Charles Hastings Judd

Colonel Charles Hastings Judd (September 8, 1835 – April 18, 1890) was an American businessman, rancher, courtier and politician of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He served as Chamberlain and Colonel of the military staff of King Kalākaua and traveled with the monarch on his 1881 world tour.


Charles Hastings Judd
Chamberlain to the Royal Household
In office
July 6, 1878  August, 1886
MonarchKalākaua
Personal details
Born(1835-09-08)September 8, 1835
Honolulu, Oahu, Kingdom of Hawaii
DiedApril 18, 1890(1890-04-18) (aged 54)
Kualoa Ranch, Oahu, Kingdom of Hawaii
Resting placeOahu Cemetery
Spouse(s)Emily Catherine Cutts
RelationsAlbert Francis Judd (brother)
Children4
ParentsGerrit P. Judd
Laura Fish Judd.
Alma materPunahou School
Royal School
OccupationPolitician, businessman, rancher
Military service
AllegianceKingdom of Hawaii
Branch/serviceHonolulu Calvary
Royal Household Guards
King's Staff
Years of service1863–1886
RankColonel; Adjutant General; Major; Captain

Early life

He was born September 8, 1835, at the Old Mission Home, across the street from the modern Hawaiian Mission Houses Historic Site in Honolulu. He was the fourth child and second son of American missionaries Gerrit P. Judd and Laura Fish Judd. His younger twin sister was also named Laura Fish Judd (1835–1888). His father, originally a missionary physician, resigned his post to work as a political advisor and cabinet minister to King Kamehameha III.[1][2] His younger brother Albert Francis Judd served as Chief Justice of the Hawaii Supreme Court.[3]

Judd was educated at Punahou School from 1842 to 1849 before attending the Royal School, when the children of cabinet ministers were admitted to the institution. His classmates included fellow missionary descendant William Nevins Armstrong and the future King Kalākaua. The three men developed a lifelong friendship during their childhood. From 1854 to 1856, he returned to Punahou, and traveled to the United States via the Isthmus of Panama with his mother and two sisters to visit his relatives in 1855.[4][5]

Business career

From 1859, he engaged in guano mining on Jarvis Island and Baker Island for the American Guano Company. These islands were made American possession by Guano Islands Act of 1858. On November 1, 1859, he married Emily Catherine Cutts, of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in Honolulu.[4] His wife had come to the islands to visit her aunt Catherine Whitney, wife of Henry Martyn Whitney.[1] The couple lived on Baker Island from 1860 to 1861 as an agent for the American Guano Company.[4]

Returning to Oahu, he engaged in the agricultural business with his brother-in-law Samuel Gardner Wilder and purchased the plantation lands on the eastern coast of Oahu including Kualoa (previously owned by his father Dr. Judd) and Kaalua where they grew tobacco, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. This venture ended in 1871. He also partnered in ranching with John Adams Cummins at Waimānalo.[4] In 1866, Judd purchased "Rosebank", the Honolulu residence of Robert Crichton Wyllie, and resettled with his family in the city.[4]

Political and military career

Judd served many political and court posts during the monarchy. He worked a number of governmental jobs as commissioner of private ways and water rights, marriage license agent, commissioner of fences in Oahu, tax collector for Koolaupoko. In 1868, he was elected to the House of Representatives in the Legislature of the Kingdom of Hawaii and served during the sessions from 1868 to 1873.[6][7] He also held many honorary military rank in the Hawaiian military. He was appointed Captain of the Honolulu Cavalry in 1863 and elevated to the rank of Major in 1866 during the reign of Kamehameha V. After his election, Lunalilo appointed him as a Colonel on his military staff and Judd served as adjutant general of the Household Guards.[6] On September 7, 1873, the Royal Guards mutinied at the ʻIolani Barracks due to their resentment of Judd and the Hungarian drillmaster Captain Joseph Jajczay. Unable to control their subordinates, Judd and Jajczay were beaten and attacked by the angry troops and a demand was sent to the king for their removal. Lunalilo responded by disbanding the military unit altogether, leaving Hawaii without a standing army for the remainder of his reign.[8][9][10]

