Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond

Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox, 2nd Duke of Aubigny, KG, KB, PC, FRS (18 May 1701  8 August 1750) was a British nobleman, peer, and politician. He was the son of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, an illegitimate son of King Charles II. He held a number of posts in connection with his high office but is best remembered for his patronage of cricket. He has been described as the most important of the sport's early patrons and did much to help its evolution from village cricket to first-class cricket.

The Duke of Richmond and Lennox
Born(1701-05-18)18 May 1701
Goodwood, Sussex, England
Died8 August 1750(1750-08-08) (aged 49)
Godalming, Surrey, England
TitleDuke of Richmond
Duke of Lennox
Duke of Aubigny
Tenure27 May 1723  8 August 1750
Other titles2nd Duke of Lennox
2nd Duke of Aubigny (France)
2nd Earl of March
2nd Earl of Darnley
2nd Baron Settrington
2nd Lord Torbolton
Hereditary Constable of Inverness Castle

Early life

Lennox was styled Earl of March from his birth in 1701 as heir to his father's dukedom.[1] He also inherited his father's love of sports, particularly cricket.[2] He had a serious accident at the age of 12 when he was thrown from a horse during a hunt, but he recovered and it did not deter him from horsemanship.[3]

March entered into an arranged marriage in December 1719 when he was still only 18 and his bride, Hon. Sarah Cadogan, was just 13, in order to use Sarah's large dowry to pay his considerable debts. They were married at The Hague.[4]

In 1722, March became Member of Parliament for Chichester as first member with Sir Thomas Miller as his second. He gave up his seat after his father died in May 1723 and he succeeded to the title of 2nd Duke of Richmond. A feature of Richmond's career was the support he received from his wife, Sarah, her interest being evident in surviving letters. Their marriage was a great success, especially by Georgian standards.

Their grandson who became the 4th Duke is known to cricket history as the Hon. Col. Charles Lennox, a noted amateur batsman of the late 18th century who was one of Thomas Lord's main guarantors when he established his new ground in Marylebone.[5]

Cricket career

The Duke of Richmond's XI

Charles Lennox
Personal information
Full nameCharles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond
Born(1701-05-18)18 May 1701
Goodwood, West Sussex, England
Died8 August 1750(1750-08-08) (aged 49)
Godalming, Surrey, England
Domestic team information
Source: John Marshall, 17 July 2009

The 2nd Duke of Richmond has been described as early cricket's greatest patron.[6] Although he had played cricket as a boy, his real involvement began after he succeeded to the dukedom.[7] He captained his own team and his players included some of the earliest known professionals, such as his groom Thomas Waymark. Later, when he patronised Slindon Cricket Club, Richmond was associated with the Newland brothers. His earliest recorded match is the one against Sir William Gage's XI on 20 July 1725, which is mentioned in a surviving letter from Sir William to the Duke.[8][9]

Records have survived of four matches played by Richmond's team in the 1727 season. Two were against Gage's XI and two against an XI raised by the Surrey patron Alan Brodrick.[10] These last two games are highly significant because Richmond and Brodrick drew up Articles of Agreement beforehand to determine the rules that must apply in their contests. These were itemised in sixteen points.[11] It is believed that this was the first time that rules (or some part of the rules as in this case) were formally agreed, although rules as such definitely existed. The first full codification of the Laws of Cricket was done in 1744. In early times, the rules would be agreed upon orally and were subject to local variations; this syndrome was also evident in football until the FA was founded, especially regarding the question of handling the ball. Essentially the articles of agreement focused on residential qualifications and ensuring that there was no dissent by any player other than the two captains.[12]

In 1728, Richmond's Sussex played twice against Edwin Stead's Kent and lost both matches, "(Kent's) men have been too expert for those of Sussex".[13] In 1730, Richmond's team played two matches against Gage's XI and another match against a Surrey XI backed by a Mr Andrews of Sunbury. Richmond lost to Andrews.[14] The second of his matches against Gage, due to be played at The Dripping Pan, near Lewes, was "put off on account of Waymark, the Duke's man, being ill".[15]

In 1731, Richmond was involved in one of the most controversial matches recorded in the early history of cricket. On 16 August, his Sussex team played a Middlesex XI backed by one Thomas Chambers at an unspecified venue in Chichester. Chambers' team won this match, which had a prize of 100 guineas, and a return was arranged to take place at Richmond Green on 23 August.[16] The return match was played for 200 guineas and it is notable as the earliest match of which the team scores are known: Richmond's XI 79, Chambers' XI 119; Richmond's XI 72, Chambers' XI 23–5 (approx.). The game ended promptly at a pre-agreed time although Chambers' XI with "four or five more to have come in" and needing "about 8 to 10 notches" clearly had the upper hand. The end result caused a fracas among the crowd at Richmond Green, who were incensed by the prompt finish because the Duke of Richmond had arrived late and delayed the start of the game. The riot resulted in some of the Sussex players "having the shirts torn off their backs" and it was said "a law suit would commence about the play".[17] In a note about another match involving Chambers' XI in September, G. B. Buckley has recorded that Richmond may have conceded the result to Chambers, presumably to stop the threat of litigation.[18]

