Carrie (1976 film)
Carrie is a 1976 American supernatural horror film directed by Brian De Palma from a screenplay written by Lawrence D. Cohen, adapted from Stephen King's 1974 epistolary novel of the same name. The film stars Sissy Spacek as Carrie White, a 16-year-old diffident teenager who is consistently mocked and bullied at school. Her peers are unaware that she possesses telekinetic powers. The film also featured Piper Laurie, Amy Irving, Nancy Allen, William Katt, P. J. Soles, Betty Buckley, and John Travolta in supporting roles.
Original theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Brian De Palma|
|Produced by||Paul Monash|
|Screenplay by||Lawrence D. Cohen|
|Based on||Carrie by Stephen King|
|Music by||Pino Donaggio|
|Edited by||Paul Hirsch|
Red Bank Films
|Distributed by||United Artists|
|Box office||$33.8 million|
The film was based on King's first novel by the same name. De Palma was intrigued by the story and pushed for the studio to direct it while Spacek was encouraged by her husband to audition. It is the first of more than 100 film and television productions adapted from, or based on, the published works of King.
Carrie was theatrically released on November 3, 1976, by United Artists. The film became a critical and commercial success, grossing over $33.8 million against its $1.8 million budget. It received two nominations at the 49th Academy Awards: Best Actress (for Spacek) and Best Supporting Actress (for Laurie). It is widely cited by critics and audience members alike as the best adaptation of the novel amongst the numerous films and television shows based on the character, as well as one of the best films based on King's publications. The film has had a significant influence on popular culture. Several publications have regarded it as one of the greatest horror films ever made. In 2008, Carrie was ranked 86th on Empire's list of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time. It was ranked 15th on Entertainment Weekly's list of the 50 Best High School Movies, 46th on the American Film Institute list AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills. The film's prom scene has had a major influence on popular culture and has been discussed, analysed and parodied numerous times and was ranked eighth on Bravo's The 100 Scariest Moments in Cinematic History (2004).
Carrie White is a shy 16-year-old girl who lives with her fanatically religious and abusive mother, Margaret. Carrie is unpopular at school and is often ostracized by her peers.
Carrie experiences her first menstrual period as she showers with her female classmates after gym class. Unaware of what is happening to her, she panics and desperately pleads for help, believing herself to be bleeding to death. The other girls—led by the arrogant, popular and beautiful Chris Hargensen, who frequently bullies Carrie—pelt Carrie with tampons, laughing and chanting "Plug It Up! Plug It Up!" A light bulb mysteriously breaks as Carrie reaches the height of her panic. Gym teacher Miss Collins breaks up the commotion, consoles Carrie, and tells her what menstruation is.
Later, as the principal dismisses Carrie from school, Carrie becomes frustrated at both cigarette smoke emanating from an ashtray and at the principal repeatedly referring to her by the name "Cassie"; she causes the ashtray to flip from his desk and shatter. On Carrie's way home, a young boy teases her, and she makes him fall off his bicycle with just one look.
At home, Carrie is abused by Margaret, who uses fake Bible quotes to rant about menstruation being the result of sinful thoughts, and Eve being "weak". Carrie is dragged and locked in a small, specially-decorated “prayer closet” and forced to pray for forgiveness. When she is allowed to go to her room, she gazes into her reflection, causing the mirror to shatter. Shocked, Carrie begins to assume she may have some kind of supernatural power.
Carrie's classmate Sue feels guilty for participating in the locker room antics, so she arranges for her boyfriend—the handsome and popular Tommy—to invite Carrie to the upcoming prom. Carrie is reluctant to accept, but is encouraged to do so by Miss Collins. Chris furiously throws a tantrum and defiantly skips her detention for tormenting Carrie, resulting in her getting slapped in the face by Miss Collins. Swearing vengeance, Chris recruits her delinquent boyfriend Billy to play a prank on Carrie. They slaughter pigs from a nearby farm and place a bucket of pigs' blood above the stage at the school's gymnasium. Margaret discovers Carrie's prom plans and attempts to abuse her again. Having researched her telekinesis, Carrie asserts her power and stands up to her mother. Margaret responds by accusing Carrie of being a satanic witch.
