a privately held, family-run company headquartered in nearby Collegedale, Tennessee.
Notable companies that have manufacturing or distribution facilities in the city include Alstom, Amazon.com, BASF, DuPont, Invista, Komatsu, Rock-Tenn, Plantronics, Domtar, Norfolk Southern, Ferrara Candy Company (manufacturer of Brach's candies), Alco Chemical, Colonial Pipeline, and Buzzi Unicem. The William Wrigley Jr. Company has a prominent presence in Chattanooga, the sole site of production of Altoids breath mint products since 2005. There is also a Vulcan Materials quarry in the vicinity of the city.
In a seminal event for Chattanooga, Volkswagen announced in July 2008 the construction of its first U.S. auto plant in over three decades, the Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant. In May 2011, Volkswagen Group of America inaugurated its Chattanooga Assembly Plant. The $1 billion plant, opened in May 2011, serves as the group's North American manufacturing headquarters. The plant, which currently employs some 2,700 people and will increase by another 2,000 people within the next few years and manufactures the Passat (since April 2011) and the Atlas (from late 2016), will have a first-in-the-South full research and development center in downtown Chattanooga, employing some 200 engineers. The plant is the first one in the United States for Volkswagen since the 1988 closure of the Volkswagen Westmoreland Assembly Plant near New Stanton, Pennsylvania.
In addition to corporate business interests, there are many retail shops in Chattanooga, including two shopping malls: Hamilton Place Mall in East Brainerd and Northgate Mall in Hixson. Eastgate Mall in Brainerd used to be a shopping mall, but has changed into a multi-use office building. Tourism and Hospitality has been a growing part of Chattanooga's economy, with 2014 being the first year for Hamilton County to surpass $1 billion in revenue.
Startups have been an increasing trend, due in part to EPB's fiber optic grid. Notable venture firms based in the city are Blank Slate Ventures, Chattanooga Renaissance Fund, Lamp Post Group, SwiftWing Ventures, and The Jump Fund. The city is served by several incubators, notably Co.Lab, the Business Development Center, and Lamp Post Group. The Business Development Center is among the nation's largest incubators, both in square footage and in the number of startups that it supports. Co-working spaces have picked up downtown, including Society of Work and Chattanooga Workspace. Unique in the city is the startup accelerator Gigtank, which utilizes the city's gigabit capacities and focuses on 3D printing, healthcare, and smartgrid technologies. Notable startups include Quickcue (acquired by OpenTable in 2013), and Reliance Partners. Chattanooga went from zero investable capital in 2009 to over $50 million in 2014.
Electric power for most of the city and surrounding area is provided by the city-run Electric Power Board (EPB). EPB also provides high-speed Internet service, TV, and telephone service to business and residential customers throughout Hamilton County, as well as parts of Bledsoe County, Bradley County, Catoosa County, Dade County, Marion County, Rhea County, Sequatchie County, and Walker County, via the nation's largest municipally owned fiber optic system. TVA operates the nearby Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant, Chickamauga Dam, and the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant, all of which provide electricity to the greater Chattanooga area. TVA's corporate power generation and distribution organization is headquartered in downtown Chattanooga.
Natural gas and water are provided by the privately run Chattanooga Gas Company and Tennessee-American Water Company, respectively. In 2005, Mayor Ron Littlefield stated his desire for the city to purchase the Tennessee-American Water Company, which was sold in a public offering in 2007. Former Mayor Jon Kinsey's attempts to have the city buy control of Tennessee-American Water were defeated in court.
EPB Fiber Optics is the dominant cable and internet service provider for most areas of the city. The incumbent telephone company is AT&T Inc. However, competing phone companies, such as EPB, cellular phones, and VoIP are making inroads. A major interstate fiber optics line operated by AT&T traverses the city, making its way from Atlanta to Cincinnati. There are more choices among TV, Internet, and phone service providers for Chattanooga residents than in most other cities its size because of the intense competition between AT&T, Comcast, and EPB.
EPB's gigabit public fiber optic network
Beginning in 2009 and continuing through March 2011, when Haletown, Tennessee, received service from EPB's fiber optic network, EPB began to establish its exclusive fiber optic network to its 600 sq mi (1,600 km2) service area, which covers the greater Chattanooga Metropolitan Statistical Area. In September 2010, EPB became the first municipally-owned utilities company in the United States to offer internet access directly to the public at speeds up to ten gigabit (10,000 megabits) per second by utilizing its fiber optic network. The network has been emulated by at least six other cities in Tennessee and studied by other cities in the U.S. and even internationally. Jay Weatherill, South Australia's Premier, visited Chattanooga in January 2012 and studied the gigabit network that was supporting critical city safety functions such as police and fire communications infrastructure, equipment and applications. He also inspected wastewater management, storm water management, traffic control and medical diagnostics applications, as well as operations of a smart lighting and camera system that allows the police to control public lighting and see what is happening in heavy crime areas. The use of broadband to carry the video and control signaling has contributed to making Chattanooga's Coolidge Park a safer place to visit.
In 2011, the expansion of EPB's network became a subject of major controversy in Tennessee. The success of its network, credited with the expansion of Volkswagen's Chattanooga plant and the establishment of Amazon.com facilities in Chattanooga and Cleveland, led to a number of legal challenges by AT&T and Comcast insisting that public funds not be used to fund expansion of public networks in competition with private ones. However, according to EPB, federal agencies, electricity industry trade sources, and other press sources, the investment in the fully fiber optic network is justified by electrical system benefits alone, including early fault detection and decreases in standby power.
As of 2014, there are 27 banks operating in the Chattanooga metropolitan area, lending to financial strength. Among the heavy hitters are regional banks First Tennessee, SunTrust Banks, and Regions Financial Corporation, but the area also has offices from UBS, Chase, and Bank of America. In part to the strength and growing economic development, Chase recently shifted its East Tennessee headquarters from Knoxville to Chattanooga.
Within the first four months of 2015, Chattanooga became a very hot market for bank mergers with the merging of 3 locally owned banks, and 1 in nearby Cleveland, Tennessee. CapitalMark, formed in 2007, will be acquired by the Nashville-based Pinnacle Financial Partners for $187 million to have the fourth largest market share in the Chattanooga metro area. First Security Group, Inc, the largest Chattanooga-based bank, formed in 2000, will be acquired by the Atlanta-based Atlantic Capital Bancshares, Inc., for $160 million. Cornerstone, started in 1985, will merge with the Knoxville-based SmartBank in a stock deal. Cleveland's Southern Heritage Bank was acquired in 2014 by First Citizens National Bank in Dyersburg, Tennessee, for $32.2 million. All these mergers only leave one Chattanooga-based, independent bank, First Volunteer Bank. Others in the area locally based include Dunlap, Tennessee-based Citizens Tri-County Bank, Ooltewah-based Community Trust and Banking Co., Dayton, Tennessee-based Community National Bank, Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia-based Capital Bank, LaFayette, Georgia-based Bank of LaFayette, and Cleveland-based Bank of Cleveland.
Culture and tourism
As the birthplace of the tow truck, Chattanooga is the home of the International Towing and Recovery Hall of Fame and Museum. Another transportation icon, the passenger train, can be found at the Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum, called TVRM by locals, which is the largest operating historic railroad in the South. Chattanooga is home to the Hunter Museum of American Art. Other notable museums include the Chattanooga History Center, the National Medal of Honor Museum, the Houston Museum, the Chattanooga African American Museum, and the Creative Discovery Museum.
Chattanooga is home to the Hunter Museum of Art. The mission of the American Art Museum is to "engage our diverse audiences in active dialogues about the importance, meaning, and relevance of American Art through: preservation, growth, and interpretation of its exemplary collection; challenging, wide-ranging, and interactive exhibitions; compelling and innovative educational programs; an exciting, thought provoking, and enjoyable museum experience; and a commitment to inclusion, diversity. and openness."
The Creative Discovery Museum is a children's museum located in downtown Chattanooga, Tennessee. It aimed primarily between the ages of 18 months and 12 years old. It contains art, music, and field science areas, along with a water-themed zone called RiverPlay, a rooftop exhibit, an inventor's workshop, and a temporary exhibit space. Some of the permanent exhibits include the Barsamian Sculpture, the Corner Clinic, and the Excavation Station.
Arts and literature
Chattanooga has a wide range of performing arts in different venues. Chattanooga's historic Tivoli Theatre, dating from 1921 and one of the first public air-conditioned buildings in the United States, is home to the Chattanooga Symphony and Opera (CSO), which became the first merged symphony and opera company in the United States in 1985. The CSO performs under the baton of Kayoko Dan. The Chattanooga Theatre Centre offers 15 productions each year in three separate theater programs: the Mainstage, the Circle Theater, and the Youth Theater. Another popular performance venue is Memorial Auditorium.
The Memorial Auditorium, also known as the Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Auditorium, is located at 399 McCallie Ave, Chattanooga, TN 37402. It was built "between 1922 and 1924 by John Parks, General Contractors, and was designed by the architect R.H. Hunt, who designed the Tivoli Theatre in Chattanooga."
Chattanooga touts many attractions, including the Tennessee Aquarium, caverns, and new waterfront attractions along and across the Tennessee River. In the downtown area is the Chattanooga Choo Choo Hotel, housed in the renovated Terminal Station. Also downtown are the Creative Discovery Museum, a hands-on children's museum dedicated to science, art, and music; an IMAX 3D Theatre, and the newly expanded Hunter Museum of American Art. The Tennessee Riverwalk, an approximately 13-mile-long (21 km) trail running alongside the river, is another attraction for both tourists and residents alike.
Across the river from downtown is the North Shore district, roughly bounded by the Olgiati Bridge to the west and Veterans Bridge to the east. The newly renovated area draws locals and tourists to locally owned independent boutique stores and restaurants, plus attractions along the Chattanooga Riverpark system, including Coolidge Park and Renaissance Park.
The Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Park is located a short distance from the downtown area. The Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Park is located at 301 North Holtzclaw Avenue, Chattanooga, TN 37404. Hours of operation are 9:00 AM–5:00 PM everyday. In 1937, the first small exhibit was "established with the construction of a 4x6' cage for two Rhesus Monkeys." The Zoo has since grown incredibly, as in 2017, "the Zoo kicked off the year with the announcement of the Kits and Cubs Program, which is a unique early childhood learning program designed specifically for the youngest of animal lovers." And in May 2017, "the Zoo broke ground to expand the Corcovado Jungle exhibit adding six new outdoor and six new indoor exhibits to house small South American monkeys and mammals in June." Parks and natural scenic areas provide other attractions. The red-and-black painted "See Rock City" barns along highways in the Southeast are remnants of a now-classic Americana tourism campaign to attract visitors to the Rock City tourist attraction in nearby Lookout Mountain, Georgia. The mountain is also the site of Ruby Falls and Craven's House. The Lookout Mountain Incline Railway is a steep funicular railway that rises from the St. Elmo Historic District to the top of the mountain, where passengers can visit the National Park Service's Point Park and the Battles for Chattanooga Museum. Formerly known as Confederama, the museum includes a diorama that details the Battle of Chattanooga. From the military park, visitors can enjoy panoramic views of Moccasin Bend and the Chattanooga skyline from the mountain's famous "point" or from vantage points along the well-marked trail system.
The Heritage park is a park that lies in East Brainerd. Heritage park has a bocce ball court, a playground complete with swings, and a walking pavement. The park also features an off-leash dog park which is operated by the Friends of East Brainerd, the City of Chattanooga Parks and Recreation Department, McKamey Animal Center and the Goodwill Assistance Dog Academy.
Near Chattanooga, the Raccoon Mountain Reservoir, Raccoon Mountain Caverns, and Reflection Riding Arboretum and Botanical Garden boast a number of outdoor and family fun opportunities. Other arboretums include Bonny Oaks Arboretum, Cherokee Arboretum at Audubon Acres, and Cherokee Trail Arboretum. The Ocoee River, host to a number of events at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, features rafting, kayaking, camping, and hiking. Just outside Chattanooga is the Lake Winnepesaukah amusement park. The Cumberland Trail begins in Signal Mountain, just outside Chattanooga.
Festivals and events
Chattanooga hosts the well-known Riverbend Festival, an annual four-day music festival held in June in the downtown area. One of the most popular events is the "Bessie Smith Strut", a one-night showcase of blues and jazz music named for the city's most noted blues singer. The annual "Southern Brewer's Festival" and the "River Roast" festival celebrate such traditional Southern staples as beer and barbecue.
New events, such as GoFest!, the "Between the Bridges" wakeboard competition, Heritage Festival, and Talespin, complement well-established events, such as Riverbend and the Southern Brewer's Festival, and attract their own audiences. Back Row Films is a citywide celebration of film co-sponsored by the Hunter Museum of American Art, the Arts & Education Council, and UTC.
"Nightfall" is a free weekly concert series in Miller Plaza on Friday nights that features an eclectic mix of rock, blues, jazz, reggae, zydeco, funk, bluegrass, and folk music from Memorial Day until the end of September. The Chattanooga Market features events all year round as part of the "Sunday at the Southside", including an Oktoberfest in mid-October.
The Chattanooga Dulcimer Festival, held each June, features workshops for mountain dulcimer, hammered dulcimer, and auto harp, among others, along with performances by champion performers from across the nation.
Chattanooga is also the center of much bluegrass music. In 1935, as well as from 1993 to 1995, the city hosted the National Folk Festival. Since 2007, the annual 3 Sisters Festival showcases traditional and contemporary bluegrass artists, and has been named one of the country's top 5 bluegrass festivals by Great American Country.
Each January, Chattanooga plays host to Chattacon, a science fiction and fantasy literary convention. The convention is organized by the nonprofit Chattanooga Speculative Fiction Fans, Inc. First held in 1976, the convention drew an estimated 1,000 attendees to the Chattanooga Choo Choo Hotel in 2012, as well as an estimated 1,300 attendees in 2013.
Chattanooga has a large, growing, and diversified sports scene for a city of its size, including college sports, minor league baseball, semi-professional teams, professional cycling exemplified by the Volkswagen USA Cycling Professional Road & Time Trial National Championships, the Ironman Triathlon, and a large nationally renowned regatta the first weekend of November.
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) Mocs compete in NCAA Division I and the Southern Conference. UTC's athletic programs include football at the FCS level, women's soccer, volleyball, and cross country in the fall; men's and women's basketball, Wrestling, and indoor track & field in the winter; and softball and outdoor track & field in the spring. Men's and women's golf and men's and women's tennis play in the fall and spring.
Semi-Pro and Minor League Baseball
The Chattanooga Lookouts, a Class AA Southern League baseball team affiliated with the Cincinnati Reds, boast a loyal following and respectable participation in season-end playoffs. Games take center stage at the downtown riverfront AT&T Field with tickets starting at $5.
Chattanooga is home to several semi-professional football teams, including the Tennessee Crush and the Chattanooga Steam. The Tennessee Crush plays its games at Finley Stadium in downtown Chattanooga. The Chattanooga Steam plays at Lookout Valley High School near Lookout Mountain.
The city currently has two professional soccer teams. From 2009 to 2019, Chattanooga FC played in the National Premier Soccer League, but is moving to a professional league (NISA) in 2020. Founded in 2009, Chattanooga FC has gone to the national finals four times since its inception, and drew a record 18,227 fans for their 2015 NPSL title match. The club has also found success in the U.S. Open Cup defeating the professional USL's Wilmington Hammerheads to reach the tournament's third round in 2014 and 2015. In 2019, Chattanooga FC became one of the founding members of NPSL's Founders Cup, a group of eleven teams playing a professional tournament in the fall before forming a fully professional league in 2020. To support this, Chattanooga FC became only the second sports team in the U.S., after the Green Bay Packers, to sell supporter shares in the team. These moves were partially in response to a USL League One franchise, the Chattanooga Red Wolves starting play in the 2019 inaugural season of that new third-tier professional league under the direction of Chattanooga FC's former general manager. The Red Wolves are currently playing in USL League One and intend to build a multi-million dollar soccer specific stadium in the East Ridge area of Chattanooga. Prior to the proposed stadium being built, the Red Wolves found themselves in the midst of a legal battle with Arkansas State, with ASU sending them a cease and desist letter in November of 2019.
Chattanooga is also home to several rugby teams: the Chattanooga Rugby Football Club, Nooga Red, Nooga Black, men's Old Boys, a women's rugby team, men's and women's teams at UTC, and an all-city high school team. The Chattanooga Rugby Football Club, which was established in 1978 and the 2011 and 2013 DII Mid South champions, is affiliated with USA Rugby and USA Rugby South. The club fields two teams, Nooga Red, which competes in Division II, and Nooga Black, which competes in Division III. There is also a men's Old Boys team, a Chattanooga women's rugby team, as well as collegiate men's and women's teams representing the Mocs at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. A citywide high school rugby team, the Wolfpack, was established in 2012 and is open to any high school player living in the Chattanooga area. All seven teams play their home matches at Montague Park.
The Head of the Hooch rowing regatta takes place along the Tennessee River in downtown Chattanooga during the first weekend of November. The head race originally took place on the Chattahoochee River in Atlanta before moving to Chattanooga in 2005, hence the name Head of the Hooch. With 1,965 boats in 2011 and nearly 2,000 boats in 2012, this competition ranks as the 2nd largest regatta in the United States, with numerous college and youth teams, such as UNC Men's Crew, Vanderbilt Rowing Club, James Madison University Crew, University of Tennessee Women's Rowing, Orlando Rowing Club, Nashville Rowing Club, Newport Rowing Club, and Chattanooga Rowing, competing. There are also multiple local rowing clubs, such as the Lookout Rowing Club for adults and the Chattanooga Junior Rowing Club for high school students. The weekend of the Head of the Hooch also sees hot-air balloon rides and other activities.
In 2013, the Volkswagen USA Cycling Professional Road & Time Trial National Championships were held in Chattanooga. The schedule for the 3-day event on May 25–27 featured a handcycling time trail and various other cycling time trials and road races, including a men's road race that took the cyclists through the heart of downtown Chattanooga and up Lookout Mountain for a total race distance of 102.5 miles (165.0 km). American professional cyclist Freddie Rodriguez won the national road race championship title for the fourth time in his career. The Championships' debut in Chattanooga marked the first time in the event's 29-year history that women were allowed to compete for professional national titles. Chattanooga will also host the Championships in 2014 and 2015.
The city is home to the Chattanooga Bicycle Club. It was established in 1967 to "encourage and promote bicycle riding and safety, and to foster good relationships between cyclists and motorists by demonstrating courtesy and respect the law." The Chattanooga Bicycle Club advocates for transportation, fitness, and recreation, as well as health and wellness.
This club is in relative with the League of American Bicyclists (LAB), Adventure Cycling, Bike Chattanooga, and Outdoor Chattanooga.
Due to its location at the junction of the Cumberland Plateau and the southern Appalachians, Chattanooga has become a haven for outdoor sports, and has even been named Outside Magazine's "Best Town Ever" twice such as hunting, fishing, trail running, road running, adventure racing, rock climbing, mountain biking, and road biking. The internationally known StumpJump 50k has been hosted on nearby Signal Mountain since 2002.
The Erlanger Half Marathon and Marathon have become a large part of the spring activities in Chattanooga in recent years. These events are orchestrated by the Chattanooga Sports Committee, and the half marathon course and marathon course are designed by the same group of runners. The course is subject to change throughout the years. The most recent marathon and half marathon were held on March 3, 2019.
