A caretaker government is a temporary ad hoc government that performs some governmental duties and functions in a country until a regular government is elected or formed. Depending on specific practice, it usually consists of either randomly selected or approved members of parliament or outgoing members until their dismissal.
Caretaker governments in representative democracies are usually limited in their function, serving only to maintain the status quo, rather than truly govern and propose new legislation. Unlike the government it is meant to temporarily replace, a caretaker government does not have a legitimate mandate (electoral approval) to exercise aforementioned functions.
Caretaker governments may be put in place when a government in a parliamentary system is defeated in a motion of no confidence, or in the case when the house to which the government is responsible is dissolved, to be in place for an interim period until an election is held and a new government is formed. In this sense, in some countries which use a Westminster system of government, the caretaker government is simply the incumbent government, which continues to operate in the interim period between the normal dissolution of parliament for the purpose of holding an election and the formation of a new government after the election results are known. Unlike in ordinary times, the caretaker government's activities are limited by custom and convention.
In systems where coalition governments are frequent a caretaker government may be installed temporarily while negotiations to form a new coalition take place. This usually occurs either immediately after an election in which there is no clear victor or if one coalition government collapses and a new one must be negotiated. Caretaker governments are expected to handle daily issues and prepare budgets for discussion, but are not expected to produce a government platform or introduce controversial bills.
Caretaker governments associated with elections
Many countries are administered by a caretaker government during election periods, such as:
- Caretaker government of Australia
- Caretaker government of Bangladesh
- Demissionary cabinet, a Dutch caretaker cabinet.
Caretaker governments associated with wars or new regimes
Heads of caretaker governments are often referred to as a "caretaker" head, for example "caretaker prime minister".
Similarly, but chiefly in the United States, caretakers are individuals who fill seats in government temporarily without ambitions to continue to hold office on their own. This is particularly true with regard to United States Senators who are appointed to office by the Governor of their state following a vacancy created by the death or resignation of a sitting senator. Sometimes governors wish to run for the seat themselves in the next election but do not want to be accused of unfairness by arranging their own appointments in the interim. Also, sometimes they do not wish to be seen as taking sides within a group of party factions or prejudicing of a primary election by picking someone who is apt to become an active candidate for the position. At one time, widows of politicians were often selected as caretakers to succeed their late husbands; this custom is rarely exercised today, as it could be viewed by some as nepotism.
In Canada and most other English-speaking countries, the more widely accepted term in this context is interim, as in interim leader. In Italy this kind of premier is the President of Government of Experts.
List of caretaker individuals
The following is a list of individuals who have been considered caretaker (or provisional or interim) heads of state or heads of government:
Heads of state
- Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, Regent of Finland in 1917-1918
- Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, Regent of Finland in 1918-1919
- José Linhares (Brazil)
- Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli (Brazil)
- Alain Poher (France, especially second term)
- Émile Jonassaint (Haiti)
- Eduardo Rodríguez (Bolivia)
- Eduardo Duhalde (Argentina)
- Alejandro Maldonado Aguirre (Guatemala)
- Kgalema Motlanthe (South Africa)
- Wasim Sajjad (Pakistan)
- Muhammad Mian Soomro (Pakistan)
- Varahagiri Venkatagiri (India) (only first term)
- Mohammad Hidayatullah (India)
- Basappa Danappa Jatti (India)
- Bronisław Komorowski (Poland) (only first term)
Heads of government
- Marin Raykov, Bulgaria
- Hashim Thaci (Kosovo, first term)
- Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (United Kingdom, second term)
- Vincent Auriol (France)
- Waldemar Pawlak (Poland, first term)
- Malik Meraj Khalid (Pakistan)
- Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi (Pakistan)
- Balakh Sher Mazari (Pakistan)
- Malcolm Fraser (Australia, first term only)
- Jorge B. Vargas (as Chairman of the Philippine Executive Commission)
- Jean Kambanda (Rwanda)
- Mehdi Bazargan (Iran)
- Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani (Iran)
- Muhammad Mian Soomro (Pakistan)
- Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi (Pakistan)
- Yves Leterme (Belgium)
- Madhav Kumar Nepal (Nepal)
- Mir Hazar Khan Khoso (Pakistan)
- Vassiliki Thanou-Christophilou (Greece)
- Emil Dimitriev (North Macedonia)
- Enda Kenny (Ireland)
- Mariano Rajoy Brey (Spain)
- Nasirul Mulk ( Pakistan)
- Gulzarilal Nanda (List of Prime Ministers of India)
- Hasanuzzaman, Al Masud (2012). "Caretaker Government". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Motlanthe: South Africa's safe hands BBC News, 25 September 2008
- "Profile of Mr. Wasim Sajjad". Story of Pakistan. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- "Soomro takes over as Pak President". Press Trust of India. 18 August 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2013.