Richmond is not mentioned in cricket sources again for ten years. He may have stepped aside after the 1731 fracas but it is more likely that he terminated his Duke of Richmond's XI after he broke his leg in 1733 and could no longer play himself.[19] Instead, he channelled his enthusiasm for cricket through a team from the small village of Slindon, which bordered on his Goodwood estate.[19]


The rise to fame of Slindon Cricket Club was based on the play of Richard Newland and the patronage of Richmond. On Thursday, 9 July 1741, in a letter to her husband, the Duchess of Richmond mentions a conversation with John Newland regarding a Slindon v. East Dean match at Long Down, near Eartham, a week earlier. This is the earliest recorded mention of any of the Newland family.[20] Then, on 28 July, Richmond sent two letters to the Duke of Newcastle to tell him about a game that day which had resulted in a brawl with "hearty blows" and "broken heads". The game was at Portslade between Slindon, who won, and unnamed opponents.[21]

On Monday 7 September 1741, Slindon played Surrey at Merrow Down, near Guildford. Richmond, in a letter to the Duke of Newcastle before the game, spoke of "poor little Slyndon against almost your whole county of Surrey". Next day he wrote again, saying that "wee (sic) have beat Surrey almost in one innings".[22]

The Duchess wrote to him on Wednesday 9 September and said she "wish'd..... that the Sussex mobb (sic) had thrash'd the Surrey mob". She had "a grudge to those fellows ever since they mob'd you" (apparently a reference to the Richmond Green fiasco in August 1731). She then said she wished the Duke "had won more of their moneys".[23]

In 1744, Richmond created what is now the world's oldest known scorecard for the match between London and Slindon at the Artillery Ground on 2 June. Slindon won by 55 runs and the original scorecard is now among Richmond's papers in the possession of the West Sussex Records Office.[24]

In August 1745, Richmond backed a Sussex XI against Surrey in a match at Berry Hill, near Arundel. It appears that Surrey won the game in view of a comment made by Lord John Philip Sackville in a letter to Richmond dated Saturday 14 September: "I wish you had let Ridgeway play instead of your stopper behind it might have turned the match in our favour".[25]

Single wicket

When single wicket became the dominant form of cricket in the late 1740s, Richmond entered a number of teams mostly centred on Stephen Dingate, who was in his employ at the time. For example, a number of matches were played by a "threes" team of Dingate, Joseph Rudd and Pye. Richmond often found himself opposed by his former groom Thomas Waymark, still an outstanding player but now resident in Berkshire.[26]

Richmond died on 8 August 1750. He had been arguably the greatest of the game's early patrons, particularly of the Slindon club and of Sussex cricket in general. His death was followed by a slump in the fortunes of Sussex cricket, which featured few matches of significance until the rise of Brighton Cricket Club in the 1790s.

Career in the peerage

Richmond held many titles, including the Order of the Garter (KG), Order of the Bath (KCB), Privy Counsellor (PC) and Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS). In 1734 he succeeded to the title of Duke of Aubigny in France on the death of his grandmother Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth.[27]

He served as Lord of the Bedchamber to King George II from 1727 and, in 1735, he was appointed Master of the Horse.


He was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society on 1724.[28] Later that year, he followed his father, the 1st Duke, into freemasonry and was a Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England in 1724, a few years after its formation in 1717. His father had been a Master Mason in Chichester in 1696.

As Duke of Aubigny, he also assisted in introducing freemasonry into France. In 1734, he created a masonic lodge in the Chateau d'Aubigny neart Metz in north-east France. One a year later, with another past Grand Master, John Theophilus Desaguliers, he assisted in inaugurating a lodge in the hotel at Rue Bussy, in Paris.[29]

Civic roles

He was elected Mayor of Chichester for 1735–36.[30]

Richmond was one of the founding Governors of London's Foundling Hospital, which received its Royal Charter from George II in 1739. The Foundling Hospital was a charity dedicated to saving London's abandoned children. Both the Duke and the Duchess took great interest in the project. The Duke attended committee meetings and both took part in the baptism and naming of the first children accepted by the hospital in March 1741.

Military career

Richmond was a Lieutenant-General in the British Army and served under the notorious Duke of Cumberland in the Hanoverian campaign against the Jacobite rising of 1745.


