Canton of Zug

The canton of Zug (also English: canton of Zoug; German: Kanton German pronunciation: [tsuːk] (listen)) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland. It is located in central Switzerland and its capital is Zug. At 239 km2 (92 sq mi) the canton is one of the smallest of the Swiss cantons in terms of area. It is not subdivided into districts, but eleven municipalities.

Kanton Zug

Coat of arms
Location in Switzerland
Map of Zug

Coordinates: 47°0′N 8°31′E
CapitalZug
Subdivisions11 municipalities
Government
  ExecutiveRegierungsrat (7)
  LegislativeKantonsrat (80)
Area
  Total238.73 km2 (92.17 sq mi)
Population
 (December 2018)[2]
  Total126,837
  Density530/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
ISO 3166 codeCH-ZG
Highest point1,580 m (5,184 ft): Wildspitz
Lowest point388 m (1,273 ft): Reussspitz at the confluence of the Reuss and the Lorze
Joined1352
LanguagesGerman
Websitewww.zg.ch

History

The earlier history of the canton is practically identical with that of its capital Zug. From 1728 to 1738 it was distracted by violent disputes about the distribution of the French pensions. In 1798 its inhabitants opposed the French. The canton formed part of the Tellgau and was later a district of the large canton of the Waldstätten in the Helvetic Republic.[3] The canton of Waldstätten also included what are today the cantons of Schwyz, Lucerne, Unterwalden and Uri.

In 1803, under the Act of Mediation, the canton of Zug regained its independence as a separate canton. The constitution of 1814 abolished public assemblies (Landsgemeinde), which had existed in the canton since 1376. In 1845 the canton of Zug became a member of the Sonderbund and participated in the war of 1847 which was lost to the Swiss confederation. In 1848 the remaining functions of the Landsgemeinde were abolished. Both in 1848 and in 1874 the canton voted against the federal constitutions. The constitution of 1876 was amended in 1881, and replaced by a new one in 1894.[3]

Near the southern shore of the lake of Ägeri is the site of the Battle of Morgarten, won by the Swiss in 1315.[3] In this battle the powerful Habsburgs were defeated. The hamlet of Morgarten (Municipality of Oberägeri) borders the canton of Schwyz and is home to the Morgarten Battle Monument (Morgarten Denkmal). The actual battle ground is just across the border in the hamlet of Schornen (Municipality of Sattel) in the canton of Schwyz.

Geography

The canton of Zug is located in central Switzerland and covers an area of 239 square kilometres (92 sq mi). The cantons of Lucerne and Aargau lie to its west. To the north, the canton is bounded by the canton of Zürich, whereas to the east and south lies the canton of Schwyz.

Most of the land is considered productive. The Lake of Zug (German: Zugersee) and Lake Ägeri (German: Ägerisee) make up a considerable part of the canton's area. Lake Ägeri is wholly within the canton, whereas the Zugersee is shared with the cantons of Lucerne and Schwyz.

The canton is located on a hilly plateau. The Höhronen (near Höhboden) is the highest elevation (1,229 m) in the east of the canton. The Zugerberg (1,039 m) in the south is another notable elevation. It connects in the south with the Rossberg massif which rises to the Wildspitz (1,583 m) east of the Zugersee. This massif separates the Zugersee from the basin and Ägerisee. It also separates the hilly district of Menzingen from the Zugersee.

The river Lorze is the principal drainage in the canton. It originates in Ägerisee, from where it flows northward through moraine deposits in a deep gorge with fine stalactite caverns.[3] The river eventually enters the Zugersee, very near to where the Reuss originates. The Reuss forms the boundary of the canton in the north west.

Canton Zug's borders were mainly established by nature itself: the rivers Sihl and Biber, and the Höhronen ridge in the east; the Rossberg mountain in the south, and the Rooterberg mountain, and the Reuss in the west. Only the 87.5 km-long border between the cantons of Zürich and Zug is not naturally defined. With its 1580 m peak, the Wildspitz is the highest point in the canton. The lowest point in the north of the canton is at 388 m, at Rüssspitz (German: Reussspitz) on the border, the confluence of the rivers Lorzen and Reuss.

