Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League (CFL; French: Ligue canadienne de football, LCF) is a professional sports league in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football. The league consists of nine teams, each located in a city in Canada. They are divided into two divisions: four teams in the East Division and five teams in the West Division.
|Current season, competition or edition:|
|Founded||January 19, 1958|
|No. of teams||9|
|Winnipeg Blue Bombers (8th title)|
|Most titles||Edmonton Eskimos (11)|
|TV partner(s)||TSN, RDS|
As of 2019, it features a 21-week regular season where each team plays 18 games with three bye weeks. This season traditionally runs from mid-June to early November. Following the regular season, six teams compete in the league's three-week divisional playoffs which culminate in the Grey Cup championship game in late November. The Grey Cup is one of Canada's largest annual sports and television events.
The CFL was officially founded on January 19, 1958. The league was formed through a merger between the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union (founded in 1907) and the Western Interprovincial Football Union (founded in 1936).
Rugby football began to be played in Canada in the 1860s, and many of the first Canadian football teams played under the auspices of the Canadian Rugby Football Union (CRFU), founded in 1884. The CRFU was reorganized as the Canadian Rugby Union (CRU) in 1891, and served as an umbrella organization for several provincial and regional unions. The Grey Cup was donated by Governor General Earl Grey in 1909 to the team winning the Senior Amateur Football Championship of Canada. By that time, the sport as played in Canada had diverged markedly from its rugby origins, and started to become more similar to the American game.
From the 1930s to the 1950s, the two senior leagues of the CRU, the eastern Interprovincial Rugby Football Union (IRFU or Big Four) and Western Interprovincial Football Union (WIFU) gradually evolved from amateur to professional leagues, and amateur teams such as those in the Ontario Rugby Football Union (ORFU) were no longer competitive for the Grey Cup. From 1945 onward, the WIFU's champion faced the Big Four's champion for the Grey Cup, though until 1954 it had to play in a semi-final against the champion of the ORFU–by then, the only amateur union still competing for the Grey Cup. The ORFU withdrew from Grey Cup competition after the 1954 season, and the WIFU champion was automatically awarded a berth in the Grey Cup final. For this reason, 1955 is reckoned as the start of the modern era of Canadian football, in which the Grey Cup has been exclusively contested by professional teams. Since 1965, Canada's top amateur teams, competing in what is now U Sports, have competed for the Vanier Cup.
In 1956, the IRFU and WIFU formed a new umbrella organization, the Canadian Football Council (CFC). In 1958, the CFC left the CRU and became the Canadian Football League. As part of an agreement between the CRU and CFL, the CFL took possession of the Grey Cup, even though amateurs had not competed for it since 1954. The CRU remained the governing body for amateur play in Canada, eventually adopting the name Football Canada. Initially, the two unions remained autonomous, and there was no intersectional play between eastern (IRFU) and western (WIFU) teams except at the Grey Cup final. This situation was roughly analogous to how Major League Baseball operated for years, and how the AFL and NFL operated during the 1960s prior to its merger in 1970.
The IRFU was renamed the Eastern Football Conference in 1960, while the WIFU was renamed the Western Football Conference in 1961. Also in 1961, limited intersectional play was introduced. Because the West played 16 games by this time while the East still only played 14, this arrangement oddly allowed both the four-team Eastern Conference and the five-team Western Conference to play three games per intraconference opponent and one game per interconference opponent. It wasn't until 1974 that the East would expand its schedule to 16 games, just like the West. In 1981, the two conferences agreed to a full merger, becoming the East and West Divisions of the CFL. With the merger came a fully balanced and interlocking schedule of 16 games per season (with all nine teams playing each other twice, once at home and once on the road). Since 1986, the CFL's regular season schedule has been 18 games.
The separate histories of the IRFU and the WIFU accounted for the fact that two teams had basically the same name: the IRFU's Ottawa Rough Riders were often called the "Eastern Riders", while the WIFU's Saskatchewan Roughriders were called the "Western Riders" or "Green Riders". Other team names had traditional origins. With rowing a national craze in the late 19th century, the Argonaut Rowing Club of Toronto formed a rugby team for its members' off-season participation. The football team name Toronto Argonauts still remains even though it and the rowing club have long since gone their separate ways. After World War II, the two teams in Hamilton—the Tigers and the Flying Wildcats—merged both their organizations into the Hamilton Tiger-Cats.