In August 2013, further cementing Chattanooga's growing status as a nationally recognized outdoor haven, the Chattanooga Sports Committee, an organization established in 1992 to help the city host major sporting events, announced that the Ironman Triathlon would be coming to the city in a 5-year deal. The city became one of only 11 cities in the United States to host the grueling competition showcasing Chattanooga's natural beauty, which consists of a 2.4-mile (3.9 km) swim, a 112-mile (180 km) bike race (which is broken down into two 56-mile (90 km) loops), and a 26.2-mile (42.2 km) run (which is broken down into two 13.1-mile (21.1 km) loops). The event has a $40,000 prize purse and chances to qualify for the Ironman World Championship in Hawaii. On November 4, 2014 it was announced that Chattanooga would host The Ironman 70.3 event, also known as the Half Ironman, in addition to the standard Ironman Triathlon. This event consists of a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) swim, 56-mile (90 km) bike ride, and 13.1-mile (21.1 km) run, and has a prize pot of $30,000. On September 29, 2015, The Chattanooga Convention and Visitors Bureau announced that Ironman had chosen Chattanooga, Tennessee to host the 2017 Ironman 70.3 World Championships.
Chattanooga has been a member of the League of American Bicyclists' Bronze level since October 2003, the only city in Tennessee to be a member of the organization before Knoxville and Nashville joined in 2010 and 2012, respectively. The city boasts a number of outdoor clubs: Scenic City Velo, SORBA-Chattanooga, the Wilderness Trail Running Association, and the Chattanooga Track Club. The city also funds Outdoor Chattanooga, an organization focused on promoting outdoor recreation. In September 2004, the city appointed its first-ever executive director of Outdoor Chattanooga to implement the organization's mission, which includes promoting bicycling for transportation, recreation, and active living. For paddlers, Chattanooga offers the Tennessee River Blueway, a 50-mile (80 km) recreational section of the Tennessee River that flows through Chattanooga and the Tennessee River Gorge. The Tennessee Aquarium has a high speed catamaran, the River Gorge Explorer, to allow up to 70 people to explore the Tennessee River Gorge. The Explorer departs from the Chattanooga Pier. Since 2008, Chattanooga has hosted the Skyhoundz World Canine Disc Championship, the crowning event of the largest disc dog competition series in the world.
Media and communications
The Chattanooga Times Free Press, the area's only daily newspaper, is published every morning. It was formed in 1999 from the merger of two papers that had been bitter rivals for half a century, the Times and the News-Free Press. The Times was owned and published by Adolph Ochs, who later bought The New York Times. The Times was the morning paper and had a generally more liberal editorial page. The News-Free Press, whose name was the result of an earlier merger, was an afternoon daily and its editorials were more conservative than those in the Times. On August 27, 1966, the News-Free Press became the first newspaper in the nation to dissolve a joint operating agreement. In 1999, the Free Press, which had changed its name from News-Free Press in 1993, was bought by an Arkansas company, WEHCO Media, publisher of the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, which then bought The Times from the Ochs heirs. The Times Free Press is the only newspaper in the United States to have 2 editorial pages, each reflecting opposite ends of the political spectrum. The Times' editorial page, which is liberal, is on the left page and the Free Press' editorial page, which is conservative, is on the right page.
The Chattanooga Pulse is a free weekly alternative newspaper, published every Wednesday, that focuses primarily on arts, music, film and culture. It was formed in 2003 by Zachary Cooper and Michael Kull, running independently until 2008, when the paper was purchased by Brewer Media Group, which also owns and operates five radio stations in the city.
Enigma is a free monthly pop culture and entertainment magazine. Founded as a weekly newspaper in 1995 by David Weinthal, Enigma lays claim to being Chattanooga's oldest alternative newspaper, even though it had ceased physical publication from 2013 until resuming as a monthly magazine in 2015.
The Chattanoogan and its website "Chattanoogan.com", established in 1999, is an online media outlet that concentrates on news from Chattanooga, North Georgia, and Southeast Tennessee. The publisher is John Wilson, previously a staff writer for the Chattanooga Free Press. The Chattanoogan is the oldest online newspaper in Chattanooga.
Nooga.com, purchased in November 2010 by local entrepreneur Barry Large, relaunched in 2011 as a local news website offering "quality daily content focusing on local business, politics, and entertainment in the Chattanooga area." In August 2018, Nooga.com partnered with Greenville, S.C.-based media company 6AM City. The outlet was rebranded and relaunched as NOOGAtoday in September 2018. While NOOGAtoday's primary product is its daily email newsletter, it also publishes content on its social media accounts and website.
Chattanooga is served by the following AM and FM radio stations:
- WDYN 980 AM – Southern Gospel / WDYN Radio Operated By Tennessee Temple University. (Licensed to Rossville, GA)
- WFLI 1070 AM – Top 40 from the '60s & '70s (Licensed to Chattanoogs-Lookout Mountain, TN)
- WGOW 1150 AM – News Talk / NewsRadio 1150 (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WNOO 1260 AM – Urban gospel and Motown (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WXCT 1370 AM – Sports / 1370 Fox Sports Radio (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WLMR 1450 AM – Christian Talk (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WJOC 1490 AM – Southern Gospel (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WUTC 88.1 FM – NPR/Mixed music / Music 88. Operated by UTC. First station in Chattanooga to broadcast in HD Radio. (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- W203AZ 88.5 FM – Religious / CSN International (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WMBW 88.9 FM – Christian / Moody Radio For The Heart of the Southeast. Owned and operated by Moody Bible Institute. (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WYBK 89.7 FM – Christian. Operated By Bible Broadcasting Network. (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- W211BG 90.1 FM – Religious (Licensed to Walden, TN)
- WSMC 90.5 FM – Classical/NPR/PRI Operated by Southern Adventist University. (Licensed to Collegedale, TN)
- WJBP-FM 91.5 FM – Christian / Family Life Radio (Licensed to Red Bank, TN)
- WAWL – College Alternative / The Wawl (Web only / Formerly broadcasting on 91.5) Chattanooga State Community College (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WDEF-FM 92.3 FM – Adult Contemporary / Sunny 92.3 (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WSAA 93.1 FM – Christian Rock / Air 1 (Licensed to Benton, TN)
- WMPZ 93.5 FM – Urban Adult Contemporary / Groove 93 (Licensed to Harrison, TN)
- WJTT 94.3 FM – Urban contemporary / Power 94 (Licensed to Red Bank, TN)
- WAAK-LP 94.7 FM – Variety (Low power station licensed to Boynton/Ringgold, GA)
- WPLZ 95.3 FM – Classic Hits / Big 95.3 (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WUSY 96.1 FM - Classic Country / The Legend 96.1
- WDOD 96.5 FM – Hits 96.5—Chattanooga's No. 1 Hit Music Station (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WUUQ 97.3 and 99.3 FM – Classic Country / Q Country 97.3/99.3 (Licensed to South Pittsburg, TN)
- WLND 98.1 FM – Hot AC / 98.1 The Lake (Licensed to Signal Mountain, TN)
- WOOP-LP 99.9 FM – Classic country, old-time gospel, bluegrass, and mountain music. Operated by the Traditional Music Resource Center (Licensed to Cleveland, TN)
- WUSY 100.7 FM – Contemporary Country / US101 (Licensed to Cleveland, TN)
- WJSQ 101.7 FM – Contemporary and Classic country / 101.7 WLAR (Licensed to Athens, TN)
- WOCE 101.9 FM – Spanish (Licensed to Ringgold, GA)
- WGOW 102.3 FM – Talk Radio 102.3 (Licensed to Soddy-Daisy, TN)
- WBDX 102.7 FM – Contemporary Christian (Licensed to Trenton, GA)
- WJLJ 103.1 FM – Contemporary Christian (Simulcast with WBDX 102.7) (Licensed to Etowah, TN)
- WKXJ 103.7 FM – Top 40 / 103.7 Kiss FM (Licensed to Walden, TN)
- WALV 105.1 FM – Sports Talk / ESPN 105.1 The Zone (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- WRXR-FM 105.5 FM – Active Rock / Rock 105 (Licensed to Rossville, GA)
- WSKZ 106.5 FM – Classic Rock / KZ106 (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
- W295BI (WPLZ HD-2) Adult Contemporary / Big Easy 106.9 (Licensed to Ooltewah, TN)
- WOGT 107.9 FM – Country / Nash Icon (Licensed to East Ridge, TN)
Chattanooga's television stations include:
- WRCB channel 3, NBC affiliate – (DT 13 / cable 4)
- WOOT-LP channel 6, independent (formerly UPN) (silent)
- WTVC channel 9, ABC/Fox affiliate – (DT35 / cable 10)
- WDEF channel 12, CBS affiliate – (DT47 / cable 13)
- WNGH channel 18, GPB affiliate – (DT 33 / cable 12)
- WELF channel 23, TBN affiliate – (DT 16 / cable 9)
- W26BE channel 26, 3ABN affiliate – (cable 295)
- WTCI channel 45, PBS member station (DT29 / cable 5)
- WFLI-TV channel 53, The CW Television Network affiliate (Formerly UPN and The WB) (DT 42 / cable 6)
- WDSI channel 61, This TV affiliate – (DT 40 / cable 11)
Law and government
The city operates under a charter granted by the state legislature in 1852; the charter has been subsequently amended.
The city operates under a strong mayor system, which changed from a commission form of government with members voted at-large. In 1987 twelve African American city residents filed a complaint, Brown v. Board of Commissioners of the City of Chattanooga, alleging that the commission-style government violated their civil rights, including the Voting Rights Act of 1965, by diluting the minority black vote. In 1989 U.S. District Judge R. Allan Edgar ruled in their favor, compelling the city to abandon the at-large voting system that it had used for the 'commission' form of government, established single-member geographical districts to proportionally represent both majority and minority elements of the population according to the city's racial demographics, eliminated voting privileges for non-resident property owners, and created the city's current mayor-council form of government. The Chattanooga City Council has nine members, which currently has four African Americans, elected in 2017. The current strong-mayor system started in 1991 after a 1990 citywide election that used the new court-ordered district system.