Diverse landscape

The canton of Zug is multi-faceted, despite its small size. In rough terms, there are two zones, divided by the north-south axis of Lake Zug: the western part with Ennetsee and the plateau of Zug, Steinhausen and Baar; and the eastern part consisting of the hilly and mountainous zone. In the latter is the Zugerberg with the Rossberg mountain chain, the valley of Oberägeri and Unterägeri, with Lake Ägeri, and the mountain ridge of Höhronen and the countryside of Menzingen and Neuheim.

The power of the glaciers in the ice ages are impressively shown in the lateral moraines of the mountains Walchwilerberg and Zugerberg. These are the remaining traces of the Reuss Glacier. The moraine and drumlin landscape of Menzingen and Neuheim are the result of the convergence of the Reuss Glacier and the Linth Glacier. The Swiss geologist Albert Heim (1849–1937) once noted that "this must be the most impressive moraine landscape in Switzerland". The glaciation of the Zug mountains stopped in around 15,000 BCE.

The Lorze is the only large river flowing wholly within the canton. The Sihl and Reuss both follow cantonal borders. The Lorze flows from Lake Ägeri through the deep valley of the Lorzentobel to Baar and Lake Zug. In Cham, the Lorze leaves Lake Zug and joins the Reuss at the aforementioned Reussspitz.

Political subdivisions

The canton forms a single administrative district, which comprises eleven municipalities. The legislature (Kantonsrat) has 80 members. The executive (Regierungsrat) has seven members. Members of both governments are elected directly by popular vote. The term of office in both cases is four years. The two members of the Federal Ständerat, as well as the three members of the Federal Nationalrat, are also elected by a popular vote.[3]

Municipalities

The eleven municipalities of the canton are: Zug, Oberägeri, Unterägeri, Menzingen, Baar, Cham, Hünenberg, Steinhausen, Risch, Walchwil, Neuheim

Demographics

Largest groups of foreign residents 2014[4]
NationalityNumber% total
(foreigners)
 Germany64975.4 (20.5)
 Italy29572.5 (9.3)
 United Kingdom20411.7 (6.5)
 Portugal20041.7 (6.3)
 Serbia13111.1 (4.1)
 Kosovo12961.1 (4.1)
 Turkey10670.9 (3.4)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina9930.8 (3.1)
 The Netherlands9100.8 (2.9)
 Austria8680.7 (2.7)
 Croatia7920.7 (2.5)
 France7760.6 (2.4)
 Macedonia7030.6 (2.2)
 Sri Lanka6860.6 (2.2)
 USA6780.6 (2.1)
 Russia5660.5 (1.8)

The population of the canton (as of 31 December 2018) is 126,837.[2] As of 2014, the population included 31,643 foreigners, or about 26% of the total population, up from 15.6% in 1990.[4] The largest foreign population is to be found in the municipality of Walchwil with 33.2% foreign nationals, then Zug (31.7%), Baar (28.1%), Risch (26.3%), and Oberägeri (25.3%). The lowest rate is to be found in Menzingen (18.9%) and Hünenberg (16.5%).[5]

The majority of the population (as of 2000) is Roman Catholic (62%) with a Protestant minority (18%).[6] Until 1814, Zug was in the Diocese of Konstanz, but on the reconstruction of the diocese of Basel in 1828 it was assigned to the latter.[3]

While the majority of the population understands standard German, most residents speak the Swiss German dialect of central Switzerland.

Economy

The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) described the economy as follows:

In the higher regions of the canton the population is mainly engaged in pastoral pursuits and cattle-breeding. There are 61 alps (high pastures) in the canton. At Cham is a well-known factory of condensed milk, now united with that of Nestlé of Vevey.[3] The Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Co. was founded in Cham in 1866. At Baar there are factories. Round the town of Zug there are great numbers of fruit trees, and Kirsch (a high grade clear cherry schnapps) and cider are largely manufactured. Apiculture flourishes in the canton. A number of factories have sprung up in the new quarter of the town. The formerly important silk-weaving industry has now disappeared.[3]

Since 1910 the economy has shifted dramatically in Zug. In 2014, about 1.8% of the workers in Zug work in the primary sector (the total for all of Switzerland is 3.3%) Of these 1.8%, in 2008, nearly two-thirds kept dairy cows.[7] However, its low tax rates and business friendly climate have brought many small and medium-sized businesses in all areas of the economy. There are over 24,300[8] registered companies and over 70,000 jobs[9] in the canton, with 12,900[10] of the registered companies based in the city of Zug.