At the prom, Carrie finds acceptance among her peers and shares a kiss with Tommy. Chris's friend Norma rigs the election and Carrie is crowned Prom Queen. However, Carrie's joy is cut short when Chris pulls a rope to dump the pig's blood on her. Chris and Billy escape through a back door while the bucket falls on Tommy's head, knocking him unconscious. The audience is left shocked and speechless, but Carrie hallucinates that everyone in the gymnasium is laughing at her. Enraged, Carrie goes into a silent-psychotic breakdown which causes her to unleash telekinetic fury upon the crowd. The doors slam shut, a high-pressure water hose assaults many people (including Norma, who is knocked unconscious), the principal is electrocuted, Miss Collins is crushed to death, and Carrie's English teacher is electrocuted so badly that his body erupts in flames, setting the gym on fire. As the inferno rages, the enraged and entranced Carrie calmly walks out and locks the remaining students inside, sealing their fates. Later, Chris and Billy—who witnessed the entire episode—attempt to run over Carrie with a car. Carrie causes their car to flip and explode, killing them both in a burst of flames.
When Carrie reaches home, Margaret reveals that Carrie is the result of a rape committed by her drunken father and that Margaret enjoyed the experience. Margaret says that sin never dies; as she comforts Carrie, Margaret stabs her in the back and chases her around the house with a knife. In self-defense, Carrie causes knives and sharp kitchen utensils to fly through the air and crucify Margaret. Overcome with anguish over her actions, Carrie loses control of her powers and incinerates the house while she and her mother are still inside.
Weeks later, Sue—the only survivor of the prom massacre—has a nightmare in which she lays flowers on the remains of Carrie's home. A "for sale" sign has been vandalized with the phrase "Carrie White burns in Hell!" Suddenly, Carrie's bloody arm reaches from beneath the rubble and grabs Sue's forearm. Sue wakes up screaming as her mother comforts her.
- Sissy Spacek as Carrie White
- Piper Laurie as Margaret White
- Amy Irving as Sue Snell
- William Katt as Tommy Ross
- Betty Buckley as Miss Collins
- Nancy Allen as Chris Hargensen
- John Travolta as Billy Nolan
- P. J. Soles as Norma Watson
- Sydney Lassick as Mr. Fromm
- Stefan Gierasch as Principal Morton
- Priscilla Pointer as Eleanor Snell
- Edie McClurg as Helen Shyres
- Michael Talbott as Freddy
- Cindy Daly as Cora
- Deirdre Berthrong as Rhonda
- Harry Gold as George
- Noelle North as Frieda
- Doug Cox as The Beak
Carrie was the first Stephen King novel to be published and the first to be adapted into a feature film. In an interview in Port Charlotte, Florida at a public appearance near his home on the Gulf coast on March 20, 2010, King said he was 26 years old at the time and was paid just $2,500 for the film rights, but added, "I was fortunate to have that happen to my first book." De Palma told Cinefantastique magazine in an interview in 1977:
I read the book. It was suggested to me by a writer friend of mine. A writer friend of his, Stephen King, had written it. I guess this was almost two years ago [circa 1975]. I liked it a lot and proceeded to call my agent to find out who owned it. I found out that nobody had bought it yet. A lot of studios were considering it, so I called around to some of the people I knew and said it was a terrific book and I'm very interested in doing it. Then nothing happened for, I guess, six months.
Lawrence D. Cohen was hired as the screenwriter, and produced the first draft, which had closely followed the novel's intentions. United Artists accepted the second draft but only allocated De Palma a budget of $1.6 million, a small amount considering the popularity of horror films at the time. The budget eventually rose to $1.8 million. Certain scripted scenes were omitted from the final version, mainly due to financial limitations.
Many young actresses auditioned for the lead role, including Melanie Griffith. Sissy Spacek was persuaded by husband Jack Fisk to audition for the title role. Fisk then convinced De Palma to let her audition, and she read for all of the parts. De Palma's first choice for the role of Carrie was Betsy Slade, who received good notices for her role in the film Our Time (1974). Determined to land the leading role, Spacek backed out of a television commercial she was scheduled to film, rubbed Vaseline into her hair, left her face unwashed, and arrived for her screen test clad in a sailor dress which her mother had made her in the seventh grade, with the hem cut off, and was given the part.
De Palma began with director of photography Isidore Mankofsky, who was eventually replaced by Mario Tosi after conflict between Mankofsky and De Palma ensued. Gregory M. Auer, assisted by Ken Pepiot, served as the special effects supervisor for Carrie, with Jack Fisk, Spacek's husband, as art director.
