Cartagena, Spain

Cartagena (Spanish pronunciation: [kaɾtaˈxena]; Latin: Carthago Nova) is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain. As of January 2018, it has a population of 213,943 inhabitants,[2] being the Region’s second-largest municipality and the country’s sixth-largest non-Province-capital city. The metropolitan area of Cartagena, known as Campo de Cartagena, has a population of 409,586 inhabitants.



Coat of arms
Muy noble, muy leal y siempre heroica ciudad de Cartagena
Location in Spain
Cartagena (Spain)
Coordinates: 37°36′N 0°59′W
Country Spain
Autonomous community Murcia
ProvinceProvince of Murcia
ComarcaCampo de Cartagena
Judicial districtCartagena
Founded227 BC
  MayorAna Belén Castejón Hernández (PSOE)
  Total558.08 km2 (215.48 sq mi)
10 m (30 ft)
Highest elevation
50 m (160 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
  Density380/km2 (990/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
302xx and 303xx
Dialing code(+34) 968

Cartagena has been inhabited for over two millennia, being founded around 227 BC[3] by the Carthaginian Hasdrubal the Fair[4] as Qart Hadasht (Phoenician, meaning 'New Town'), the same name as the original city of Carthage. The city had its heyday during the Roman Empire, when it was known as Carthago Nova (the New Carthage) and Carthago Spartaria, capital of the province of Carthaginensis. It was one of the important cities during the Umayyad invasion of Hispania, under its Arabic name of Qartayannat al-Halfa. [5]

Much of the historical weight of Cartagena in the past goes to its coveted defensive port, one of the most important in the western Mediterranean. Cartagena has been the capital of the Spanish Navy's Maritime Department of the Mediterranean since the arrival of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century. As far back as the 16th century it was one of the most important naval ports in Spain, together with Ferrol in the North. It is still an important naval seaport, the main military haven of Spain, and is home to a large naval shipyard.

The confluence of civilizations as well as its strategic harbour, together with the rise of the local mining industry is manifested by a unique artistic heritage, with a number of landmarks such as the Roman Theatre, the second largest of the Iberian Peninsula after the one in Mérida, an abundance of Phoenician, Roman, Byzantine and Moorish remains, and a plethora of Art Nouveau buildings, a result of the bourgeoisie from the early 20th century. Cartagena is now established as a major cruise ship destination[6] in the Mediterranean and an emerging cultural focus.

It is the first of a number of cities that eventually have been named Cartagena, most notably Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena of the Indies) in Colombia.

Geography and climate

Geography and relief

The city of Cartagena is located in the southeastern region of Spain in the Campo de Cartagena. The Cartagena region can be viewed as a great plain inclined slightly in the direction NW-SE, bordered at the north and the northwest by pre-coastal mountain ranges (Carrascoy, El Puerto, Los Villares, Columbares and Escalona), and at the south and southwest by coastal mountain ranges (El Algarrobo, La Muela, Pelayo, Gorda, La Fausilla y Minera, with its last spurs in Cape Palos). The dominant geology of the region is metamorphic (slate, marble) and sedimentary (limestone).

The city is located just at the end of the new AP-7 motorway. The following villages are part of Cartagena municipality: La Azohía, Isla Plana, Los Urrutias and Los Nietos.

The Old Town is limited by five small hills (Molinete, Monte Sacro, Monte de San José, Despeñaperros and Monte de la Concepción) following the example of Rome. In the past, there was an inner sea between the hills called the Estero that eventually dried up. On this site, the "Ensanche" (Expansion or New Town) was built at the beginning of the 20th century.

The urban area is delimited or crossed by several watercourses, some of which go deep into the urban network during a large part of their courses.


Cartagena has a hot semi-arid climate. Its location near the ocean moderates the temperature, and annual precipitation typically does not surpass 300 mm (12 in). The annual average temperature goes up to around 20.4 °C (69 °F), making it the warmest city in Europe. The coldest month is January, with an average temperature of 13.7 °C (57 °F). In August, the warmest month, the average temperature is 28.7 °C (84 °F). The wind is an important climatic factor in the region.