The city's legislative branch is represented by members from nine districts, elected from single-member districts in partisan elections. The current (elected 2017) council members are Chip Henderson (District 1), Jerry Mitchell (District 2), Ken Smith (District 3), Darrin Ledford (District 4), Russell Gilbert (District 5), Carol Berz (District 6), Erskine Oglesby (District 7), Anthony Byrd (District 8), and Demetrus Coonrod (District 9).
Chattanooga's delegation to the Tennessee House of Representatives includes Robin Smith (R), District 26; Patsy Hazlewood (R), District 27; Yusuf Hakeem (D), District 28; Mike Carter (R), District 29; and Esther Helton (R), District 30. In the Tennessee Senate, Chattanooga is divided between Districts 10 and 11 with Todd Gardenhire (R) and Bo Watson (R) representing each district respectively.
Chattanooga is represented in the United States House of Representatives by Chuck Fleischmann (R), who represents the 3rd District. In the United States Senate, both Bob Corker (R) and Lamar Alexander (R) have district offices in Chattanooga.
Chattanooga, as the county seat of Hamilton County, is home to Chattanooga's City Courts and Hamilton County's Courts.
Chattanooga is the location of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee's Southern Division, which is housed in the Joel W. Solomon Federal Courthouse. The Southern Division has jurisdiction over Bledsoe, Bradley, Hamilton, Marion, McMinn, Meigs, Polk, Rhea, and Sequatchie counties.
The Chattanooga Police Department dates from 1852. Starting in 1883, it hired black police officers, making Chattanooga one of the first major Southern cities to have them. But after the state legislature imposed segregation, black police officers were dropped from the force. They were hired again on a permanent basis beginning on August 11, 1948, years before other major cities in the Southeast, such as Birmingham, Alabama and Jackson, Mississippi, integrated their police departments. The first seven black officers in 1948, Thaddeus Arnold, Singer Askins, W.B. Baulridge, C.E. Black, Morris Glenn, Arthur Heard, and Thomas Patterson, were initially restricted to walking beats in black neighborhoods. In 1960, black police officers were authorized to patrol all neighborhoods and arrest white citizens.
Primary and secondary education
Most of Chattanooga's primary and secondary education is funded by the government. The public schools in Chattanooga, as well as Hamilton County, have fallen under the purview of the Hamilton County Schools since the 1997 merger of the urban Chattanooga City Schools system and the mostly rural Hamilton County Schools system. The Howard School was the first public school in the area, established in 1865 after the Civil War. Tyner High School (now Tyner Academy) was the first secondary school built east of Missionary Ridge in 1907. It is now the home of Tyner Middle Academy. The Chattanooga School for the Arts and Sciences, the STEM School Of Chattanooga and the Chattanooga High School Center for Creative Arts are additional public magnet schools.
The city is home to several well-known private and parochial secondary schools, including Baylor School, Boyd-Buchanan School, Chattanooga Christian School, Girls Preparatory School, McCallie School, and Notre Dame High School. The Siskin Children's Institute in Chattanooga is a specialized institution in the field of early childhood special education.
A wide variety of higher education institutions can be found in Chattanooga and nearby. The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga is the second largest campus of the University of Tennessee System, with a student population of over 11,587 as of 2017–18 school year. Chattanooga State Community College is a two-year community college with a total undergraduate enrollment of roughly 8150 students in 2018. Tennessee Temple University was a Baptist college located in the Highland Park neighborhood that is no longer operating as of 2015. Chattanooga is also home to a branch of the University of Tennessee College of Medicine, which provides medical education to third- and fourth-year medical students, residents, and other medical professionals in southeast Tennessee through an affiliation with Erlanger Health System. Covenant College, a private liberal arts college operated by the Presbyterian Church in America, is located in the nearby suburb of Lookout Mountain, Georgia, and has a student population of about 1,000. Southern Adventist University is located in the suburb of Collegedale, Tennessee, and enrolls roughly 3,000 students. Richmont Graduate University is a Christian graduate school located in Chattanooga with a CACREP accredited clinical mental health counseling program as well as other ministry related degrees and a student population close to 300. Virginia College School of Business and Health offers a variety of programs leading to diplomas, associate degrees, and bachelor's degrees.
The Chattanooga Public Library opened in 1905. Since 1976, the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Bicentennial Library system had been jointly operated by the city and county governments; due to Chattanooga terminating a 1966 agreement with Hamilton County to distribute sales tax revenue equally, the city has taken over full funding responsibilities as of 2011. The city was given a Carnegie library in 1904, and the two-story purpose-built marble structure survives to this day at Eighth Street and Georgia Avenue as commercial office space. In 1939, the library moved to Douglas Street and McCallie Avenue and shared the new building with the John Storrs Fletcher Library of the University of Chattanooga. This building is now called Fletcher Hall and houses classrooms and offices for the university. In 1976, the city library moved to its third and current location at the corner of Tenth and Broad streets.
Chattanooga has three hospital systems: Erlanger Health System, Parkridge Hospital System, and Memorial Hospital System.
Founded in 1889, Erlanger is the seventh largest public healthcare system in the United States with more than half a million patient visits a year. Erlanger Hospital is a non-profit academic teaching center affiliated with the University of Tennessee's College of Medicine. Erlanger is also the area's primary trauma center, a Level-One Trauma Center for adults, and the only provider of tertiary care for the residents of southeastern Tennessee, north Georgia, northeastern Alabama, and western North Carolina. In 2008, Erlanger was named one of the nation's "100 Top teaching hospitals for cardiovascular care" by Thomson Reuters. Erlanger has been operated by the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Hospital Authority since 1976.
Parkridge Hospital is located east of downtown in the Glenwood district and is run by Tri-Star Healthcare. Tri-Star also operates Parkridge East Medical Center in nearby East Ridge.
Considered to be the gateway to the Deep South, along with the Midwest and the Northeast for motorists from states such as Alabama, Florida, and Georgia, Chattanooga's extensive transportation infrastructure has evolved into an intricate system of interstates, streets, tunnels, railroad lines, bridges, and a commercial airport.
Major surface routes
SR 317 (Bonny Oaks Drive) US 11 (Lee Highway) / US 64 (Brainerd Road)
- Broad Street
US 41 / US 72 (Cummings Highway) US 27 (Dayton Boulevard)
- East Brainerd Road
- Georgia Avenue
- Gunbarrel Road
- Hickory Valley Road
- Hixson Pike
US 76 (Main Street)
- McCallie Avenue
- Ringgold Road
US 27 (Rossville Boulevard)
- Shallowford Road
US 127 (Signal Mountain Boulevard)
- Bachman Tubes, (also unofficially known as The East Ridge Tunnels), which carry Ringgold Road into the neighboring city of East Ridge.
- Missionary Ridge Tunnels (also unofficially known as McCallie or Brainerd Tunnels), which carry McCallie and Bailey Avenues through Missionary Ridge where the route continues as Brainerd Road.
- Stringer's Ridge Tunnel, which carries Cherokee Boulevard through Stringer's Ridge where the route continues as Dayton Boulevard.
- Wilcox Tunnel, which carries Wilcox Boulevard through Missionary Ridge and connects to Shallowford Road.
The city is served by a publicly run bus company, the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority (CARTA). CARTA operates 17 routes, including a free electric shuttle service in the downtown area, and free wireless Internet on certain "smartbuses".
The Chattanooga Department of Transportation has a mission "to make efficient transportation viable for all commuters- cyclists, pedestrians, transit users, and motorists while enhancing multi-use public spaces for all people." Chattanooga favors public transit, as the opening lines on the TDOT website read: "Sit back, relax, and let someone else deal with the traffic. Compared to driving, public transportation is less expensive, safer, and better for the environment. It reduces traffic congestion, saves energy, and benefits the communities it serves."
Though Chattanooga's most famous connection to the railroad industry is Chattanooga Choo Choo, a 1941 song made famous by Glenn Miller & His Orchestra, the city serves as a major freight hub with Norfolk Southern (NS) and CSX running trains on their own (and each other's) lines. The Norfolk Southern Railway's main classification yard, DeButts Yard, is just east of downtown; Norfolk Southern's Shipp's Yard and CSX's Wauhatchie Yard are southwest of the city. Norfolk Southern maintains a large railroad repair shop in Chattanooga. The two railroad companies are among the largest individual landowners in the city (the Federal Government is another).
The Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum (TVRM), the largest historic operating railroad in the South, and the Chattooga and Chickamauga Railway also provide railroad service in Chattanooga. The headquarters of the National Model Railroad Association (NMRA) were located in Chattanooga next to the TVRM from 1982 to 2013, when the NMRA moved to Soddy Daisy, a nearby suburb. (The NMRA had moved from Indianapolis, Indiana to Chattanooga.)
Using the AAR reporting marks (NS for Norfolk Southern, CSXT for CSX Transportation, TVRM for the Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum, TNT for subsidiary Tyner Terminal Railroad, and CCKY for Chattooga and Chickamauga Railway), the rail lines passing through Chattanooga are as follows:
- CSXT – Western & Atlantic Subdivision (Chattanooga to Atlanta)
- Chattanooga Subdivision (Chattanooga to Nashville on former NC&StL trackage)
- NS – Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific, aka the Queen and Crescent Route, (Chattanooga to Cincinnati, Ohio via Lexington, Kentucky)
- Alabama Division (Chattanooga to Memphis via Huntsville, Alabama)
- Alabama Great Southern (Chattanooga to New Orleans, Louisiana via Birmingham, Alabama)
- Georgia Division (Chattanooga to Atlanta)
- Central Division (Chattanooga to Knoxville)
- Chattanooga Traction Company
- North Chattanooga to Signal Mountain
- Dry Valley Line (Red Bank to Lupton City)
- TVRM – East Chattanooga to Grand Junction (3 miles (4.8 km))
- East Chattanooga Belt Line Railroad (from near 23rd Street, across to Holtzclaw Avenue and East Chattanooga around North Chamberlain Ave., used by TVRM)
- TNT - Tyner Terminal Railroad (Enterprise South Industrial Park railroad operations)
- CCKY – formerly the Tennessee Alabama & Georgia line (Chattanooga to Hedges, Georgia, abandoned since 2009)
The Lookout Mountain Incline Railway, often referred to as the Incline Railway by locals, serves as a tourist attraction. It is also occasionally used for commuting by Lookout Mountain residents, particularly during wintry weather when traveling up and down the mountain could be very dangerous.