In 2014 the secondary sector employed 22,096 or about 20.5% of the total. Of those in the secondary sector, 28.3% worked in the manufacture of data-processing equipment, electronic and optical products. About a quarter of all secondary sector workers in the canton work in construction, with 19.7% in specialized trades such as electrician or plumber and 7% in construction management or labor. The tertiary sector employed 83,591 or about 77.7% of the total. Of those in the tertiary sector, the largest group of employees (17% of all tertiary sector) work in wholesale business including wholesale pharmaceuticals. The next largest group category is education which makes up 6.22% of the sector. Due to Zug's status as a business center and tax haven, 5.74% of the tertiary sector is in management and business consultancy, 4.67% provide information technology services, 4% provide legal and tax consultancy and nearly 4% provide financial services.[11]

The canton of Zug has one of the lowest tax rates in Switzerland.[12]

Transport

Zug is located on the north side of the transalpine north–south axis via the Thalwil–Arth-Goldau railway, connecting the Gotthard line to Zürich. It is also a major railway junction of the Zug–Lucerne railway and the north–south axis.

The motorway A4 traverses the canton west of the Zugersee.

Politics

Federal election results

Percentage of the total vote per party in the canton in the Federal Elections 1971-2015[13]
PartyIdeology197119751979198319871991199519992003200720112015
FDP.The Liberalsa Classical liberalism0.023.132.833.634.132.922.525.722.421.519.217.6
CVP/PDC/PPD/PCD Christian democracy0.039.434.139.934.234.227.126.422.923.324.326.4
SP/PS Social democracy0.035.730.922.822.616.117.023.313.49.15.313.8
SVP/UDC Swiss nationalism0.0* b****15.221.427.729.128.330.5
GLP/PVL Green liberalism0.0*********6.83.6
GPS/PES Green politics0.0********17.015.47.2
FGA Feminism0.0***7.810.110.4c13.6ddd
Other 0.01.82.23.81.36.77.83.3**0.71.0
Voter participation %0.058.955.953.346.451.144.453.552.653.755.153.7
^a FDP before 2009, FDP.The Liberals after 2009
^b "*" indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton.
^c Part of a coalition with the SP
^d Part of a coalition with the Green Party

References

  1. Arealstatistik Land Cover - Kantone und Grossregionen nach 6 Hauptbereichen accessed 27 October 2017
  2. Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 23 September 2019
  3.  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Coolidge, William Augustus Beevoort (1911). "Zug". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1047–1048.
  4. "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Nationalität, Kanton Zug und Schweiz, 2010-2014" (XLS) (statistics) (in German). Fachstelle für Statistik, Amt für Raumplanung, Kanton Zug. 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  5. "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung in den Zuger Gemeinden, 2010-2014, nach Staatsangehörigkeit" (XLS) (statistics) (in German). Fachstelle für Statistik, Amt für Raumplanung, Kanton Zug. 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  6. Federal Department of Statistics (2004). "Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion". Archived from the original (Interactive Map) on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
  7. "Arbeitsstätten und Beschäftigte nach Kanton und Wirtschaftsart (BZ)". STAT-TAB (in German). Federal Statistical Office. 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  8. Canton of Zug - Regional Economy (in German) accessed 9 March 2011
  9. Canton of Zug - Economy (in German) accessed 9 March 2011
  10. Zug City website - Numbers Archived 15 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in German) accessed 9 March 2011
  11. "Arbeitsstätten und Beschäftigte nach Kanton, Wirtschaftsabteilung und Grössenklasse". STAT-TAB (in German). Federal Statistical Office. 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  12. "Swiss Federal Tax Office" (in German). Berne, Switzerland: Eidg. Steuerverwaltung, Swiss Federal Council. 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  13. Nationalratswahlen: Stärke der Parteien nach Kantonen (Schweiz = 100%) (Report). Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 2015. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.