Climate data for Cartagena, Murcia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.8
Average high °C (°F) 18.2
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.7
Average low °C (°F) 9.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 27
Average rainy days 5.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 39
Mean daily sunshine hours 5.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 9.0 10.0 9.0 7.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 7.1
Percent possible sunshine 50 55 50 54 64 60 71 64 58 55 60 50 58
Source #1: AEMET"Atlas Climático de Murcia". AEMET. 2014.
Source #2: Various sources: Atlas de Murcia,[7] University of Murcia,[8] rain amount is from[9] Weather Atlas (sunshine data) [10]
Climate data for Cartagena
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 14.8
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 12.6
Average Ultraviolet index 2 3 5 7 8 9 10 9 7 5 3 2 5.8
Source: Weather Atlas [10]


Despite the intense mining, tourist and industrial exploitation that the area has suffered for centuries, the territory around Cartagena city hosts an extraordinary natural wealth and diversity, with a large number of botanical endemic species. Part of its area is subject to different levels of legal protection.


Cartagena’s coastal mountains have one of the highest levels of botanical biodiversity on the Iberian Peninsula. A number of surprising Ibero-African species, which are only found in southern Spain (mostly in the provinces of Murcia and Almería) and North Africa. Among these, there stands out Tetraclinis articulata or Sandarac (sabina mora o ciprés de Cartagena—Cartagena's cypress in Spanish) native to Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Malta, and Cartagena, growing at relatively low altitudes in a hot, dry Mediterranean woodland. Some species are seriously endangered like the siempreviva de Cartagena (Limonium carthaginense), the rabogato del Mar Menor (Sideritis marmironensis), the zamarrilla de Cartagena (Teucrium carthaginense), the manzanilla de escombreras (Anthemis chrysantha), the garbancillo de Tallante (Astragalus nitidiflorus) and the jara de Cartagena Cistus heterophyllus carthaginensis).[11][12]


Among the animal species includes some threatened or endangered ones like the peregrine falcon, the Eurasian eagle-owl, the golden eagle and the Bonelli's eagle, the Spur-thighed tortoise, the Greater Horseshoe Bat and, especially, the Spanish toothcarp, an fish endemic to south-eastern Spain.[13] In addition, the presence of the common chameleon (the only chameleon in Europe) has been documented for about 30 years, although it is not clear whether it is native or introduced.[14] Some other species of note include the greater flamingo, the red fox, the European rabbit, the European badger, the Beech marten, the common genet, the wildcat and the wild boar.[15][16]

Protected areas

  • Mar Menor, a salty lagoon separated from the Mediterranean sea by a sand bar 22 kilometres (14 miles) in length and with a variable width from 100 to 1,200 metres (328 to 3,937 feet). It has a surface area of nearly 170 km2 (66 sq mi), a coastal length of 70 km (43 mi), and warm and clear water with relatively high salinity, which does not exceed 7 metres (23 feet) in depth. It belongs to four municipalities, including Cartagena. In 1994, it was included on the list of the Ramsar Convention (nº706) for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands. It is also one of the Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance (SPAMI) by the United Nations. Its five volcanic islands (Perdiguera, Mayor or del Barón, del Ciervo, Redonda and del Sujeto) just like El Carmolí and San Ginés hills, the Hita and Amoladora beaches, the Lo Poyo salt marsh and the salt mines of Marchamalo are protected as well.[17][18]
  • Calblanque, Monte de las Cenizas and Peña del Águila, declared a Natural Park and Site of Community Importance (SCI).[19]
  • Sierra de la Muela, Cabo Tiñoso and Roldán mountain, Natural Park, Site of Community Importance and Special Protection Area (SPA).[20]
  • Sierra de la Fausilla, Special Protection Area [20]
  • Islands and Islets of the Mediterranean coast, including Grossa Island (belonging to the municipality of San Javier, Hormigas Islands, Palomas Islands and Escombreras Islands, some of them also designed as Special Protection Area.[20][21]



There is mention of the presence of individuals belonging to the genus Homo in the cave Cueva Victoria 1,300,000 years ago. This cave is located in the district Rincón de San Ginés.[22]

Remains of individuals belonging to the species Homo neanderthalensis and the Mousterian culture were found in the Cave of Los Aviones. This place is located close to Cartagena. [23][24] There were also remains of Neanderthals belonging to the Mousterian culture in the cave Cueva Bermeja, which is placed in the district Perín.[23]