The league remained stable with nine franchises—the BC Lions, Calgary Stampeders, Edmonton Eskimos, Saskatchewan Roughriders, Winnipeg Blue Bombers, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Toronto Argonauts, Ottawa Rough Riders and Montreal Alouettes—from its 1958 inception until 1981. After the 1981 season, the Alouettes folded and were replaced the next year by a new franchise named the Concordes.
In 1986 the Concordes were renamed the Alouettes to attract more fan support, but the team folded the next year. The loss of the Montreal franchise forced the league to move its easternmost Western team, Winnipeg, into the East Division from 1987 to 1994, and again from 1997 to 2001 and 2006 to 2013 when Montreal resumed operations, but Ottawa was unable to field a team.
United States expansion
In 1993, the league admitted its first United States-based franchise, the Sacramento Gold Miners. After modest success, the league then expanded further in the U.S. in 1994 with the Las Vegas Posse, Baltimore Stallions, and Shreveport Pirates. For the 1995 campaign, the American teams were split off into their own South Division, and two more teams, the Birmingham Barracudas and Memphis Mad Dogs, were added; at the same time, the Posse folded and the Gold Miners relocated to become the San Antonio Texans. In 1995, the Stallions became the only non-Canadian team to win the Grey Cup.
Despite all American teams having the advantage of not being bound to the CFL's minimum Canadian player quotas, only the Stallions proved to be an on-field and off-field success. The establishment of the NFL's Baltimore Ravens, worsening financial problems among the league's core Canadian teams, and the inconsistent performance of the other American teams prompted the CFL to abandon its American experiment and retrench its Canadian operations. The Stallions organization was used as the basis for a revival of the Montreal Alouettes.
Post-U.S. expansion era
The CFL returned to an all-Canadian format in 1996 with nine teams; the league conducted a dispersal draft to distribute players from the shuttered American-based teams; however, the Ottawa Rough Riders, in existence since 1876, folded after the 1996 season (another dispersal draft was conducted the next year to distribute the former Rough Rider players among the remaining eight teams). Toronto and recently revived Montreal also were struggling; Montreal's woes were solved by moving to Percival Molson Memorial Stadium, a much smaller venue than the cavernous Olympic Stadium.
In 1997, the NFL provided a US$3-million interest-free loan to the financially struggling CFL. In return, the NFL was granted access to CFL players entering a defined two-month window in the option year of their contract. This was later written into the CFL's collective bargaining agreement with its players. The CFL's finances have since stabilized and they eventually repaid the loan. The CFL–NFL agreement expired in 2006. Both leagues have been attempting to reach a new agreement, but the CFL broke off negotiations in November 2007 after Canadian telecommunications firm Rogers Communications paid $78 million to host seven Bills games in Toronto over five seasons (the last Bills Toronto Series game was played during the 2013 NFL season).
In 2002, the league expanded back to nine teams with the creation of the Ottawa Renegades. After four seasons of financial losses, the Renegades were suspended indefinitely before the 2006 season; their players were absorbed by the remaining teams in a dispersal draft, as was the case during 1996 and 1997.
In 2005, the league set an all-time attendance record with a total attendance of more than 2.3 million. With the absence of Ottawa from 2006 to 2013, league attendance hovered around the 2 million mark. It stood at 2,029,875 in 2012 for a single game average of 28,193. The 2007 season was a recent high point with average game attendance of 29,167, the best since 1983.
Mark Cohon era (2007–2015)
With Mark Cohon as commissioner of the league the CFL entered a period of stability and growth. New television deals, two new collective bargaining agreements, the 100th Grey Cup celebration, and widespread stadium renovation and rebuilding highlighted this era. The 100th anniversary of the Grey Cup had the highest ever television ratings for a championship game in English Canada.
During the 2000s the CFL had the third highest per-game attendance of any North American sports league and the seventh highest per-game attendance of any sports league worldwide. A 2006 survey conducted at the University of Lethbridge confirmed that the CFL was the second most popular sports league in Canada, with the following of 19% of the total adult Canadian population compared to 30% for the NHL. The NFL had 11% following, with a total of 26% following at least one of the pro football leagues. In other words, approximately 80% of Canadian football fans follow the CFL, and about 55% follow the NFL.