Despite the high level of freight rail activity, there is no passenger rail service in the city for either commuters or long-distance travelers.
Until the 1960s the Louisville and Nashville railroad ran passenger trains through Union Station and the Southern Railway ran trains through Terminal Station. The last train, the L&N's Georgian, left Terminal Station in October 1971.
Being bisected by the Tennessee River, Chattanooga has seven bridges that allow people to traverse the river; five of the bridges being automobile bridges, one a rail bridge, and one a pedestrian bridge. These are the following, from west to east:
- P.R. Olgiati Bridge – Named for a former mayor, P.R. Olgiati, this bridge, which was dedicated in 1959, carries U.S. Highway 27 from downtown towards Dayton, Tennessee and points northward.
- Market Street Bridge – Officially called the John Ross Bridge, this bridge is a bascule bridge, which is a type of draw bridge. The bridge was completed in 1917 for the large sum of $1 million for the time. Having stood for decades since its last major overhaul, the Tennessee Department of Transportation declared it unsafe in late 2004. The bridge was closed in 2005 for a long-overdue renovation and was reopened on August 4, 2007.
- Walnut Street Bridge – Also known as "The Walking Bridge", it is one of the centerpieces of Chattanooga's urban renewal and is the second longest pedestrian bridge in the nation. Constructed in 1891, the bridge was declared unsafe and closed to traffic in 1978. It was on the verge of being demolished in the late 1980s when public outcry led to it being restored as a pedestrian-only span that opened in 1993.
- Veterans Memorial Bridge – Completed in 1984, this bridge has helped commuters from Hixson, Lupton City, and other northern areas reach downtown quickly.
- C.B. Robinson Bridge – Opened in 1981, this bridge carries Dupont Parkway from Amnicola Highway to Hixson Pike and Route 153.
- Tenbridge – This truss bridge with a vertical lift carries the Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway over the river and is a popular railfan area. It was constructed in 1920.
- Wilkes T. Thrasher Bridge – Completed in 1955, this route carries Highway 153 over the Chickamauga Dam.
Chattanooga has been referred to in pop culture numerous times over the decades, including in books, documentaries, films, TV shows, and more. In recent years, Chattanooga has appeared in more productions of blockbuster movies and TV shows, as well as independent films and documentaries.
Books that have Chattanooga as either a major or minor plot setting are Don't Cry by Beverly Barton, American Gods by Neil Gaiman, Queen of Wands by John Ringo, and Four and Twenty Blackbirds by Cherie Priest.
- Up Lookout Mountain on the Electric Incline (1913)
- Battle Fields Around Chattanooga (1913)
- The Blue and the Gray (1935)
- Our Country (2003)
- John Henry: Inside the Sculptors Studio (2008)
- Let There Be Light: The Odyssey of Dark Star (2010)
- Memphis & Charleston Railroad: Marriage of the Waters (2010)
- Born and Bred (2011)
- When Mourning Breaks (2013)
Chattanooga and its environs have been featured in numerous films since the early 1970s, principally due to Chattanooga being the home of the Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum (TVRM), which has allowed its equipment to be filmed in various films.
- Fool's Parade (1971) (Southern 4501 as B&O 4501)
- Eleanor & Franklin (1976), starring Jane Alexander and Edward Herrmann
- The Last Days of Frank and Jesse James (1986)
- Fled (1996) (shot on the TVRM mainline)
- Mama Flora's Family (1998)
- October Sky (1999) (Southern 4501 appearing as N&W 4501 with O. Winston Link being the engineer)
- The Adventures of Ociee Nash (2003)
- Warm Springs (2005) (shot in Summerville, Georgia, using TVRM equipment)
- Heaven's Fall (2007)
- Leatherheads (2008), starring George Clooney and Renée Zellweger
- Water for Elephants (2011), starring Reese Witherspoon and Robert Pattinson
- The promotional video for Josh Turner's 2003 country single Long Black Train was filmed on TVRM property.
- The Man Trail (1915)
- The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia (1981)
- The Big Blue (1988)
- Dutch (1991)
- Christopher Columbus: The Discovery (1992)
- All Over Again (2001)
- Straight into Darkness (2004)
- 42 (2013) (filmed at Engel Stadium)
- Identity Thief (2013) (scene set in St. Louis was filmed on the Market Street Bridge)
The 1941 Glenn Miller song that catapulted Chattanooga to international fame, Chattanooga Choo Choo, has been performed in numerous movies, including the 1941 film Sun Valley Serenade, featuring the Miller Orchestra and Milton Berle, "The Glenn Miller Story" starring James Stewart in the 1953 title roll, and the 1984 eponymous film Chattanooga Choo Choo.
Sporting and entertainment events
A number of pro wrestling events, as well as other events, such as circuses, concerts, ice shows, monster truck rallies, and rodeos, have been held in Chattanooga since the late 1980s, all at UTC's McKenzie Arena, also known as The Roundhouse because of its round shape and the impact of the railroad industry on Chattanooga. The events include the following:
- Clash of the Champions IV: Season's Beatings (1988)
- Saturday's Night Main Event (January 27, 1990 episode)
- Halloween Havoc (1991)
- In Your House 13: Final Four (February 16, 1997)
- 2005 and 2011 Men's Southern Conference basketball tournaments
- 2005 Women's Southern Conference basketball championship game
- Kenny Rogers concert (October 8, 1982; first-ever event held in McKenzie Arena)
- Toby Keith concert (February 8, 2007)
- Elton John concert (2011, 2013, 2016)
Police POV, COPS, and the MTV show Cuff'd have shown members of the Chattanooga Police Department apprehending suspects. In addition to police reality shows, Chattanooga and nearby areas have been either been featured or mentioned in several TV shows, including the following:
- America's Walking (This Woman's Not Stopping episode, originally broadcast May 20, 2002)
- R&B Divas: Atlanta (Til Divas Do Us Part episode, originally broadcast June 19, 2013)
- American Idol (Top 3 Results Show episode, originally broadcast May 19, 2011)
- Antiques Roadshow (Chattanooga episodes (Hours 1-3), originally broadcast March 30 and April 6 and 13, 2009)
- Bridezillas (Shederyl & Poni episode)
- Fitness Truth (CF Open Chattanooga episode, originally broadcast August 14, 2011)
- $40 a Day (Chattanooga episode, originally broadcast October 29, 2004)
- Evening Magazine
- Extreme Makeover: Home Edition (Sharrock Family episode, originally broadcast May 15, 2011)
- Good Eats (Hook, Line, and Dinner episode, originally broadcast September 8, 1999)
- Mystery Manhunt (2012-)
- Off Limits (Tennessee episode, originally broadcast June 20, 2011)
- Only in America with Larry the Cable Guy (Larry Gets the Horns episode, originally broadcast February 22, 2011)
- 16 and Pregnant (Maci episode, originally broadcast June 11, 2009)
- Teen Mom (Maci Bookout character)
- Tennessee Crossroads (Show 752 episode, originally broadcast June 23, 1994)
- The Andy Griffith Show (Andy the Matchmaker and The Shoplifters episodes, originally broadcast on November 14, 1960 and March 2, 1964, respectively.)
- The Middle (Vacation Days episode, originally broadcast March 5, 2014)
- The Steps (a locally produced web series)
- Trading Spouses: Meet Your New Mommy (Hammond/Howard episode, originally broadcast January 17 and 24, 2005)
- Who Do You Think You Are? (Lionel Richie episode, originally broadcast March 4, 2011)
Miscellaneous film and TV productions
- Outcasts (2003)
- Assurances (2004)
- A Bright Past (2008)
- Last Breath (2009)
- The Campaign for Chattanooga: Death Knell of the Confederacy (2012)
- Ella (2012)
Some TV movies have been filmed in Chattanooga or nearby areas, as well, including the 1986 TV movie A Winner Never Quits. In addition, the 1999 music video Usher Live, starring Chattanooga native Usher, was filmed in Chattanooga.
Hamm, Germany (since 1975) Wuxi, Jiangsu, China (since 1982) Givatayim, Israel (since 1988) Nizhny Tagil, Russia (since 1996) Gangneung, South Korea (since 2003) Wolfsburg, Germany (since 2011) Manfredonia, Italy (since 2014) Tōno, Iwate, Japan (since 2017)
Chattanooga also has two twinning cities:
In January 2007, all of the cities above, with the exceptions of Wolfsburg and Tono, had a tree native to each locale planted at Coolidge Park's Peace Grove, which was established to replace a 100-year-old Slippery Elm tree which was damaged in a lightning storm in August 2006. Wolfsburg and Tono were added in September 2011 and January 2018, respectively. The Peace Grove has nine trees: a Linden tree, which represents Hamm; a Chinese Elm, which represents Wuxi; a Mediterranean cedar, which represents Givatayim; a White Birch, which represents Nizhny Tagil; a Ginkgo tree, which represents Gangneung; an English Elm, which represents Swindon; a European Hornbeam, which represents Ascoli Piceno; an Oak tree, which represents Wolfsburg; and a Cherry tree, which represents Tono.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Chattanooga kept at the Weather Bureau downtown from January 1879 to June 1940 and at Lovell Field since July 1940.
- "About Chattanooga, Tennessee". Archived from the original on September 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-10.
- Tennessee Blue Book, 2005-2006, pp. 618-625.