The White house was filmed in Santa Paula, California. To give the house a Gothic theme, the director and producers visited religious souvenir shops to find artifacts to decorate the set location.
A wraparound segment at the beginning and end of the film was scripted and filmed, which featured the Whites' home being pummeled by stones that hailed from the sky. The opening scene was filmed as planned, though on celluloid, the tiny pebbles looked like rain water. A mechanical malfunction botched filming the night when the model of the Whites' home was set to be destroyed by stones, so the filmmakers burned it down instead and deleted the scenes with the stones altogether. The original opening scene is presumed lost.
The final scene, in which Sue reaches toward Carrie's grave, was shot backwards to give it a dreamlike quality. This scene was inspired by the final scene in Deliverance (1972). Rather than let a stunt double perform the scene underground, Spacek insisted on using her own hand in the scene, so she was positioned under the rocks and gravel. De Palma explains that crew members "had to bury her. Bury her! We had to put her in a box and stick her underneath the ground. Well, I had her husband [Fisk] bury her because I certainly didn't want to bury her."
The score for Carrie was composed by Pino Donaggio. In addition, Donaggio scored two pop songs ("Born to Have It All" and "I Never Dreamed Someone Like You Could Love Someone Like Me") with lyrics by Merrit Malloy for the early portion of the prom sequence. These songs were performed by Katie Irving (sister of Amy Irving and daughter of Priscilla Pointer). Donaggio would work again with De Palma on Home Movies, Dressed to Kill, Blow Out, Body Double, Raising Cain, and Passion.
The soundtrack album was originally released on vinyl in 1976 from United Artists Records. A deluxe CD edition containing a few tracks of dialogue from the film was released by Rykodisc in 1997, and a 2005 CD re-release of the original soundtrack (minus dialogue) was available from Varèse Sarabande. In 2010, Kritzerland Records released all 35 cues of Donaggio's score for the film on a two-disc CD set which was presented as the complete score. Also included in this edition were the versions of "Born to Have It All" and "I Never Dreamed ..."which were heard in the film, as well as instrumentals of both songs, and hidden at the end of the final track, a version of the "Calisthenics" cue with Betty Buckley's studio-recorded voice-over from the detention scene. The second disc was a remastered copy of the original 13-track album. The Kritzerland release was a limited edition of 1,200 copies. Kritzerland rereleased the first disc as "The Encore Edition" in February 2013; this release was limited to 1,000 copies.
Reception and legacy
Carrie received widespread critical acclaim and was cited as one of the best films of the year. The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an approval rating of 92% based on 66 reviews, with an average rating of 8.3/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Carrie is a horrifying look at supernatural powers, high school cruelty, and teen angst—and it brings us one of the most memorable and disturbing prom scenes in history." On Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating based on reviews, the film has a weighted average score of 85 out of 100, based on 14 critics.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times stated the film was an "absolutely spellbinding horror movie", as well as an "observant human portrait", giving three and a half stars out of four. Pauline Kael of The New Yorker stated that Carrie was "the best scary-funny movie since Jaws—a teasing, terrifying, lyrical shocker." Take One Magazine critic Susan Schenker said she was "angry at the way Carrie manipulated me to the point where my heart was thudding, and embarrassed because the film really works." A 1998 edition of The Movie Guide stated Carrie was a "landmark horror film", while Stephen Farber prophetically stated in a 1978 issue of New West Magazine, "it's a horror classic, and years from now it will still be written and argued about, and it will still be scaring the daylights out of new generations of moviegoers." Quentin Tarantino placed Carrie at number 8 in a list of his favorite films ever.
Nevertheless, the film was not without its detractors. Andrew Sarris of The Village Voice commented, "There are so few incidents that two extended sequences are rendered in slow-motion as if to pad out the running time ..." Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune gave the film two-and-a-half stars out of four and called it "a crude shocker with a little style," praising the "strong performances" but opining that the movie "falls apart" during the climax which he described as "crude and sloppy."