At the southeast corner of the municipality remains of human beings of the Upper Paleolithic were discovered. The paleonthological sites are the Abrigo de Los Déntoles cove, the Cueva de Los Mejillones cave, and the Cabezo de San Ginés (hill). The West of the municipality was also the scene of human activity in that period. Concrete evidence of this are the Cueva del Caballo and Cueva Bermeja caves.[25][26]

The southeast end of Cartagena was inhabited again during the Mesolithic. Important spots are the Cueva de Los Pájaros and Cueva de Los Mejillones (caves). Neolithic components such as ceramic remains were located.[27]

The southeast of Cartagena was again inhabited during the Neolithic. The sites are Las Amoladeras and Calblanque. The south of the Alumbres district was also inhabited during that period. The archeological site is located in the Cerro del Gorguel hill and in it a characteristic Neolithic hamlet was discovered.[25][28]

The reasons for the dearth of human presence and structures in this municipality during the Neolithic period were the lack of rainfall and the absence of water beds. During the Bronze Age there was a similar situation.[29]

The Argaric civilization inhabited the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (Región de Murcia and Almería) during the Bronze Age. Nevertheless, they did not significantly occupy this municipality, there were few structures belonging to them and they had little relevance here. They lived in the northwest in the La Aljorra and Tallante districts.[30][31]

Ancient history

The town was originally named Mastia. Possessing one of the best harbors in the Western Mediterranean, it was re-founded by the Carthaginian general Hasdrubal in 228 BC as Qart Hadasht ("New City"), a name identical to Carthage, for the purpose of serving as a stepping-off point for the conquest of Spain. The Roman general Scipio Africanus conquered it in 209 BC and renamed it as Carthago Nova (literally "New New City") to distinguish it from the mother city. Julius Caesar gave the town Latin Rights, and Octavian renamed it in his honor as the colony Colonia Victrix Iulia Nova Carthago or Colonia Vrbs Iulia Nova Carthago (C. V. I. N. C.) depending on the source. The city was very relevant both in the Carthaginian and the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. In 298 AD, Diocletian constituted a new Roman province in Hispania called Carthaginensis and settled the capital in this city. It remained important until it was sacked by the Vandals in 435 AD.

During the Roman period, it was the site of major silver mines, yielding a daily revenue of 25,000 drachmae. It was known also for the production of garum, a fermented fish sauce, and for esparto grass[32] which granted it a new name, Cartago Spartaria.

Middle Ages

The demise and fall of Western Roman sovereignty caused the city to go into decline. It was occupied successively by the Vandals (409–425), the Visigoths (425–551 and 624–714) and the Eastern Romans (551–624), who made it the capital of Spania (the Byzantine Empire's westernmost province).[33] Cartagena was re-conquered by the Visigoths, who held it until the Muslim conquest in 714 AD, when it was called Qartayannat-al-Halfa. It was subsequently ruled by the Umayyads (714–756), the Caliphate of Cordova (756–1031), the Taifa of Denia (1031–1076), the Taifa of Saragossa (1076–1081), the Taifa of Tortosa (1081–1092), the Almoravids (1092–1145), the Almohads (1145–1229) and the Taifa of Murcia (1229–1245). King Alfonso X of Castile (Alfonso the Wise) conquered Cartagena in 1245; he established Christian rule and the Bishopric of Cartagena. In 1270, Alfonso created the Order of Santa María de España for the naval defense of the Crown of Castile and established its headquarters in Cartagena. In 1296, Cartagena was annexed to the Kingdom of Aragon as the Reconquista focused on the remaining Muslim kingdom, Granada, which fell in 1492. Cartagena entered a period of great decadence and decay, despite a short economic revival in the 16th century, because Spain's colonial activities used ports to the west. Cartagena didn’t fully recover until the 18th century, when it became a leading naval port in the Mediterranean.[34]

Modern history

On 3 September 1643, the French led by Grand Admiral Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé defeated most of Spain's fleet here.

In 1728, Cartagena became the capital of the Spanish Navy's Maritime Department of the Mediterranean and the city was heavily fortified with the construction of a modern Castle in the place of a former Moorish Kasbah, several barracks and a huge arsenal. In a relatively short period of time, the population of the city grew from around 10,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.[35]

In 1757, during the Seven Years' War, a French naval force was forced to take shelter in the port. A squadron under Duquesne sent to reinforce them was attacked and defeated by a British squadron under Henry Osborn at the Battle of Cartagena.