After Lunalilo's death and the monarchial election of 1874 which followed, Judd openly supported Queen Dowager Emma's candidacy for the throne against Kalākaua. He switched sides after Kalākaua's victory over Emma in the legislative vote, which gained him the distrust of the king's sister Liliuokalani.[11] During the reign of Kalākaua, Judd was reappointed in 1874 to the King's Staff as a Colonel.[6] Kalākaua also appointed Judd to serve on his Privy Council of State, the advisory council of the monarch. On September 8, 1879, he was appointed a member of the House of Nobles, the upper house of the legislature, and served in this legislative post during the session from 1880 to 1886, He also served as Commissioner of Crown Lands from 1878 and member of the Board of Health from 1880.[6][12] On July 6, 1878, he was appointed the king's Chamberlain and served as his private secretary.[6] Edward William Purvis served as his vice-chamberlain.[13]

In this capacity, Judd traveled with Kalākaua on his 1881 world tour along with their childhood classmate Armstrong, Colonel George W. Macfarlane, the king's aide-de-camp.[14][15] Judd's dark complexion and physical resemblance to Kalākaua led a few people to incorrectly regard him as a Native Hawaiian, including Qing politician Li Hongzhang and the Earl Spencer, who mistook him for the king.[16] The Evening Star, a Washington, D. C. newspaper, described, "Col. Judd looks very much like Kalakaua, except that he wears a moustache simply. He was born in the islands, of New York parentage, but is burned as brown as a nut."[17]

During this trip, he received many foreign decorations from the governments of the world.[4] Along with Kalākaua, he was made an honorary member of the Pacific Yacht Club in Sausalito, California.[18] In Japan, he was bestowed with the Order of the Rising Sun.[19] He was voted into the Freemasonry brotherhood at Perseverance Lodge No 1165 in Hong Kong,[20] and was bestowed with the masonry third degree at the Lodge Zetland in the East, No. 548, in Singapore.[21] In Siam, he received the Knight Grand Cross of the Crown of Siam, Third Class.[22] At the 1883 coronation of Kalākaua and Kapiolani, he served as Lord High Chamberlain while his wife served as lady-in-waiting to the queen.[23]

After a disagreement with the king's increased expenditures, Judd was removed from the office of Chamberlain in August 1886. This was stated as a resignation in public announcements, but he had been removed by the administration of Prime Minister Walter M. Gibson for disagreement with his cabinet. Curtis P. Iaukea was appointed to succeed him as Chamberlain to the Royal Household. His removal from office was seen by Judd as a "defection of the king, a lifelong friend, [which] preyed upon his mind with devastating effect and his health".[4][24] Resigning from politics, he devoted his time to business and managing property. He moved his family from Honolulu to the Leilehua Ranch house, which he co-owned with the king, and later to the Kualoa Ranch, in 1889.[4] Judd died at the Kualoa Ranch, on April 18, 1890. He was buried at Oahu Cemetery in Honolulu.[25][26]

Family and descendants

He married on November 1, 1859 to Emily Catherine Cutts (March 19, 1840 – May 2, 1921), and they had four children:[1][4]

  1. Julie Judd (November 26, 1860 – September 2, 1941), who married Francis Mills Swanzy, on November 9, 1887, at Honolulu. They had three children.[27][28]
  2. Helen "Haunani" Judd (May 5, 1862 – January 7, 1935), who married Arthur Christopher Farley, on March 9, 1882, at Boston. They lived in New England had four children.[27][29]
  3. Emily Pauahi Judd (January 13, 1864 – February 13, 1948), who remained unmarried,[27][30]
  4. Charles Hastings Judd II (September 3, 1868 – January 25, 1942) married (1) Mary Makalehua Roberts, on June 22, 1890, at Kualoa, (2) Louisa Hart, on December 24, 1903, at Waimea. (3) Florence Bush Lincoln, on November 6, 1915, at Honolulu. He had three children from his first marriage and seven children from his second marriage.[27][31]