During Mark Cohon's time in office many of the teams either undertook major renovations to their existing stadiums, or constructed brand new stadiums. The Montreal Alouettes were the first to undertake this project, adding 5,000 seats to Percival Molson Memorial Stadium in time for the 2010 CFL season. The Edmonton Eskimos and Calgary Stampeders also renovated their respective stadiums and facilities for the 2010 season. In 2011, the BC Lions played under a new, retractable roof in BC Place after spending one and a half seasons at Empire Field. In 2013, the Winnipeg Blue Bombers moved to Investors Group Field, an entirely new stadium at the University of Manitoba. The Hamilton Tiger-Cats began using their new stadium, Tim Hortons Field, after spending 2013 at University of Guelph's stadium and the first half of the 2014 season at McMaster University's football field following the demolition of the iconic Ivor Wynne Stadium.
In 2014 the Ottawa Redblacks kicked off their inaugural season (having been awarded a franchise in 2008), becoming the third Ottawa franchise in CFL history. The new Ottawa franchise returned the league to 9 team structure, with 5 teams in West Division and 4 in the East; the Winnipeg Blue Bombers moved back to the West Division. The expansion Ottawa Redblacks played at the massively renovated Frank Clair Stadium, now branded as TD Place Stadium.
In Mark Cohon's last year as commissioner he negotiated a new five-year collective bargaining agreement (from 2014 through the 2018 season) between the CFL and the Canadian Football League Players' Association (CFLPA).
Jeffrey Orridge era (2015–2017)
The Toronto Argonauts entered a period of transition off the field, with new ownership and a new stadium. The Argonauts were sold by politician/businessman David Braley to Bell Media and MLSE chairman Larry Tanenbaum. At the start of the 2016 season the Argos moved to BMO Field after more than twenty seasons at the Rogers Centre (formerly called the SkyDome from 1989 to 2005). Construction on the New Mosaic Stadium for the Saskatchewan Roughriders was completed in October 2016 and the first game was played in the 2017 season.
On May 22, 2015, Michael Sam signed a two-year contract with Montreal Alouettes of the CFL. The signing made him the first openly gay player in the league's history. Sam left the team the day before the first preseason game, citing personal reasons. As reported by Fox Sports, Sam returned to Montreal to continue his professional football career. He left again on August 14, this time permanently, again citing personal reasons.
Immediately following the 2015 season Jeffrey Orridge announced a re-branding for the CFL, including a new logo, motto, uniforms for all nine teams and website. After not having a drug enforcement policy in effect for the 2015 season the league and the CFLPA agreed to a new drug policy. On April 12, 2017 the Board of Governors and Jeffrey Orridge agreed to part ways, effective June 30, 2017; Orridge cited "differing views on the future of the league" between him and the Board of Governors for the departure, with both sides stating the decision was mutual and amicable. His last day as commissioner was June 15, 2017. Jim Lawson, the CFL's Chair of the Board of Governors, took over the duties of interim Commissioner until a suitable replacement was found.
Randy Ambrosie era (2017–present)
On June 29, 2017, the CFL announced Randy Ambrosie would succeed Orridge as CFL commissioner. The move was made official on July 5, 2017, with Ambrosie named as the 14th Commissioner of the league that day. Having spent 9 seasons as a player with the Calgary Stampeders, Toronto Argonauts and Edmonton Eskimos from 1985 to 1993, Ambrosie is the first commissioner to have played in the league since Larry Smith left the position in 1997.
In October 2018, the CFL began focusing marketing internationally again after the unsuccessful expansion into the United States during the 1990s, with Ambrosie's plan being called CFL 2.0. Ambrosie partnered with the LFA for player development, as part of the league's plan to expand globally. Ambrosie also later announced a special edition of the CFL Combine to be held in 2019 in Mexico for Mexican players which was held on January 13, 2019. Ambroise voiced that he wished the combine in Mexico would become annual and furthermore a combine could be held in Europe. On January 14, 2019, the league held a draft of LFA and Mexican university players where wide receiver Diego Jair Viamontes Cotera was the first pick, being picked by the Edmonton Eskimos. The CFL announced in February 2019 that German and French football players from the German Football League and French American Football Federation would be participating in the CFL national combine. Throughout early 2019, Ambrosie actively traveled Europe forming partnerships between the CFL and top-level European American football leagues and associations, specifically Germany (GFL), Austria (AFL), France (FFFA), the Nordic countries (NL, VL, SS, & NAFL), and Italy (IFL).