In 1873, the city established a self-governing government and become the center of the Cantonal Revolution. Governmental forces besieged the city for several months until they surrendered.[35][36]

During the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), Cartagena was the main base of the Spanish Republican Navy and one of the primary strongholds of the Republican Government. It held out against the forces of General Francisco Franco longer than any other city in Spain, being the last of its cities to surrender. The city saw its industrial activity increased during the 1950s, resulting in more prosperity and this trend continued until a general decline in manufacturing throughout Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s.


At the moment, Cartagena comprises part of the autonomous community of the Region of Murcia, and is the seat of the Regional Assembly of Murcia. It is also capital of the maritime province of Cartagena, which was granted by the Royal Decree of 5 October 1607 under the reign of Philip III.


According to the Municipal census, as of January 2011, Cartagena has 218,210 inhabitants, ranking 24th in Spain in terms of population (and 6th among the non-capitals). 182,021 people live in the urban area and 39,840 in the several satellite quarters. According to the official population data, 14.73% of the municipality's population had a foreign nationality.

Its metropolitan area, which includes the municipalities of La Unión, Fuente Álamo de Murcia, Los Alcázares, San Javier, Torre Pacheco, San Pedro del Pinatar and Mazarrón, has a total of 390,983 inhabitants.

Demographic evolution of Cartagena since 1842
Source: INE[37] Nota: The municipal extension varies from the 1857 census and the previous one because of the annexion of La Palma and La Unión segregated.

Main sights

Thanks to its strategic position on the Mediterranean, Cartagena has been inhabited by many different cultures, which have left their mark on its rich cultural heritage during a glorious and turbulent history.

The “Cartagena, Port of Cultures” initiative was created to allow visitors to enjoy a wide range of activities and visits, discovering the cultural wealth and rich history of the city. It is one of several projects to energize the tourist possibilities of this potential major cultural destination,[38] frequently neglected by the mass-tourism, due to the proximity of several holiday resorts, and the refinery and other industrial development, which gave a bad reputation to the city because of pollution; these last have now fortunately been eradicated.

Archaeological sites

Although there are some ruins from the Carthaginian period, like the remains of the Punic rampart (built in 227 BC with the foundation of the city), most of its oldest monuments date from the time of the Roman Empire when Cartagena flourished. The archaeologist Blanca Roldán studied this Punic Rampart and other Punic remains, especially on the Molinete Hill. Among its numerous Roman remains, the recently restored Roman theatre of Carthago Nova is prominent and is one of the city's landmarks. work on it started at the end of the 2nd century BC. The Roman Theatre Museum was recently officially inaugurated. In Roman Republican Times, the mines near Cartagena provided silver and lead for all the Roman Empire.[39]

Other Roman remains can be found in several buildings and interpretative centres, including the Roman Colonnade, the House of Fortune, the decumanus/cardo and the Augusteum. The Torre Ciega was built by the Romans for burials; it formed part of the Necropolis.[39]

The Roman Amphitheatre (1st century AD) was sited where the now abandoned Bullring was built, but only some of the surrounding walls and part of the rooms under the stands are still visible. Recent work is revealing more evidence.

Besides the Roman heritage, archaeological sights include the remains of the Santa María la Vieja Cathedral, which was irreversibly destroyed during the Spanish Civil War. It dates from the end of the 13th century. The decorated floor of a Roman house of the 1st century BC can be found in the crypt.[40]

A Byzantine rampart can be found, close to the Roman Theatre and the Cathedral.[39]

The Concepción Castle (now Centre for the Interpretation of the History of Cartagena) was reconstructed in the 13th century using large structures from the Amphitheatre. Apart from the Roman Theatre Museum, there are also two important archaeological museums: the Municipal Archaeological Museum and the recently opened Arqua (National Museum of Maritime Archaeology).[39]

Baroque and Neo-classical buildings

The Campus Muralla del Mar, an old military hospital, was one of the first works carried out after the transformation of the city into the main Spanish naval base in the Mediterranean, and is now the seat of the Polytechnic University. In the vicinity, there is the Autopsy Theatre, which is where anatomy classes used to be given. Rehabilitation for tourism provides for the interpretation of the nearby buildings at the time of their construction.[41]

These buildings and several other baroque or neo-classical buildings demonstrate the military importance of Cartagena. These include the Charles III Rampart, the Castillo de San Julián, the Arsenal, the Midshipmen's Barracks (academy and naval barracks), the Naval Headquarter Palace (built in 1740 and subsequently rebuilt) and the Artillery Headquarters, which also houses the Military Museum. Among the Baroque or Neo-classical Churches in Cartagena are El Carmen, Santo Domingo and Santa Maria de Gracia.[41]

The austere façade of the Molina House hides the Centre of Arts and Craft.

