Carrie Chapman Catt

Carrie Chapman Catt (January 9, 1859 – March 9, 1947) was an American women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which gave U.S. women the right to vote in 1920.[1] Catt served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and was the founder of the League of Women Voters and the International Alliance of Women. She "led an army of voteless women in 1919 to pressure Congress to pass the constitutional amendment giving them the right to vote and convinced state legislatures to ratify it in 1920" and "was one of the best-known women in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century and was on all lists of famous American women".[2]

Carrie Chapman Catt
Photograph from around 1913
Carrie Clinton Lane

(1859-01-09)January 9, 1859
DiedMarch 9, 1947(1947-03-09) (aged 88)
EducationIowa State University (1880)
Leo Chapman
(m. 1885; his death 1886)

George Catt
(m. 1890; his death 1905)
Partner(s)Mary Garrett Hay

Early life

Catt was born Carrie Clinton Lane in Ripon, Wisconsin,[3] the daughter of Maria Louisa (Clinton) and Lucius Lane. Catt spent her childhood in Charles City, Iowa. She moved to Iowa at the age of seven where she began school. As a child, Catt was interested in science and wanted to become a doctor. After graduating from high school, she enrolled at Iowa State Agricultural College (now Iowa State University) in Ames, Iowa.[4]

Catt's father was initially reluctant to allow her to attend college, but he relented, contributing only a part of the costs.[5] To pay her expenses, Catt worked as a dishwasher, in the school library, and as a teacher at rural schools during school breaks.[5] Catt's freshman class consisted of 27 students, six of whom were female.[5] Catt joined the Crescent Literary Society, a student organization aimed at advancing student learning skills and self-confidence. Although only men were allowed to speak in meetings, Catt defied the rules and spoke up during a male debate. This started a discussion about women's participation in the group, and ultimately led to women gaining the right to speak in meetings.[6] Catt was also a member of Pi Beta Phi,[7] started an all girls' debate club, and advocated for women's participation in military drill.[8]

After four years at Iowa State, Catt graduated on November 10, 1880, with a Bachelor of Science degree,[9] the only female in her graduating class. Iowa State did not name valedictorians during Catt's time there, so there is no way to know her class rank.[10][11] She worked as a law clerk after graduating, then she became a teacher and then superintendent of schools in Mason City, Iowa, in 1885. She was the first female superintendent of the district.[12]

In February 1885, Catt married newspaper editor Leo Chapman and moved with him to California, but he died in August 1886 of typhoid fever.[3] She remained for a while in San Francisco, where she worked as the city's first female reporter, but she returned to Iowa in 1887.[3] In 1890, she married George Catt, a wealthy engineer and alumnus of Iowa State University.[3] He encouraged her involvement in women's suffrage. Their marriage allowed her to spend a good part of each year on the road campaigning for suffrage, a cause she had become involved with during the late 1880s.

Role in women's suffrage

National American Woman Suffrage Association

In 1887, Catt returned to Charles City, where she had grown up, and became involved in the Iowa Woman Suffrage Association. From 1890 to 1892, Catt served as the Iowa association's state organizer and groups recording secretary. During her time in office, Catt began working nationally for the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), and was a speaker at its 1890 convention in Washington D.C.[13] In 1892, Susan B. Anthony asked Catt to address Congress on the proposed woman's suffrage amendment.[13]

During her early years in the NAWSA, Catt expressed her unease with the views of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a founder of the women's suffrage movement who tended to be more radical than many of the younger activists.[14] In 1895, Stanton created a stir by writing The Woman's Bible, a critical examination of the Bible that challenged traditional religious beliefs that women are to be passive and are inferior to men. Many NAWSA members feared that the book would damage the suffrage movement by alienating its more orthodox members. Catt and Susan B. Anthony, the NAWSA's president, met with Stanton prior to its publication to voice their concerns, but Stanton was unmoved.[15]

An intense debate about Stanton's book occurred at the 1896 NAWSA convention after her opponents introduced a resolution declaring that the NAWSA "has no official connection with the so-called Woman's Bible".[16] Catt supported the resolution, along with Anna Howard Shaw, a future president of the organization, and other leading figures. Despite strong opposition from Anthony, who argued that there was no need for such a resolution, it passed by a vote of 54 to 41. Stanton afterwards tried to convince Anthony, her old friend and co-worker, that they should both resign from the NAWSA in protest, but Anthony refused. Stanton did not resign from the organization either.[17]