- "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Tennessee's 2013 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
- "Chattanooga, Tennessee (TN) Zip Code Map - Locations, Demographics". city-data.com. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Chattanooga city, Tennessee". Census Bureau QuickFacts. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Cite error: The named reference greaterchatt.com was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Chattanooga Economic Development | Greater Chattanooga Economic Partnership". www.greaterchatt.com. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
- Smith, Ellis (June 24, 2012). "Internet rivals Comcast, EPB slug it out in Chattanooga market". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- "Chattanooga Gig: Your Gig is Here". chattanoogagig.com. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- Morrison, Chloe (September 6, 2012). "Chatype used everywhere from library to new downtown banners". Nooga.com. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- kunesh, tom. "Chickamauga Mound". Chattanooga InterTribal Association. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- A Dictionary of Creek/Muskogee, Margaret McKane Mauldin
- Timothy Ezzell, Chattanooga. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2009. Retrieved: 17 January 2013.
- Vicki Rozema, Voices from the Trail of Tears. Voices from the Trail of Tears, 2003. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
- Hughes, Micheal Anderson (1991). "The Struggle for Chattanooga, 1862-1863": 10 – via ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. Cite journal requires
- Russo, Valeria A. (2000). "Gateway to Civil War history: [RUN OF PAPER Edition]". Patriot Ledger – via ProQuest Central.
- "Chattanooga: History – Native Americans Displaced by Early Settlers". City-data.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 31, 2015. Retrieved February 6, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Flood-Prone Areas. Tennessee Valley Authority.
- "Chattanooga, Tennessee (Reconstruction to World War II)". NGeorgia.com. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- "Chattanooga, Dirtiest City in American | Chattanooga Green City". The GreenPages Chattanooga. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "Peter Rudolph "Rudy" Olgiati". Chattanooga.gov. City of Chattanooga. Retrieved November 28, 2019.
- "Where Do Our Interstate Highways Terminate?". chattanoogan.com. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Why did they name it the "Ol' Johnny Bridge?"". chattanoogaradiotv.com. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Bridge Statistics for Chattanooga, Tennessee (TN) - Condition, Traffic, Stress, Structural Evaluation, Project Costs". city-data.com. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Chapter Seven". gtvhof.com. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- Brandes Gratz, Roberta (July 7, 2011). "Healing the Urban Heart: Chattanooga's Next Great Challenge". The CitiStates Group. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
- Hightower, Cliff (August 28, 2009). "City reveals second phase of annexation". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Chattanooga, Tennessee. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
- "City populations grow, shift". timesfreepress.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Chattanooga's 2017 population growth rate was best among Tennessee's 4 biggest cities". timesfreepress.com. May 29, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- Lohr, Steve (September 12, 2010). "Fastest Net Service in U.S. Coming to Chattanooga". The New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Chatype Typeface". Chatype.com. August 15, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- Denton, Lisa (March 25, 2012). "Chattanooga Now 2012". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- "Chattanooga shootings: Gunman ID'd as Muhammad Youssef Abdulazeez". CBC News. July 16, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Sterling, Joe; Simon, Darran (November 21, 2016). "6 dead in Tennessee school bus crash". cnn.com. Cable News Network. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- "Bus driver found guilty of criminally negligent homicide in crash that killed 6 kids". wbir.com. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- Pak, Nataly (May 23, 2018). "NTSB changes tune about seat belts on school buses after deadly crashes". ABC News. New York City. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Chattanooga city, Tennessee". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- "Republic Centre". www.berryhunt.com.
- List of tallest buildings in Tennessee
- "The Westin Chattanooga". Marriott International.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 17, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "The Block | Chattanooga, TN". theblockchattanooga.com.
- "Uncovering the History of the Read House". May 15, 2018.
- "History of the Maclellan Building". www.chattanoogan.com.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 17, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 17, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "We Will Not Be Satisfied Until". Meg Saligman.
- "waterfront_exec_summary.pdf (application/pdf Object)" (PDF). rivercitycompany.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2008. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
- "In 25 years, Tennessee Aquarium helps reshape Chattanooga downtown [photos]". timesfreepress.com. April 23, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- "Downtown is top tax generator for Chattanooga, Hamilton County". timesfreepress.com. February 22, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- "City of Chattanooga". Chattanooga.gov. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Passageways 2.0 City Thread Receives National Award". www.chattanoogatrend.com. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
- "Profile: Chattanooga" (PDF). Chattanooga Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 29, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Forbes December 2009, https://www.forbes.com/2009/11/30/cities-affordable-cheap-lifestyle-real-estate-housing-foreclosures_chart.html
- "City of Chattanooga Historic Planning & Zoning". www.chattanooga.gov. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
- "Climatography of the United States No. 20: 1971–2000" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 22, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
- Staff. "Chattanooga Natural Disaster and Weather Extremes for Chattanooga". USA.com. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- "Documented Tornadoes in Hamilton County TN". Srh.noaa.gov. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- Staff (April 29, 2011). "Funeral Services Set For Some Of Apison Tornado Victims". Chattanoogan.com. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Barbour, Matt (September 23, 2012). "Memorial honors April 27th tornado victims". WRCB.com. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- "Threaded Extremes". threadex.rcc-acis.org.
- "Station Name: TN CHATTANOOGA LOVELL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- "WMO Climate Normals for CHATTANOOGA/LOVELL FIELD, TN 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 26, 2018.
- "Census of Population and Housing: Decennial Censuses". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 8, 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
- "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Resident Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 11, 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- "2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1) for Chattanooga city, Tennessee". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
- "Chattanooga (city), Tennessee". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- "Population data" (PDF). archive.knoxmpc.org.
- "Chattanooga, TN-GA, Metropolitan Statistical Area: Religious Traditions, 2010". The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA). 2010. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- [Chattanooga candy companies gear up for sugar season http://m.timesfreepress.com/news/2013/oct/31/scenic-city-candy-companies-gear-up-for-sugar/ Archived August 11, 2014, at Archive.today]
- Pare, Mike (April 12, 2012). "Life Savers at 100: Wrigley cites Chattanooga plant during celebration". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
- "Altoids: Made in America". Prepared Foods Network. September 7, 2005. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
- "Chattanooga lands VW plant". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Archived from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Volkswagen wants slice of American pie AUSmotive.com
- Pare, Mike (May 24, 2011). "VW ushers in new era in U.S. with its Chattanooga plant". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- [VW announces Chattanooga-made SUV, and 2,000 new jobs http://m.timesfreepress.com/news/2014/jul/14/vw-announce-new-suv-today-chattanooga/ Archived August 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine]
- [Volkswagen Chattanooga SUV celebration continues http://www.wrcbtv.com/story/26025004/volkswagen-chattanooga-suv-celebration-continues]
- Holusha, John (November 21, 1987). "Volkswagen to Shut U.S. Plant". The New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2010.
- Malek, Mitra (February 1, 2015). "Dalton may hatch business incubator". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- "Electricity meets the Internet with smart meters". timesfreepress.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Electricity meets the Internet with smart meters | timesfreepress.com". Tfponline.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Lohr, Steve (September 12, 2010). "Fastest Net Service in U.S. Coming to Chattanooga". The New York Times.
- "Littlefield: "We Want Local Control" of the Water Company". The Chattanoogan. December 19, 2005. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
- "Parent Company Of Tennessee-American Water To Be Sold In Public Offering". The Chattanoogan. March 25, 2006. Archived from the original on October 19, 2006. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
- Flessner, David (May 2, 2017). "EPB Fiber surpasses 90,000 customers". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
- Smith, Ellis (December 5, 2011). "EPB, AT&T and Comcast compete for Chattanooga customers". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- "Our Company and History". EPB. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- "EPB Fiber Optics". epbfi.com. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Chattanooga Announces 1 Gbps Tier | community broadband networks". Muninetworks.org. September 13, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "Chattanooga Community Fiber Network Profiled on The Southern Way | community broadband networks". Muninetworks.org. October 29, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "Knoxville News Station Envious of Chattanooga Fiber Network | community broadband networks". Muninetworks.org. January 4, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "South Australia looks at Chattanooga for high speed broadband model". BroadbandExpert. January 9, 2012. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "chattanooga | community broadband networks". Muninetworks.org. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "In Chattanooga, EPB Customers Rave, Comcast Customers Livid | community broadband networks". Muninetworks.org. January 28, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "Amazon's Chattanooga Distribution Center is Expanding | community broadband networks". Muninetworks.org. January 13, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "Smart Grid Electric Power". EPB. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "EPB (Smart Grid Project)". SmartGrid.gov. June 13, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "EPB's Chattanooga smart grid gains federal accolades". timesfreepress.com. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "EPB Deploys America's Fastest Fiber-optic Smart Grid - Lee Baker, Smart Grid Consultant". Electric Energy Online. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "EPB smart meters a benefit". timesfreepress.com. November 30, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "More Chattanooga 1Gbps Thoughts and Coverage | community broadband networks". Muninetworks.org. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "Big Five: Chattanooga's biggest banks". timesfreepress.com. December 2, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Johnston heads new Chase hub in Chattanooga". timesfreepress.com. October 16, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Nashville's Pinnacle Bank to buy CapitalMark for $187 million". timesfreepress.com. April 8, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Chattanooga hot market for bank mergers". timesfreepress.com. April 12, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "The International Towing and Recovery Hall of Fame and Museum". Internationaltowingmuseum.org. October 7, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Cicero, De Oratore. "Chattanooga History Center". Chattanoogahistory.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "National Medal of Honor Museum, Chattanooga, Tennessee". Mohm.org. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "index.html". thehoustonmuseum.com. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Chattanooga African American Museum". Caamhistory.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "The Creative Discovery Museum". United Nations. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "About the Hunter". Hunter Museum of American Art. Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- "Permanent Exhibits | Creative Discovery Museum". cdmfun.org. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- "Chattanooga Symphony and Opera: Welcome!". Chattanoogasymphony.org. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Home". Theatrecentre.com. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- The previous conductor was Robert Bernhardt, who retired in 2011 after 19 seasons, but continues to live in Chattanooga. Chattanooga Theatre Centre
- "Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Auditorium", Wikipedia, June 27, 2018, retrieved March 28, 2019
- "Conference on Southern Literature". Southernlitconference.org. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Festival of Writers". Artsedcouncil.org. Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "The Arts & Education Council of Chattanooga". Artsedcouncil.org. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Chattanooga, Tennessee Visitors Bureau – Chattanooga Outdoors – Coolidge Park". Chattanoogafun.com. Archived from the original on November 21, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Chattanooga, Tennessee Visitors Bureau – Chattanooga Outdoors – Renaissance Park". Chattanoogafun.com. Archived from the original on September 20, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Chattanooga Zoo | History". www.chattzoo.org. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- "Cravens House". Ngeorgia.com. June 5, 2007. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Point Park, on Lookout Mountain, Georgia-Tennessee". Roadsidegeorgia.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Redirection is also a direction". hikelookout.com. Archived from the original on April 2, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "GoFest!". Gofest.info. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Talespin". Archived from the original on December 21, 2009.