Teams that never played
|Team||City||Planned debut||Result of proposal|
|Atlantic Schooners (1)||Halifax/Dartmouth, Nova Scotia||1984||Venture was abandoned due to lack of stadium funding from provincial government.|
|San Antonio Texans (1)||San Antonio, Texas||1993||Folded before beginning play.|
|Proposed Mississippi team||Jackson, Mississippi||1995||While numerous locations (including Milwaukee and Los Angeles) had been discussed as a home for a potential relocation of the Las Vegas Posse, Mississippi came the closest to fruition: it had hired a coach and general manager and was included on early drafts of the 1995 schedule before the corporation that owned the Posse raised the price unexpectedly to more than could be justified just as the new owner was about to buy the team.|
|Miami Manatees||Miami, Florida||1995||After exploring multiple cities to relocate the Las Vegas Posse, Miami was chosen. However, the league suspended all US operations before the team could ever take the field.|
|Proposed Houston team||Houston, Texas||1996||After most US CFL franchises folded, the Baltimore Stallions considered relocating to Houston; league pressure led Stallions ownership to take over the dormant Montreal Alouettes instead.|
|Norfolk Pirates/Hampton Roads Pirates||Norfolk, Virginia, or Hampton, Virginia||1996||Owners for the Shreveport Pirates attempted to relocate the team to either Norfolk or Hampton, Virginia. However, the city refused to invest $400,000 in renovations after finding out about multiple lawsuits against the owners and the venture was abandoned.|
|Proposed second Shreveport team||Shreveport, Louisiana||1996||An investment group had prepared to purchase the Birmingham Barracudas and relocate them to Shreveport, replacing the former Pirates, however the CFL cancelled its US expansion before the relocation could take place.|
|Proposed Quebec City team||Quebec City, Quebec||2006||As the Ottawa Renegades financial woes became apparent, a business group from Quebec City emerged attempting to relocate the team to their city. The venture was ultimately abandoned and the franchise was suspended by the league and later sold to Ottawa Sports and Entertainment Group.|
- ^ The Hamilton Tiger-Cats were created in 1950 as a merger between the Hamilton Tigers (founded in 1869 as the Hamilton Football Club) and the Hamilton Wildcats (founded in 1941).
- ^ The CFL considers the current Montreal Alouettes franchise to be a continuation of the original Montreal Alouettes (founded 1946, played in the CFL 1958–1981) and Montreal Concordes (founded 1982, renamed the Montreal Alouettes in 1986, folded just before the 1987 season). However this does not include the Montreal Football Club that was formed in 1872, and joined the IRFU in 1907–1915, and the Montreal AAA Winged Wheelers, who played in the IRFU during the 1930s and 40s, winning the Grey Cup in 1931. While the current incarnation of the Alouettes inherited many of the players and staff of the Baltimore Stallions, the CFL considers the Stallions a separate entity.
- ^ All Ottawa clubs including the previous Rough Riders and Renegades are combined with current Redblacks for historical consistency only, even though the CFL considers them separate clubs.
- ^ While football in Edmonton was first played in 1890, the Edmonton Eskimos (in their current incarnation) recognize their first season in 1949. This was further evidenced by the "60 seasons" decals worn on their helmets during the 2008 season.
- ^ Became Saskatchewan Roughriders officially in 1950, after the team became the only pro football team left in the province in 1948. Roughriders were originally called the Regina Rugby Football club from 1910 to 1924. then called the Regina Roughriders from 1925 to 1949.
- ^ Created by a merger of the Winnipegs and the St. John's team on June 10, 1930, and become known as the "Winnipeg Pegs" before changing to the current name, Blue Bombers, in 1937.
- ^ Franchise folded after the 1995 season. Owner and most players moved to the revived Montreal Alouettes in 1996; the league considers the Stallions a separate franchise from the Alouettes.
- ^ The San Antonio Texans formed in 1993 folded before playing a game. The 1995 Texans team were the former Sacramento Gold Miners, who moved to San Antonio in 1995.
- ^ Both the Mississippi and the Miami teams were to use the franchise of the Las Vegas Posse. Mississippi was included on the 1995 draft schedule, but disagreements with the Posse's ownership led to the sale falling through. The Miami ownership group would have put the franchise back onto the field in 1996, but the league withdrew from the United States prior to the 1996 season.
- ^ After two seasons in Shreveport, posting an 8-28 record, team owner Lonie Glieberman intended to relocate them to Virginia. There, he agreed to rename them the Hampton Roads Pirates or Norfolk Pirates if the city paid $400,000 for stadium renovations. Local politicians declined Glieberman's request upon learning that he had lawsuits pending in Louisiana.
Potential CFL expansion markets are the Maritimes, Quebec City, Saskatoon, London, and Windsor, all of which have been lobbying (unsuccessfully to date) for Canadian Football League franchises in recent years. During the 1970s and 1980s, Harold Ballard attempted multiple times to secure a second CFL team for Toronto (either by way of expansion or by relocating the Hamilton Tiger-Cats), under the premise that Canada's largest city could support two teams.