Catt succeeded Anthony as NAWSA president. She was elected president of NAWSA twice; her first term was from 1900 to 1904 and her second term was from 1915 to 1920. She resigned after her first term to care for her ailing husband. She resumed leadership of NAWSA in 1915, which had become badly divided under the leadership of Anna Howard Shaw. During her later years of leadership she increased the size and influence of the organization.[13] In 1916, at a NAWSA convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey, Catt unveiled her "Winning Plan", to have senators and representatives from different states support the suffrage amendment.[18] Her campaign's goals were to obtain suffrage on both the state and federal levels, and to compromise for partial suffrage in the states resisting change. Under Catt's leadership, NAWSA won the backing of the U.S. House and Senate, as well as state support for the amendment's ratification.[13] Under Catt's leadership the movement focused on success in at least one eastern state, because previous to 1917 only western states had granted female suffrage. Catt thus led a successful campaign in New York state, which finally approved suffrage in 1917. During that same year President Wilson and the Congress entered World War I. Catt made the controversial decision to support the war effort, which shifted the public's perception in favor of the suffragists who were now perceived as patriotic. The suffrage movement received the support of President Woodrow Wilson in 1918.[13] After endless lobbying by Catt and NAWSA, the suffrage movement culminated in the adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution on August 26, 1920.[19][20]

In her efforts to win women's suffrage state by state, Catt sometimes appealed to the prejudices of the time. In a speech possibly given at the New York State Convention in November 16, 1892, Catt lamented that while women lacked suffrage, "The murderous Sioux is given the right to franchise which he is ready and anxious to sell to the highest bidder."[21] In 1894, Catt urged that uneducated immigrants be stripped of their right to vote – the United States should "cut off the vote of the slums and give it to woman."[22] "White supremacy will be strengthened, not weakened, by women's suffrage," was her argument when trying to win over Mississippi and South Carolina in 1919.[23] This quotation is from a book chapter written by Catt in 1917 in which Catt is responding to anti-suffrage arguments, including that white supremacy would be undermined. She provides population statistics to disprove that claim, but in no way endorses white supremacy. In the same chapter she goes on to say that such objections are "ridiculous" and "all people" should have the right to vote.[24] Although some have alleged in newspaper articles and opinion pieces that this quotation is from speeches Catt gave in the South in 1917, specifically Mississippi and South Carolina, no such speeches have been found and several sources documenting Catt's travel between 1915 and 1920 show that she did not visit those states during this time.[25][26]

NAWSA was by far the largest organization working for women's suffrage in the U.S. From her first endeavors in Iowa in the 1880s to her last in Tennessee in 1920, Catt supervised dozens of campaigns, mobilized numerous volunteers (1 million by the end), and made hundreds of speeches. After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Catt retired from NAWSA.[27]

Catt continued her work for women's suffrage even after she retired from her presidency post at NAWSA due to the health problems of her second husband. Carrie became involved in the International Women's Suffrage Alliance subsequence to the death of her husband. Catt founded the League of Women Voters in 1920 encourage women to use their hard-won right in 1920 before the amendment was passed, serving as its honorary president for the rest of her life.[19] In the same year, she ran as the presidential candidate for the ideologically Georgist Commonwealth Land Party. In 1923, with Nettie Rogers Shuler, she published Woman Suffrage and Politics: The Inner Story of the Suffrage Movement.[28]

International women's suffrage movement

Catt was also a leader of the international women's suffrage movement.[29] She helped to found the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA) in 1902, which eventually incorporated sympathetic associations in 32 nations.[13] She served as its president from 1904 until 1923. After her husband's death in 1905, Catt spent much of the following eight years as IWSA president promoting equal-suffrage rights worldwide.[19] After she retired from NAWSA, she continued to help women around the world to gain the right to vote. The IWSA remains in existence, now as the International Alliance of Women.

Role during the World Wars

Catt was active in anti-war causes during the 1920s and 1930s. Catt resided at Juniper Ledge in the Westchester County, New York community of Briarcliff Manor from 1919 through 1928[30] when she settled in nearby New Rochelle, New York.

At the beginning of World War I, Catt and fellow suffragist Jane Addams were asked to spearhead an organization that promoted peace. Catt was hesitant to join the peace movement because she believed this to be an issue that men and women should collaborate on.[31] Reluctantly, Catt and Addams called a meeting to gain support from the women's movement. Catt did not want to be the leader of the group because she believed that her support of the peace movement would hurt her international work with suffrage since leadership of the group would mean she was favoring one country over another.[31] From this meeting came the decision that the NAWSA would aid the government by helping women prepare to take over jobs while men were away and would also aid the Red Cross.[31] In addition, the group made it known that women's suffrage would remain their top priority. During 1917, Catt's attention remained strongly focused on women's suffrage, leading her to abandon her work with the peace movement.[31] This led to tension between Catt and other activists.

