Carbonation is the chemical reaction of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.[1] In chemistry, the term is sometimes used in place of carboxylation, which refers to the formation of carboxylic acids.

In inorganic chemistry and geology, carbonation is common. Metal hydroxides (MOH) and metal oxides (M'O) react with CO2 to give bicarbonates and carbonates:

MOH + CO2 → M(HCO3)
M'O + CO2 → M'CO3

In reinforced concrete construction, the chemical reaction between carbon dioxide in the air and calcium hydroxide and hydrated calcium silicate in the concrete is known as neutralisation.

Henry's law

Henry's law states that PCO2=KBxCO2 where PCO2 is the partial pressure of CO2 gas above the solution. KB is Henry's law constant. KB increases as temperature increases. xCO2 is the mole fraction of CO2 gas in the solution. According to Henry's law carbonation increases in a solution as temperature decreases.[2]


  1. "Impregnation or treatment with carbon dioxide; conversion into a carbonate."Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2018.
  2. "Henry's Law". ChemEngineering. Tangient LLC. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
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