In addition to being a box office success – earning $14.5 million in theater rentals by January 1978 – Carrie is notable for being one of the few horror films to be nominated for multiple Academy Awards. Sissy Spacek and Piper Laurie received nominations for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress awards, respectively. The film also won the grand prize at the Avoriaz Fantastic Film Festival, while Sissy Spacek was given the Best Actress award by the National Society of Film Critics. In 2008, Carrie was ranked number 86 on Empire Magazine's list of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time. This movie also ranked number 15 on Entertainment Weekly's list of the 50 Best High School Movies, and No. 46 on the American Film Institute's list of 100 Greatest Cinema Thrills, and was also ranked eighth for its famous ending sequence on Bravo's The 100 Scariest Movie Moments (2004).
|49th Academy Awards||Best Actress||Sissy Spacek||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actress||Piper Laurie||Nominated|
|Avoriaz Fantastic Film Festival||Grand Prize||Brian De Palma||Won|
|Special Mention||Sissy Spacek||Won|
|Edgar Allan Poe Awards||Best Motion Picture||Paul Monash||Nominated|
|34th Golden Globe Awards||Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture||Piper Laurie||Nominated|
|Hugo Awards||Best Dramatic Presentation||Brian De Palma, Lawrence D. Cohen
and Stephen King
|New York Film Critics Circle||Best Actress||Sissy Spacek||Nominated|
|National Society of Film Critics||Best Actress||Won|
|4th Saturn Awards||Best Horror Film||Paul Monash||Nominated|
Carrie, along with the novel, has been reproduced and adapted several times.
The Rage: Carrie 2 was released in 1999. It featured another teenager with telekinetic powers who is revealed to have shared a father with Carrie White. The film received universally negative reviews and was a box office failure. Amy Irving reprises her role of Sue Snell from the previous film.
2002 television film
In 2002, a television film based on King's novel and starring Angela Bettis in the titular role was released. The film updated the events of the story to modern-day settings and technology while simultaneously attempting to be more faithful to the book's original structure, storyline, and specific events. However, the ending was drastically changed: instead of killing her mother and then herself, the film has Carrie killing her mother, being revived via CPR by Sue Snell and being driven to Florida to hide. This new ending marked a complete divergence from the novel and was a signal that the film served as a pilot for a Carrie television series, which never materialized. In the new ending, the rescued Carrie vows to help others with similar gifts to her own. Although Bettis' portrayal of Carrie was highly praised, the film was cited by most critics as inferior to the original.
In May 2011, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Screen Gems announced that Carrie would be adapted to film once more. Playwright Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa wrote the script as "a more faithful adaptation" of King's novel but shared a screenplay credit with the 1976 film's writer Lawrence D. Cohen. Aguirre-Sacasa had previously adapted King's epic novel The Stand into comic-book form in 2008.
The role of Carrie was played by 16-year-old actress Chloë Grace Moretz. Julianne Moore starred as Carrie's mother Margaret White, and Gabriella Wilde as Sue Snell. Alex Russell and Broadway actor Ansel Elgort played Billy Nolan and Tommy Ross respectively. Portia Doubleday was given the role of Chris Hargensen and Judy Greer was cast as Miss Desjardin.
A 1988 Broadway musical of the same name, based on King's novel and starring Betty Buckley, Linzi Hateley, and Darlene Love, closed after only sixteen previews and five performances. An English pop opera filtered through Greek tragedy, the show was so notorious that it provided the title to Ken Mandelbaum's survey of theatrical disasters, Not Since Carrie: Forty Years of Broadway Musical Flops.
Early in the 21st century, playwright Erik Jackson attempted to secure the rights to stage another production of Carrie the musical, but his request was rejected. Jackson eventually earned the consent of King to mount a new, officially sanctioned, non-musical production of Carrie, which debuted Off-Broadway in 2006 with drag queen Sherry Vine in the lead role. Similarly, many other unofficial spoofs have been staged over the years, usually with a gym teacher named "Miss Collins" (as opposed to the novel's "Miss Desjardin" and the musical's "Miss Gardner"), most notably the "parodage" Scarrie the Musical, which hit the Illinois stage in 1998 and was revived in 2005; Dad's Garage Theatre's 2002 production of Carrie White the Musical; and the 2007 New Orleans production of Carrie's Facts of Life, which was a hybrid of Carrie and the classic American sitcom The Facts of Life. A high school production of the musical is the focus of "Chapter Thirty-One: A Night to Remember" episode of Riverdale.