After the Nineteenth Amendment was passed, granting women the right to vote, Catt returned to the peace movement. Because she did not want to join any existing organization, she and a group of others founded their own organization, the National Committee on the Cause and Cure of War (NCCCW).[31] The group divided the causes of war into four categories: psychological, economic, political, and social and contributory.[31] They did not include the exclusion of women from politics and the public sphere as a cause, even though they believed in equality for women. The organization believed that it was their job as women to end wars because women were seen as morally courageous, in contrast to their male counterparts who were viewed as physically courageous.[31]

During World War II, Catt resigned her role within NCCCW, admitting that the organization did not turn out the way she had planned.[31] The organization had not included all women, only middle-class white women. It did not strengthen the abilities of the members, but simply educated people on international affairs.[31]

In 1933, in response to Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Catt organized the Protest Committee of Non-Jewish Women Against the Persecution of Jews in Germany.[32][33] The group sent a letter of protest to Hitler in August 1933 signed by 9,000 non-Jewish American women.[34] It decried acts of violence and restrictive laws against German Jews. Catt pressured the U.S. government to ease immigration laws so that Jews could more easily take refuge in America. For her efforts, she became the first woman to receive the American Hebrew Medal.[32][35] Catt was aware of her reputation - in 1938 she refused to sign a letter in support of leading Hungarian feminists Eugénia Meller and Sarolta Steinberger's request to emigrate to the USA. She noted that she was old and the letter would remain after her death.[36]

The last event she helped organize was the Women's Centennial Congress in New York in 1940, a celebration of the feminist movement in the United States.[12]

Death and legacy

On March 9, 1947, Catt died of a heart attack in her home in New Rochelle, New York.[1] She was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York City.[37] alongside her longtime companion, Mary Garrett Hay, a fellow New York state suffragist, with whom she lived for over 20 years.[13][38]

Catt attained recognition for her work both during and after her lifetime. In 1926, she was featured on the cover of Time magazine and, in 1930, she received the Pictorial Review Award for her international disarmament work. In 1941, Catt received the Chi Omega award at the White House from her longtime friend Eleanor Roosevelt.[39] In 1975, Catt became the first inductee into the Iowa Women's Hall of Fame.[37] A stamp was issued in 1948 in remembrance of the Seneca Falls Convention, featuring Catt, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Lucretia Mott. In 1982, Catt was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. In 1992, the Iowa Centennial Memorial Foundation named her one of the ten most important women of the century.[37] The same year, Iowa State University established the Carrie Chapman Catt Center for Women and Politics and in 1992, and the Old Botany building on central campus was renovated and renamed Carrie Chapman Catt Hall in 1995.[37] Catt was played by Anjelica Huston in the 2004 film Iron Jawed Angels. In 2013, she was one of the first four women to be honored on the Iowa Women of Achievement Bridge in Des Moines.[37]

On August 26, 2016 (Women's Equality Day), a monument commissioned by Tennessee Suffrage Monument, Inc.[40] and sculpted by Alan LeQuire was unveiled in Centennial Park in Nashville, featuring depictions of Catt, Anne Dallas Dudley, Abby Crawford Milton, Juno Frankie Pierce, and Sue Shelton White.[41][42]

Some historians, including Elizabeth Gillespie McRae,[43] consider Catt's arguments and her stance on rights for women to be representative of white women only. While fighting a losing battle for women's rights in a Southern state, she once countered the opposition of racist senators by claiming that "White supremacy will be strengthened, not weakened, by women's suffrage", since white women voted at higher rates.[44] This quotation is from a book chapter written by Catt in 1917 in which Catt is responding to anti-suffrage arguments, including that white supremacy would be undermined. She provides population statistics to disprove that claim, but in no way endorses white supremacy. In the same chapter she goes on to say that such objections are "ridiculous" and "all people" should have the right to vote.[24] Although some have alleged in newspaper articles and opinion pieces that this quotation is from speeches Catt gave in the South in 1917, specifically Mississippi and South Carolina, no such speeches have been found and several sources documenting Catt's travel between 1915 and 1920 show that she did not visit those states during this time.[25][26]