References

  1. Carter & Hopkins 1922, pp. 3–4.
  2. Nellist, George F., ed. (1925). "Dr. Gerrit P. Judd, Statesman of Early Hawaii". The Story of Hawaii and Its Builders. Honolulu: Honolulu Star Bulletin.
  3. Nellist, George F., ed. (1925). "Albert Francis Judd, Noted Hawaiian Jurist". The Story of Hawaii and Its Builders. Honolulu: Honolulu Star Bulletin.
  4. Nellist, George F., ed. (1925). "Charles Hastings Judd, Counselor to Royalty". The Story of Hawaii and Its Builders. Honolulu: Honolulu Star Bulletin.
  5. Armstrong 1904, pp. 9–10.
  6. "Judd, Charles Hastings office record" (PDF). state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-08-30.
  7. Hawaii & Lydecker 1918, pp. 113, 117, 121, 124.
  8. Kuykendall 1953, pp. 259–260.
  9. Allen 1982, pp. 131–132.
  10. Pogány 1963, pp. 53–61.
  11. Allen 1982, p. 147; Liliuokalani 1898, pp. 64–65
  12. Hawaii & Lydecker 1918, pp. 143, 147, 152, 156.
  13. Kuykendall 1967, p. 346.
  14. Armstrong 1904, pp. 3, 9–10, 261.
  15. Kuykendall 1967, p. 227.
  16. Armstrong 1904, p. 18, 47, 95, 230–231
  17. "A Royal Visitor". The Evening Star. Washington, D. C. September 28, 1881. p. 1. Retrieved December 23, 2016.
  18. "The King's Tour Around the World". Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands: The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. February 26, 1881. Retrieved December 30, 2016 via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
  19. Marumoto 1976, p. 59
  20. "King Kalakaua with the Masons in Hong Kong". Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands: The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. July 18, 1881. Retrieved December 30, 2016 via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
  21. "The King's Tour Round the World: Arrival of His Majesty at Singapore". Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands: The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. July 16, 1881. Retrieved December 16, 2016 via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
  22. Kalakaua 1971, p. 84
  23. Taylor, Emma Ahuena (March 2, 1935). "Coronation Of Kalakaua, Kapiolani An Ornate Ceremony". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. p. 31. Retrieved July 4, 2018 via Newspapers.com.
  24. Kuykendall 1967, pp. 266, 346; "By Authority". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. Honolulu. August 31, 1886. p. 3.; "Local and General News". The Daily Bulletin. Honolulu. August 25, 1886. p. 2. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
  25. "Death of C. H. Judd". The Daily Bulletin. Honolulu. April 18, 1890. p. 3.; "Charles Hastings Judd – Passes Away Quietly After a Long Illness at Kualoa on This Island". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. Honolulu. April 19, 1890. p. 3.; "Died". The Hawaiian Gazette. Honolulu. April 22, 1890. p. 10.; "Charles Hastings Judd – Passes Away Quietly After a Long Illness at Kualoa on This Island". The Hawaiian Gazette. Honolulu. April 22, 1890. p. 3.
  26. Grave Marker of Charles Hastings Judd and Emily Catherine Cutts. Honolulu, Hawaii: Oahu Cemetery.
  27. Carter & Hopkins 1922, pp. 8–10.
  28. Julie Judd Swanzy. Honolulu, Hawaii: Oahu Cemetery.
  29. "A Kamaaina Passes". The Friend. CV (1). Honolulu. January 1, 1935. pp. 444–445.
  30. Unknown Newspaper 1948. 1948.
  31. Charles Hastings Judd II. Honolulu, Hawaii: Oahu Cemetery.

Bibliography

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