In the United States and Canada, Carrie has been made available several times on DVD format from MGM Home Entertainment, debuting on September 29, 1998, while a "Special Edition" set was released on August 28, 2001. On December 4, 2007, the film was released a part of MGM's "Decades Collection," which included a soundtrack CD. The film was additionally released within multiple sets via MGM; first with Carrie, The Rage: Carrie 2, and Carrie (the 2002 television film) on January 18, 2011, and the second, as part of MGM's 90th anniversary, featured with Misery and The Silence of the Lambs.
The film was released for the first time on Blu-ray in the U.S. and Canada from MGM on October 7, 2008, which contained an MPEG-2 codec, with new DTS-HD 5.1 Master Lossless Audio, while retaining the original English Mono, and included Spanish Audio and French 5.1 Dolby Surround. The only special feature on the set is a theatrical trailer. The film was again released on Blu-ray on July 18, 2013, when it was available exclusively through Comic-Con in San Diego from MGM and FoxConnect, containing a slipcover with exclusive artwork. Two further editions were made available from MGM in 2014; a "Carrie 2-Pack" set containing the original film and the 2013 adaptation, released September 9, 2014, and finally, a re-issue Blu-ray with a collectible Halloween faceplate, on October 21, 2014. Home distribution rights are currently held by Shout Factory, and the film was released via their subsidiary label, Scream Factory on October 11, 2016, in a two-disc "Collector's Edition," now available with MPEG-4 coding, and a new 4K scan. Special features on the set include the theatrical trailer, Carrie franchise trailer gallery, new interviews with writer Lawrence D. Cohen, editor Paul Hirsch, actors Piper Laurie, P.J. Soles, Nancy Allen, Betty Buckley, William Katt, and Edie McClurg, casting director Harriet B. Helberg, director of photography Mario Tosi, and composer Pino Donaggio, "Horror's Hallowed Grounds" – Revisiting the Film's Original Locations, "Acting Carrie" featurette, "Visualizing Carrie" featurette, a look at "Carrie the Musical," TV spots, radio spots, still gallery, "Stephen King and the Evolution of Carrie" text gallery. The set also includes reversible sleeve containing original artwork and newly commissioned artwork from Shout Factory, and a slipcover containing the new artwork. On October 11, 2016, Shout Factory additionally released a "Deluxe Limited Edition" of 2000 copies, which includes the slipcover contained in the "Collector's Edition," with an additional poster matching the slipcover, and an alternative slipcover and poster consisting of different artwork.
In the United Kingdom, the film received its initial DVD release on February 1, 2000, via MGM. A reissue "Special Edition" DVD was made available from MGM on October 22, 2001, while a two-disc standard set was released on September 7, 2006. A DVD set, "The Carrie Collection," consisting of both the original film, and The Rage: Carrie 2, was released from 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment on October 7, 2013, while on the same day, a reissue DVD containing newly commissioned artwork, as well as the first-ever Blu-ray release in the UK was made available from 20th Century Fox. A second Blu-ray edition became available in the form of a steelbook, released on September 29, 2014; a set which reverted to the previous-style artwork.
On September 22, 2017, it was announced that Carrie would receive a "Limited Collector's Edition" Blu-ray of 5,000 copies from Arrow Films, providing the definitive release of the film. The set contained a new 4K restoration, with special features, including commentary by authors Lee Gambin and Alexandra Heller-Nicholas, recorded exclusively for the release; brand-new visual essay comparing the various versions and adaptations of Carrie; "Acting Carrie" featurette, "More Acting Carrie" featurette; "Writing Carrie," an interview with writer Lawrence D. Cohen/"Shooting Carrie," an interview with cinematographer Mario Tosi; "Cutting Carrie," an interview with editor Paul Hirsch/"Casting Carrie," an interview with casting director Harriet B. Helberg; "Bucket of Blood," an interview with composer Pino Donaggio; "Horror's Hallowed Grounds," a look back at the film's locations, gallery, trailer, TV spots, radio spots; Carrie trailer reel; and 60-page limited-edition booklet featuring new writing on the film by author Neil Mitchell, alongside reversible artwork, poster and art cards. The set was released on December 11, 2017.
On most of the later VHS releases and DVD sets, John Travolta's name was included on the artwork alongside Sissy Spacek. Although Travolta only appeared in a minor supporting role in the film, his name was featured to capitalize on his high-profile career in his many films following Carrie, therefore possibly increasing sales.
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