- "The Back Row Film Series". Backrowfilms.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "RiverCity". Downtownchattanooga.org. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Chattanooga Dulcimer Festival". Chattanooga Dulcimer Festival. Archived from the original on September 12, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "The 5 Best Bluegrass Festivals in the Country". Great American Country. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- "January 20–22, 2012". Chattacon.org. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "37th Chattacon convention brings science-fiction fans to Chattanooga". Chattanooga Times Free Press. January 22, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
- Jett, Tyler (January 27, 2013). "Creature comforts: Chattacon lures fantasies to Chattanooga Choo Choo". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
- "Chattanooga Lookouts official site; affiliate stated on top right-hand corner of web page". Lookouts.com. January 1, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Chattanooga Football Club Scores Some Serious Funding on Wefunder", April 4, 2019
- "US amateur record crowd of 18,227 sees NPSL club Chattanooga FC fall in overtime in championship", August 10, 2015.
- "About NPSL Founders Cup". October 31, 2018.
- "Chattanooga Football Club Scores Some Serious Funding on Wefunder", April 4, 2019]
- "USL League One takes its first strides", March 28, 2019
- "Chattanooga Football Club audit reveals unauthorized payments went to former general manager", January 25, 2019
- "East Ridge to be home for new Chattanooga Red Wolves Soccer Club stadium". timesfreepress.com. April 25, 2019. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
- Behringer, Maggie (February 21, 2013). "See Chattanooga's rugby boom this Saturday". Nooga.com. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- Behringer, Maggie (February 26, 2013). "Banner day for rugby at Montague Park". Nooga.com. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- "Chattanooga". www.triposo.com. Triposo. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- "2011 Results". Head of the Hooch. November 5–6, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
- "Head of the Hooch competition draws 15,000 to river". Chattanooga Times Free Press. November 6, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
- Rosenbladt, Oli (November 16, 2012). "Hooch 2012: A Regatta Like Clockwork". Row2k.com. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- "The Official Website - USA Cycling". legacy.usacycling.org.
- "Rodriguez wins fourth U.S. men's road title". May 27, 2013. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "Chattanooga leaders, business owners prepare for "the Super Bowl of cycling"". May 24, 2013. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "USA Cycling Championships This Weekend". May 23, 2013. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "Home". The Chattanooga Bicycle Club. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- "How Chattanooga became the 'Best Town Ever'". timesfreepress.com. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
- "Famed Stump Jump helps kick off Chattanooga's RiverRocks festival". timesfreepress.com. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "America's Best Towns 2011". Outside Magazine. October 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- "The 16 Best Places to Live in the U.S. : 2015". Outside Magazine. September 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- Paschal, David (August 15, 2013). "Chattanooga lands five-year Ironman deal". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
- Staff (August 15, 2013). "Chattanooga to host Ironman Triathlon series". WRCB (Chattanooga, Tenn.). Retrieved August 16, 2013.
- "Kona-Bound: How to Get to the IRONMAN World Championship". World Triathlon Corporation. October 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- "Chattanooga, Tenn. Chosen to Host the 2017 IRONMAN 70.3 World Championships". The Chattanooga Convention & Visitors Bureau. September 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- Staff (2012). "Bicycle Friendly Community: Chattanooga". League of American Bicyclists. Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- "About". Outdoorchattanooga.com. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Tennessee Aquarium River Gorge Explorer Boat". Tnaqua.org. April 18, 2009. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Tennessee Aquarium Boat tour highlights". Tnaqua.org. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Newspaper marks 10 years since sales, merger". Chattanooga Times Free Press. January 4, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- "Choice Now In Chattanooga". Tuscaloosa (Ala.) News. August 28, 1966. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- "Chattanooga Times Free Press Overview". Chattanooga Times Free Press. 2010. Archived from the original on January 1, 2011. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- "Our unique editorial variety". timesfreepress.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "About The Pulse".
- "Enigma Magazine in Print ‹ The New Enigma online magazine is now underway!".
- "The Chattanooga News Chronicle" Archived June 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- "The Chattanoogan". Chattanoogan.com. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
Chattanoogan.com was launched Sept. 1, 1999, as one of the first full-service web-only daily newspapers in the country. . . It currently gets about 50,000–80,000 visits per day.
- "Internet Newspaper to Appear in Chattanooga, Tenn". Chattanooga Times Free Press. 1999. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
A new Internet venture that calls itself one of the first full-service Web-only newspapers in the country is slated to appear today in Chattanooga. Chattanoogan.com will publish Monday through Friday on the Internet at www.chattanoogan.com, said publisher and co-owner John Wilson on Tuesday. Mr. Wilson, formerly with the Chattanooga Free Press for 28 years and the Hamilton County historian, said the Internet paper will offer local news, sports, features, weather, obituaries, opinion, health, and classified advertising. ...
- Flessner, Dave (2011). "Group plans news website as Igou sells nooga domain". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
Barry Large, who co-founded Access America Transport Inc., says the new site could "transform the way people in our area gather their news, express their opinions, and plan their weekends." Large said Tuesday he is the majority owner in a group that acquired the Internet domain name nooga.com in November from Chattanooga businessman Rick Igou. Although the nooga.com site is inactive, Large said in an e-mailed statement Tuesday that he plans to launch a news site "that will provide quality daily content focusing on local business, politics, and entertainment in the Chattanooga area." "Nooga.com will go live in the near future, featuring an impressive array of writers and contributors from around the Scenic City,"
- "Nooga.com partners with media company". timesfreepress.com. August 13, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
- "Nooga.com partners with 6AM City, unveils new brand across online platforms". NOOGAtoday. August 13, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
- noogatoday (September 27, 2018). "We are officially NOOGAtoday + here's to seven more years". NOOGAtoday. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
- "WDYN Radio - Home". www.wdyn.com.
- "Amazing travel gadgets". August 20, 2015.
- "Home Page Top Stories".
- "Christian Radio - Bible Teaching - Modern Praise & Worship Music - CSN - Christian Satellite Network". www.csnradio.com.
- "Positive & Encouraging K-LOVE". K-LOVE.
- University, Southern Adventist. "Home". www.wsmc.org.
- "Family Life Radio - Christian Radio Station Network". Family Life Radio.
- "WDEF". WDEF.
- "Air1 - Positive Hits". Air1.
- "WMPZ". WMPZ.
- "WJTT POWER94". WJTT POWER94.
- "WAAK 94.7 FM WaaKool Radio - Catoosa County". waak.catt.com. Archived from the original on March 30, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
- "BIG 95.3". BIG 95.3.
- "Real 96-1 - Chattanooga's #1 for Hip Hop and R&B". Real 96-1.
- "Hits 96". Hits 96.
- "98.1 The Lake - We Play Anything: Chattanooga". 98.1 The Lake.
- "Welcome to the World Wide Woop! - Streaming Radio, Video, Bluegrass, Talk Radio IOS 8.0 Compatible". www.woopfm.com.
- "US 101 - Chattanooga's #1 For Country". US 101.
- "WJSQ / WLAR". www.wjsqwlar.com.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 14, 2005. Retrieved December 7, 2005.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Home - Shining the Light in the Tennessee Valley - J103". www.j103.com.
- "KISS FM - #1 FOR NEW MUSIC". KISS FM.
- "WALV". WALV.
- "Rock 105 Man Up! - Man Up, Chattanooga". Rock 105 Man Up!.
- "WSKZ-FM". WSKZ-FM.
- "Easy 106.9". WPLZ HD2.
- "WOGT-FM". WOGT-FM.
- Group, Sinclair Broadcast. "CHATTANOOGA News, Weather, Sports, Breaking News - WTVC".
- "News 12 Now - News 12 Now". News 12 Now.
- "Nova - Death Dive to Saturn".
- "3ABN - Three Angels Broadcasting Network". 3ABN.
- "水素水のパワーは無限大！賢い女性だけが知るヒ・ミ・ツ". www.wtci-tv45.com.
- http://www.thecwchattanooga.com Archived November 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- "FXT Health Network". FXT Health Network.
- Hightower, Cliff (March 6, 2013). "Andy Berke is Chattanooga's new mayor". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- Hightower, Cliff; Todd South (October 13, 2011). "Brown v. Board of Commissioners". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- "Council Members". Chattanooga.gov. City of Chattanooga. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- "Representative Robin Smith". TN House Directory. Tennessee General Assembly. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- "Representative Patsy Hazlewood". TN House Directory. Tennessee General Assembly. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- "Representative Yusuf Hakeem". TN House Directory. Tennessee General Assembly. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- "Representative Mike Carter". TN House Directory. Tennessee General Assembly. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- "Representative Esther Helton". TN House Directory. Tennessee General Assembly. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- "Senator Todd Gardenhire". TN Senate Directory. Tennessee General Assembly. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- "Senator Bo Watson". TN Senate Directory. Tennessee General Assembly. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- "Congressman Chuck Fleischmann". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
- "Senator Bob Corker". United States Senate. Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
- "Senator Lamar Alexander". United States Senate. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
- "Chattanooga Police Department: 1940s". City of Chattanooga. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
- "Chattanooga's History (Great Depression through the Present Day)". NGeorgia.com. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
- Hubbard, Rita L. (December 10, 2007). "Notable Place and Events that had an impact on the United States". African Americans of Chattanooga: A History of Unsung Heroes. Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-1-59629-315-1. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
- "Hamilton County Department of Education :: --Quick Links--". hcde.org. Archived from the original on September 11, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "History « PEF". Pefchattanooga.org. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "3HD is now ND&P". Thehowardschool.net. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Children With Special Needs | Autism | Early Intervention | Special Education | Down syndrome | Siskin Children's Institute". Siskin.org. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "UTC Factbook". utc.edu. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
- "2018 Student Population | Chattanooga State Community College". College Tuition Compare. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
- American Library Annual, 1917-1918. New York: R.R. Bowker Co. 1918.