The 1740s was a turbulent time for Sussex. There was a rise in smuggling gangs; of these probably, the most violent was the notorious Hawkhurst Gang.[31]

The gang were responsible for the brutal murder of a bootmaker and a customs official.[32] Richmond decided to pursue those responsible with a vengeance. He began by petitioning the authorities so that a special assize could be held at Chichester.[33] He did not trust the local Justices (in West Sussex), as they could not be relied on to convict smugglers. He therefore obtained authorisation for judges to be brought down from London.[31] The judges (Sir Thomas Birch, Sir Michael Foster and Baron Clive) made their way under guard to Goodwood, where Richmond entertained them before the trial.[34] His pogrom against the gang, was possibly partly because it was feared that the smugglers were assisting the Jacobites by providing intelligence to the French.[31]

All the culprits involved in the murder of the two men were captured and convicted.[31]

During Richmond's two-year campaign, against the illegal trade, thirty-five smugglers were executed and another ten died in gaol before they could be hanged. However although his campaign managed to reduce the incidence of smuggling it was reported by the writer Horace Walpole, in 1752 (after Richmond's death) that Sussex was "stiff" with smugglers.[31]

Marriage and issue

Richmond married Lady Sarah Cadogan (1705–1751), daughter of William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan, on 4 December 1719 at The Hague, Netherlands. They had twelve children:

Richmond's interment was at Chichester Cathedral. His wife Sarah survived him by only one year.


  1. Marshall, p. 1.
  2. Marshall, pp. 7–17.
  3. Marshall, pp. 18–20.
  4. Marshall, pp. 24–25.
  5. Altham, p. 51.
  6. Underdown, p. 53.
  7. Birley, p. 18.
  8. McCann, p. 4
  9. Marshall, p. 41.
  10. McCann, pp. 6–7.
  11. Birley, pp. 18–19.
  12. Birley, p. 19.
  13. Waghorn, p. 7.
  14. Waghorn, p. 1.
  15. Waghorn, pp. 1–2.
  16. Buckley, p. 6.
  17. McCann, pp. 12–13.
  18. Buckley, p. 7.
  19. McCann, p. lxi.
  20. McCann, p. 19.
  21. McCann, p. 20.
  22. McCann, pp. 20–21.
  23. McCann, p. 21.
  24. "London v. Slindon, 1744". CricketArchive. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  25. McCann, pp. 34–35.
  26. Ashley-Cooper, At the Sign of the Wicket, p. 52.
  27. McNeill, Ronald John (1911). "Richmond, Earls and Dukes of" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 306.
  28. Wikisource DNB
  29. Audrey T. Carpenter, John Theophilus Desaguliers: A Natural Philosopher, Engineer and Freemason in Newtonian England, Continuum, 2011, pp199-207
  30. "Chichester City Council List of Mayors" (PDF). Chichester City Council. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  31. McGlynn, pp. 185–189
  32. Waugh, p.143
  33. Dyndor Z. The Gibbet in the Landscape: Locating the Criminal Corpse in Mid-Eighteenth-Century England. In: Ward R, editor. A Global History of Execution and the Criminal Corpse. Basingstoke (UK): Palgrave Macmillan; 2015. Chapter 3. Accessdate 18 December 2018
  34. Green, Ken (2002). Chichester an Illustrated History. Derby: Breedon Books. pp. 72–73. ISBN 1-85983-336-5.
  35. Patrick Cracroft-Brennan, Richmond, Duke of (E, 1675). Cracroft's Peerage. Accessed 8 March 2013.


  • Altham, H. S. (1962). A History of Cricket, Volume 1 (to 1914). George Allen & Unwin.
  • Ashley-Cooper, F. S. (1900). At the Sign of the Wicket: Cricket 1742–1751. Cricket magazine.
  • Birley, Derek (1999). A Social History of English Cricket. Aurum.
  • Bowen, Rowland (1970). Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development. Eyre & Spottiswoode.
  • Buckley, G. B. (1935). Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket. Cotterell.
  • Marshall, John (1961). The Duke who was Cricket. Muller.
  • Maun, Ian (2009). From Commons to Lord's, Volume One: 1700 to 1750. Roger Heavens. ISBN 978-1-900592-52-9.
  • McCann, Tim (2004). Sussex Cricket in the Eighteenth Century. Sussex Record Society.
  • McLynn, Frank (1989). Crime and Punishment in Eighteenth Century England. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-01014-4.
  • Nicholls, R. H. & Wray, F. A. (1935). The History of the Foundling Hospital. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Tillyard, Stella (1994). Aristocrats: Caroline, Emily, Louisa, and Sarah Lennox, 1740–1832. Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
  • Underdown, David (2000). Start of Play. Allen Lane.
  • Waghorn, H. T. (1906). The Dawn of Cricket. Electric Press.
  • Waugh, Mary (1985). Smuggling in Kent and Sussex 1700-1840. Newbury, Berks: Countryside Books. ISBN 0-905-39248-5.
  • Wilson, Martin (2005). An Index to Waghorn. Bodyline.
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Miller
Henry Kelsall
Member of Parliament for Member for Chichester
With: Sir Thomas Miller
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Miller
Lord William Beauclerk
Military offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Somerset
Colonel of the Royal Horse Guards
Title next held by
Sir John Ligonier
Masonic offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Buccleuch
Grand Master of the Premier
Grand Lodge of England

Succeeded by
Lord Paisley
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Scarbrough
Master of the Horse
Succeeded by
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Richmond
3rd creation
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Lennox
2nd creation
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox
French nobility
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Aubigny
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox
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