Modernist and Eclectic buildings

Cartagena is home to numerous Art Nouveau buildings from the early 20th century, when a bourgeoisie settled in the city due to the growth of the local mining industry. These buildings include the City Hall, the Grand Hotel, the Casino (all of them among the city's landmarks).

The Railway Station has some outstanding iron doors and columns on its façade, and inside can still be seen the original ticket office, doorframe, ceiling and the lamps. Other modernist or eclectic houses include the Clares House, the Aguirre Palace (which houses the Regional Museum of Modern Art, or MURAM), the Cervantes House (relatively big in comparison with other modernist buildings), the Llagostera House, the Pedreño Palace, the Dorda House, the Zapata House and the Urban Expansion Company House.[42]

Several charming, lively streets cover this area, such as Calle Mayor (High Street), the major pedestrian and commercial street of the city, full of boutiques and bars with typical "tapas", Carmen Street, Puertas de Murcia Street and many more.

The Caridad church is one of the most important churches in the city, since it is dedicated to the patron of Cartagena, Nuestra Señora de Caridad. The interior is dominated by a dome, similar to the Pantheon of Agrippa, in Rome. There are also several outstanding sculptures by the famous Murcian sculptor Francisco Salzillo and his school.[43]

Modern sights

The Civil War Shelter-Museum is based on the galleries excavated out the Concepción hill (site of the Castle) to serve as air-raid shelters during the Spanish Civil War. Many naval and military attractions belong to this era, such as the Naval Museum and the world-famous Peral Submarine invented by Isaac Peral (born in Cartagena) that was launched in 1888 as one of the first U-Boats ever. It was displayed on Cartagena's harbour promenade until its move to the Naval Museum, after a full restoration.[44]

The Monument to the Heroes of Santiago de Cuba and Cavite (1923) is a war memorial erected in honour of the Spanish sailors who died in combat with the US Navy in waters off Cavite and Santiago off the Philippine and Cuban coasts.[45]

Other attractions include the Lift-Gangway near the former Bullring and the Concepción Hill, the Regional Assembly (the Parliament of the Region of Murcia) whose façade includes architectural influences from the Renaissance while maintaining a modernist air (typical in the Levant), and the Carmen Conde-Antonio Moliner Museum that reconstructs the atmosphere in which these poets from Cartagena created some of their most important works.


Although the city itself is only a port, within the city limits lies part of La Manga del Mar Menor (the other part belonging to the municipality of San Javier) which encompasses the Mar Menor. Cartagena also includes part of the Murcian Mediterranean Coast. Cartagena holds the distinction of being the Spanish city with the most beaches (10) certified "Q for Quality" by the ICTE (Instituto para la Calidad Turística Española). These beaches are: Cala Cortina, Islas Menores, Playa Honda beach, Mar de Cristal, Cala del Pino, Cavanna beach, Barco Perdido beach, El Galúa beach, Levante beach and La Gola beach.[46]

El Portús beach is adjacent to the naturist camping site, so nude bathing is practised on this beach.[47]

Notable people


These are the most known festivals of the municipality:[48]

  • Cartagena's Holy Week, declared an item of International Tourist Interest
  • Carthaginians and Romans, declared an item of National Tourist Interest. The main festivities of the city, a colourful Carthaginian and Roman parade full of events that recall the Punic Wars and the conquest of the city by both Empires. Held over the final ten days of September.