- http://www.lib.chattanooga.gov/ Archived June 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine Library Website
- Hightower, Cliff (May 23, 2011). "Sales tax accord ends; new era begins". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
- "Erlanger Ranked Seventh Largest Public Hospital System In The Nation - Chattanoogan.com". www.chattanoogan.com. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- Erlanger Health System, FY 2014-2015
- "About Erlanger". Erlanger.org. October 5, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "100 Top Hospitals 2008". Thomson Reuters. 2008. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved November 18, 2008.
- "Erlanger Hospital". www.erlanger.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2008.
- "100 Top Hospitals 2004". Thomson Reuters. 2004. Archived from the original on February 9, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
- http://www.chattanoogan.com/articles/article_113678.asp Archived July 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Chattanoogan, September 19, 2007.
- "Transportation". www.chattanooga.gov. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- "Public Transit Services". www.tn.gov. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- "Bike Chattanooga celebrates four years". Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- "Chattanooga eying new bicycle models for bike-share program". Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- "Norfolk Southern Corporate Profile". Norfolk Southern. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- "Chattanooga, Tennessee - Slider". enc.slider.com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2006. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Keane, Maribeth (February 20, 2009). "An Interview With National Model Railroad Association Library Director Brent Lambert". Collectors Weekly. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- "Market Street Bridge Project // What's Happening". Marketstbridge.com. Archived from the original on July 22, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Katy Trail Information". Bikekatytrail.com. Archived from the original on October 1, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Tennessee River Railroad Bridge". 35.104075;-85.233388: Bridgehunter.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Archived July 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- Leber, Holly (November 17, 2008). "Film enthusiasts want Chattanooga to become a movie magnet". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Leber, Holly (August 26, 2011). "Movie likely shooting at Baylor School in fall helps put city on the map". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- "Books Set in Chattanooga, Tennessee". Goodreads.com. 2013. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
- reviewer. "Cherie Priest, Four and Twenty Blackbirds". thegreenmanreview.com.
- Staff (2013). "Most Popular Titles With Filming Locations Matching "Chattanooga"". IMDB.com. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Up Lookout Mountain on the Electric Incline on IMDb
- Battle Fields Around Chattanooga on IMDb
- The Blue and the Gray on IMDb
- Our Country on IMDb
- John Henry on IMDb
- Let There Be Light on IMDb
- Memphis & Charleston on IMDb
- Born and Bred on IMDb
- When Mourning Breaks on IMDb
- "In the Movies". Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- Fool's Parade on IMDb
- Eleanor & Franklin on IMDb
- Last Days of Frank and Jesse James on IMDb
- Fled on IMDb
- Mama Flora's Family on IMDb
- October Sky on IMDb
- The Adventures of Ociee Nash on IMDb
- Warm Springs on IMDb
- Heaven's Fall on IMDb
- Leatherheads on IMDb
- Water for Elephants on IMDb
- The Man Trail on IMDb
- The Night the Lights Went Out on IMDb
- The Big Blue on IMDb
- Dutch on IMDb
- Christopher Columbus on IMDb
- All Over Again on IMDb
- Straight into Darkness on IMDb
- Barnett, Mary (May 21, 2012). "Filming of "42" begins at Engel Stadium". Nooga.com. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- Poulisse, Adam (June 1, 2012). "Harrison Ford in Chattanooga to film '42'". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
- Identity Thief on IMDb
- "Most Popular Titles With Soundtracks Matching "Chattanooga Choo Choo"". IMDB.com. 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Shearer, John (December 2, 2007). "UTC McKenzie Arena Celebrating 25 years". Chattanoogan.com. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Clash of the Champions on IMDb
- Saturday's Night Main Event on IMDb
- Halloween Havoc on IMDb
- WWF in Your House on IMDb
- Staff (2013). "The History of the WWE: 1997". WWE.com. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Staff. "The McKenzie Arena". UTC Mocs Athletics. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
- Staff (2013). "Toby Keith-Chattanooga". Songkick.com. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
- Staff (January 17, 2013). "Elton John To Perform At McKenzie Arena On March 23". Chattanoogan.com. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
- Harrison, Kate (October 3, 2011). "Chattanooga becoming a destination for police reality TV shows". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- America's Walking on IMDb
- Morgan, Glennisha (June 21, 2013). "Monifah's Girlfriend Terez Proposes On 'R&B Divas'". Huffington.com. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
- MJ (May 14, 2011). "Lauren Alaina– Chattanooga homecoming". MJ's Big Blog. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Staff (2013). "Chattanooga: 2009". WGBH. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- Bridezillas on IMDb
- Fitness Truth on IMDb
- Staff (2013). "Chattanooga, TN: $40 a Day". Food Network. Archived from the original on December 3, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Evening Magazine on IMDb
- Extreme Makeover on IMDb
- Staff (2013). "About Alton Brown". TNAqua.com. Archived from the original on May 20, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Mystery Manhunt on IMDb
- "Chattanooga news, entertainment, opinion, editorials". Nooga.com. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- Off Limits on IMDb
- Staff (February 22, 2011). "Railroad Museum Featured On History Channel Tuesday Night". Chattanoogan.com. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Staff (2013). "Maci (Season 1, Episode 1)". MTV. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Teen Mom on IMDb
- Tennessee Crossroads on IMDb
- "The State Game in Mayberry Carnival - the Games Forum! Forum". Yuku. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- Harris, Will (March 5, 2014). "Vacation Days--The Middle". AV Club.com. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- The Steps on IMDb
- Hustvedt, Marc (February 19, 2010). "'The Steps', All Aboard As Chattanooga's Web Series Bows Tonight". TubeFilter.com. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Trading Spouses on IMDb
- Staff (2013). "Trading Spouses Episodes (Hammond/Howard)". TV.com. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- O'Neal, Carey (February 2, 2011). "Lionel Richie's Visit to the Scenic City". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Outcasts on IMDb
- Assurances on IMDb
- A Bright Past on IMDb
- Last Breath on IMDb
- The Campaign for Chattanooga on IMDb
- Ella on IMDb
- "Movie filmed in Chattanooga to premiere Saturday". WRCB. July 20, 2012. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- ponger (April 14, 1986). "A Winner Never Quits (TV Movie 1986)". IMDb. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Usher Live (Video 1999)". IMDb. March 23, 1999. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Chattanoog'as Sister Cities". City of Chattanooga. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Hamm, Germany". Chattanooga's Sister Cities. Archived from the original on September 7, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Wuxi, China". Chattanooga's Sister Cities. Archived from the original on November 29, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Givatayim, Israel". Chattanooga's Sister Cities. Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Nizhnii Tagil, Russia". Chattanooga's Sister Cities. Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Gangneung, Republic of Korea". Chattanooga's Sister Cities. Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Sobolewski, Rich (September 26, 2011). "Chattanooga becomes sister city to Wolfsburg, Germany – WRCBtv.com | Chattanooga News, Weather & Sports". WRCBtv.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Staff. "Chattanooga adds Italian city to Sister City family". Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- "Chattanooga's newest Sister City is born". timesfreepress.com. September 14, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- "Reports from the Town Twinning Network". Swindon.gov.uk. June 6, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Wang, Herman (September 17, 2006). "Chattanooga extends international ties with Italian city Ascoli Piceno". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Coolidge Park Tree in Danger of Being Replaced". City of Chattanooga. August 9, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Peace Grove Takes Slippery Elm's Place in Coolidge Park". City of Chattanooga. January 5, 2007. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Epps, Nordia (September 27, 2011). "Chattanooga celebrates sister city agreement with second German city – WDEF.com; Volkswagen News". WDEF.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Hunter-Grah, Alina (January 12, 2018). "Chattanooga greets Japanese Sister City leaders". Retrieved August 28, 2019.
- Armstrong, Zella. The History of Hamilton County and Chattanooga, Tennessee. (2 vol 1931; reprint The Overmountain Press, 1992)
- Crutchfield, Jennifer. Chattanooga Landmarks: Exploring the History of the Scenic City (The History Press, 2010)
- Desmond, Jerry R. Chattanooga (Arcadia Publishing, 1996)
- Downey, Fairfax. Storming of the Gateway: Chattanooga, 1863 (D. McKay Company, 1960)
- Ezzell, Tim. Chattanooga, 1865-1900: A City Set Down in Dixie (University of Tennessee Press; 2014) 212 pages; focuses on economic and political development
- Govan, Gilbert E., and James W. Livingood. "Chattanooga Under Military Occupation, 1863-1865." Journal of Southern History (1951) 17#1 pp: 23-47. in JSTOR
- Hubbard, Rita L. African Americans of Chattanooga: A History of Unsung Heroes (The History Press, 2007)
- Livingood, James Weston. Chattanooga: An Illustrated History (Windsor Publications, 1981)
- Scott, Michelle R. Blues Empress in Black Chattanooga: Bessie Smith and the Emerging Urban South (University of Illinois Press, 2008)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chattanooga, Tennessee.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia article Chattanooga.|
- Official website
- Chattanooga Convention and Visitor's Bureau
- Chamber of Commerce
- City charter
- Chattanooga Sports & Events Committee
- Chattanooga Times Free Press
- Chattanooga Resource and Relocation Guide®
Chattanooga travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 7–8. .
- Chattanooga at Curlie
- Hamilton County Map Maker
- GreaterChatt.com. Regional statistics, 16 counties, 3 states