Amidon argues that "For Catt, people of color could be included in, or excluded from, participation in evolutionary narratives of progress depending on a wide range of factors, from ideological standards to local political circumstance."[45] Debra Marquart argues that “Carrie Chapman Catt is not a woman of our time, and therefore, we cannot hold her to the standards of our time.”[46] Catt also made inclusive statements about race: "If any say [we] would put down one class to rise ourselves, they do not know us. The woman’s suffrage movement is not one for women alone; it is for equality of rights and privileges and it knows no difference between black and white."[47]; "Just as the world was is no white man's struggle, but every man's war, so is the struggle for woman suffrage no white woman's struggle, but every woman's struggle."[48]; "If it [government by 'the people'][49] is expedient, then obviously all the people must be included."; and "There will never be a true democracy until every responsible and law-abiding adult in it, without regard to race, sex, color or creed has his or her own inalienable and unpurchasable voice in government."[48]

Catt's language resulted in a controversy at Iowa State University, the school from which she graduated. On September 22, 1997, an Iowa State student announced he was beginning a hunger strike and would continue the strike until his eight requests were met by the administration. These requests ranged from (1) a large increase in funding to all cultural studies programs targeted at increasing tenured faculty and program curriculum to (8) improving the recruitment and retention of LGBT faculty to create a less hostile environment for LGBT students. Number five on the list was to re-open the naming process of Carrie Chapman Catt Hall.[50] The Ames chapter of the NAACP also objected to the building name.[51]

Personal life

Despite being married twice, Catt did not live with her husband full-time. After the death of George Catt, she lived with Mary "Mollie" Garrett Hay, a suffragist leader from New York.[52] Hay was not a part of the international circle of elites that Catt aligned herself with; however, it was understood that they had a special relationship. Catt requested burial alongside Hay, rather than her first husband. Her second husband's body was donated to science, according to his wishes.[52] When Hay died in 1928, Alda Wilson moved in with Catt and remained as her secretary until Catt's death.[53][54] Wilson was Catt's companion[55] and eventual estate executor, donating six volumes of photographs and memorabilia from Catt's estate to Bryn Mawr College.[56]

Winter Wheat, a new musical by Cathy Bush about the ratification of the 19th Amendment in Tennessee, premiered at the Barter Theatre in 2016. The original version of the play had a limited run at the Barter in 2014. Carrie Chapman Catt and Mary Garrett Hay are characters in the play. The show also features anti-suffragist Josephine Anderson Pearson and Tennessee state representative Harry T. Burn, who cast the deciding vote for ratification in Tennessee.[57]

Catt was portrayed by Anjelica Huston in the film Iron Jawed Angels.