Twin towns - Sister cities

Cartagena is twinned with:

See also


  1. "Municipal Register of Spain 2018". National Statistics Institute. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  2. "Ayuntamiento de Cartagena". Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  3. "Callejero | Ayuntamiento de Cartagena". Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  4. "Hasdrubal the Fair - Livius".
  5. "Qartayannat al-Halfa". Wikipedia. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  6. "Autoridad Portuaria de Cartagena". Archived from the original on 8 September 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  7. "El Clima - Atlas Global de la Región de Murcia".
  8. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. "Clima Cartagena: Temperatura, Climograma y Tabla climática para Cartagena -".
  10. "Cartagena, Spain - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  11. "El Medio Natural en Cartagena - EL MEDIO NATURAL" (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  12. "Flora de la Comarca de Cartagena en peligro" (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  13. "El medio natural en Cartagena - EL MEDIO NATURAL" (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  14. García, Pepa (31 October 2017). "Los camaleones conquistan el monte". La Verdad (in Spanish). Vocento. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  15. "Calblanque, Monte de las Cenizas y Peña del Águila". Web oficial turismo Región de Murcia (in Spanish). Instituto de Turismo de la Región de Murcia. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  16. "Proyecto Plan de Ordenación de los recursos naturales. Sierra de la Muela, Cabo Tiñoso y Roldán". Dirección General del Medio Natural (in Spanish). Consejería de Industria y Medio Ambiente. Dirección General del Medio Natural. March 2006. p. 138. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  17. "El medio natural en Cartagena - EL MEDIO NATURAL" (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  18. "El medio natural en Cartagena - EL MEDIO NATURAL" (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  19. "PORN_Calblanque.pdf" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  20. "El Medio Natural en Cartagena - EL MEDIO NATURAL" (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  21. "Publicación número 3564 del BORM número 131 de 08/06/2018" (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  22. Grandal López, Alfonso (2005). Historia de Cartagena para principiantes (in Spanish). p. 33. ISBN 849566956-0.
  23. Grandal López, Alfonso. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 35.
  24. "Historia de San Antonio Abad - Prehistoria, Antigüedad y Edad Media - Región de Murcia Digital" (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  25. "Historia de Rincón de San Ginés - Prehistoria - Región de Murcia Digital" (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  26. Grandal López, Alfonso. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 38.
  27. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 40.
  28. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 41.
  29. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. pp. 42–43.
  30. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 48.
  31. "Historia de La Aljorra - Historia de La Aljorra - Región de Murcia Digital" (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  32. Hammond, N.G.L. & Scullard, H.H. (Eds.) (1970). The Oxford Classical Dictionary, p. 209. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-869117-3.
  33. "Historia de Cartagena - Antigüedad - Región de Murcia Digital".
  34. "Historia de Cartagena - Edad Media Cristiana - Región de Murcia Digital" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  35. "Historia de la Ciudad - Historia - Tu Ciudad - Ayuntamiento de Cartagena" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  36. "Historia de Cartagena - Siglo XIX - Región de Murcia Digital" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  37. "Alterations to the municipalities in the Population Censuses since 1842". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  38. "Cartagena Puerto de Culturas" (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  39. "Concejalía de Turismo - Ayuntamiento de Cartagena" (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  40. "Catedral Antigua de Santa María - Historia - Región de Murcia Digital" (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  41. "Concejalía de Turismo - Ayuntamiento de Cartagena" (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  42. "Itinerario Modernista y Ecléctico". Concejalía de Turismo (in Spanish). Ayuntamiento de Cartagena. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  43. "Basílica de la Caridad". Región de Murcia Digital (in Spanish). Fundación Integra. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  44. González, José Alberto (1 December 2011). "Submarino Peral: adiós Muelle, hola Museo Naval". La Verdad (in Spanish). Vocento. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  45. "Itinerario Contemporáneo". Concejalía de Turismo (in Spanish). Ayuntamiento de Cartagena. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  46. "Playas". Concejalía de Turismo (in Spanish). Ayuntamiento de Cartagena. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  47. Cornwell, Jane (19 August 2010). "El Portús, Spain: Easy on the naked eye". Metro. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  48. "Fiestas y Tradiciones - Cultura- Tu Ciudad - Ayuntamiento de Cartagena" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  49. "Carthage". Comune-carthage (in Arabic). 2009–2014. Retrieved 14 March 2019.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  50. "Umbria: Towns Twinning". Prometheo. 2004. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  51. Humble, Richard (1981). Underwater warfare. Chartwell Books, p. 174. ISBN 978-0-89009-424-2


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