See also


  1. "Carrie C. Catt Dies of Heart Attack. Woman's Suffrage Pioneer, Long an Advocate of World Peace, Succumbs at 88". The New York Times. March 10, 1947.
  2. Van Voris, Jacqueline (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY. p. vii. ISBN 1558611398.
  3. Katja Wuestenbecker. "Catt, Carrie Chapman" in World War 1: the Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2014, p. 359.
  4. Mary Gray Peck. Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography, New York, H. W. Wilson, 1944, pp. 30–32.
  5. Van Voris, p. 7.
  6. Van Voris, p. 8.
  7. "Carrie Lane Chapman Catt". Traditions. ISU Alumni Association. Archived from the original on May 4, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
  8. Peck, p. 33.
  9. Peck, p. 34.
  10. "Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947)". Carrie Chapman Catt Center for Women and Politics. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  11. Van Voris, p. 9.
  12. "Carrie Chapman Catt Papers, 1880–1958". Five College Archives & Manuscript Collections. Five College Consortium. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
  13. "Carrie Chapman Catt Girlhood Home and Museum: About Carrie Chapman Catt". Retrieved February 20, 2019.
  14. Griffith, Elisabeth (1984). In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 212. ISBN 0-19-503440-6
  15. Griffith, p. 211
  16. Harper (1898–1908), Vol. 2, p. 853
  17. Griffith, p. 213
  18. McGuire, William, and Leslie Wheeler. "Carrie Chapman Catt." American History, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed October 25, 2017
  20. Library of Congress. Carrie Chapman Catt.
  21. Van Voris, p. 21.
  22. Bredbenner, Candice Lewis (1998). A Nationality of Her Own: Women, Marriage, and the Law of Citizenship. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 48.
  23. Munns, Roger (May 5, 1996). "University Honors Suffragette Despite Racism Charge". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
  24. "Woman Suffrage by Federal Amendment, Chapter VI: Objections to the Federal Amendment - Jan. 1917". Archives of Women's Political Communication. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  25. Peck, Mary Gray (2011). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography. Literary Licensing, LLC. ISBN 978-1258183219.
  26. Clevenger, Ima Fuchs (1955). Invention and arrangement in the public address of Carrie Chapman Catt [Ph.D. dissertation]. University of Oklahoma.
  27. United States Congress, Office of the Historian. Women in Congress, 1917–1990. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 1991, p. 208.
  28. "Votes for Women: Carrie Chapman Catt".
  29. Nate Levin. Carrie Chapman Catt: A Life of Leadership. 2006, p. 62.
  30. Peter D. Shaver (October 2003). "National Register of Historic Places Registration:Carrie Chapman Catt House". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Archived from the original on August 17, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2010.
  31. Schott, Linda. "'Middle-of-the-Road' Activists Carrie Chapman Catt and the National Committee on the Cause and Cure of War". Peace & Change, vol. 21, no. 1 (January 1996): 1–21.
  32. Recker, Cristen. "Carrie Chapman Catt". Ladies For Liberty. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2011.
  33. Wuestenbecker, Katja, "Catt, Carrie Chapman" in World War 1: the Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2014, ISBN 9781851099641, Vol. 1, page 359.
  34. Nasaw, David (2001). The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 489. ISBN 0-618-15446-9.
  35. James, Edward T.; James, Janet Wilson (1974). Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. Harvard University Press. p. 312. ISBN 0-674-62734-2.
  36. Francisca de Haan; Krasimira Daskalova; Anna Loutfi (2006). Biographical Dictionary of Women's Movements and Feminisms in Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe: 19th and 20th Centuries. Central European University Press. p. 334. ISBN 978-963-7326-39-4.
  37. Carrie Chapman Catt Center for Women and Politics. "Timeline of Carrie Chapman Catt's Life".
  38. Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons. 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 7790–7791). McFarland & Company, Inc. Kindle Edition
  39. "Carrie Chapman Catt (1859–1947)".
  40. "Too Few Statues of Women". Tennessee Suffrage Monument, Inc.
  41. "Women's Suffrage Monument Unveiled – Story". Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  42. "Nashville's Newest Monument Celebrates State's Role in Women's Winning The Right To Vote". Nashville Public Radio. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  43. Elizabeth Gillespie McRae. "How White Supremacy Forgot the Women". The New York Times, February 2, 2018.
  44. Gay, Kathlyn (2012). American dissidents : an encyclopedia of activists, subversives, and prisoners of conscience. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1598847643.
  45. Amidon, Kevin (April 2007). "Carrie Chapman Catt and the Evolutionary Politics of Sex and Race, 1885–1940". Journal of the History of Ideas. 68 (2): 309.
  46. "Catt Fight at Iowa State". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, no. 18 (Winter, 1997–1998), 73–74.
  47. Carrie Chapman Catt, "Subject and Sovereign," manuscript speech, ca. 1893. Carrie Chapman Catt Papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library.
  48. Carrie Chapman Catt (1917). Votes for All: A Symposium. The Crisis 15(1)
  49. "Woman Suffrage by Federal Amendment, Chapter VI: Objections to the Federal Amendment - Jan. 1917". Archives of Women's Political Communication. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
  50. Writer), KEESIA WIRT, RHAASON MITCHELL AND TARA DEERING (Daily Staff. "University reaction is one of concern". Iowa State Daily. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  51. "Suffragette's Racial Remark Haunts College". The New York Times, May 5, 1996. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  52. Rupp, Leila J. "Sexuality and Politics in the Early Twentieth Century: The Case of the International Women's Movement". Feminist Studies, vol. 23, no. 3 (Fall 1997): 577–605.
  53. Keller, Kristin Thoennes (2006). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Voice for Women. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Capstone. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-7565-0991-0.
  54. Radke-Moss, Andrea G. (2008). Bright Epoch: Women and Coeducation in the American West. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. p. 286. ISBN 0-8032-1942-3.
  55. Morris, Ruth (January 13, 1934). "Possible Need of New War Seen by Pacifist Leader". Berkeley, California: Berkeley Daily Gazette. p. 2. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  56. Grubb, Barbara Ward (Fall 2004). "Carrie Chapman Catt Digital Image Collection" (PDF). Mirabile Dictu. Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania: Friends of the Bryn Mawr College Library (8): 14–16. Retrieved October 11, 2016.

Further reading

  • Fowler, Robert Booth. Carrie Catt: Feminist Politician (1986). ISBN 9781555530051
  • Van Voris, Jacqueline. Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life (1996). ISBN 1558611398
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