Since the 1980s, the CFL has occasionally played exhibition and, later, regular-season games at various cities in the Maritimes, including Canada Games Stadium in Saint John, New Brunswick; Huskies Stadium in Halifax, Nova Scotia; and Moncton Stadium in Moncton, New Brunswick. The league conditionally approved an expansion franchise, the Atlantic Schooners, for play in the 1984 season, but the team never made it to play after plans for a stadium collapsed.
No city in Atlantic Canada has a permanent stadium that meets CFL standards. As of 2010, the largest stadium in the Maritimes is Moncton Stadium, which has 10,000 permanent seats and is expandable to 20,000 with temporary seats. A pre-season game, dubbed Touchdown Atlantic, was held in Halifax in the 2005 CFL season and regular season games were played in Moncton under the same branding in 2010, 2011, and 2013. All 20,000 seats for the 2010 Moncton game sold out in 32 hours; the 2013 game did not sell out. Former Commissioner Mark Cohon has stated that Moncton Stadium would require massive renovations to host a CFL team permanently. The cost of the required renovations would be the equivalent of building a brand-new stadium. In November 2015 the Halifax city council voted 9–7 against purchasing land that would then be used to build a 20,000-seat stadium. It was agreed that the price tag for the land was too much, but the close vote indicated municipal interest in building a near CFL sized stadium in Halifax.
Atlantic Schooners revival
In November 2017, the CFL conducted further discussions with a group in Halifax interested in securing a franchise for the city; the group made a "very credible" pitch to the CFL head office. According to TSN analyst Dave Naylor the group named 'Maritime Football Ltd.' consists of Anthony LeBlanc (former president and CEO of the NHL's Arizona Coyotes), Bruce Bowser (president of AMJ Campbell Van Lines) and Gary Drummond (former president of hockey operations for the Coyotes). In June 2018 the group met with the Halifax Regional Council in private about plans to bring a CFL team to Halifax, with the possibility of playing at Moncton University while a stadium in Halifax is being built. Maritime Football Ltd. ownership group selected a site in Shannon Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia to develop a new stadium. The stadium would be estimated to cost between $170 to $190 million and would seat 24,000 and have a business model similar to the Ottawa Redblacks, who entered the league in 2014. On October 30, 2018, Halifax City Council unanimously voted in favour of proceeding with a business case analysis of a stadium in the Halifax municipality. Following this positive momentum, Maritime Football Ltd. and CFL commissioner Randy Ambrosie announced that the group would proceed with a season ticket drive to further gauge interest in addition running a team name contest in the hopes of making an announcement on the team name just prior to the 106th Grey Cup game. The target year for the proposed team to enter the league would be 2021, with the team name including "Atlantic" in its name, but no franchise was actually awarded in this announcement. Further to the previous discussions with Moncton and New Brunswick politicians, it was also suggested that the potential new franchise could begin play in Moncton while the stadium in Halifax is built. On November 23, 2018, two days before the 106th Grey Cup, Maritime Football Ltd., since renamed Schooners Sports and Entertainment, and commissioner Ambrosie announced the new team would be called the Atlantic Schooners.
There has also been interest in adding a team in Quebec City. In 2003, an exhibition game was held at Telus Stadium between the Montreal Alouettes and Ottawa Renegades where Montreal won 54–23. In May 2009, Christina Saint Marche, a British businesswoman, announced her interest in operating a team in Quebec City—stating that there would be a natural rivalry with the Montreal Alouettes. During the 2010 Grey Cup state of the league news conference, Cohon noted that the Alouettes hold the rights for the entire province of Quebec and that any expansion would have to be negotiated with them first. Another exhibition game was held at Telus Stadium on June 13, 2015, with Ottawa (whose TD Place Stadium was in use by the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup) hosting Montreal.
Saskatoon last hosted top-level Canadian football in 1935 when the Regina Roughriders left the Saskatchewan Rugby Football Union to form the WIFU. The Saskatoon Hilltops (along with another Saskatchewan-based team, the Moose Jaw Millers) eventually suspended operations due to World War II; the Hilltops would remain an amateur team when they returned in 1947 (they have since played in the Canadian Junior Football League). Saskatoon last won a provincial title in 1921. By the time they resumed play after the war, the Roughriders had been the dominant team in the province for two decades.
In early 2012, management at Credit Union Centre publicly expressed its desire to bring a CFL team to Saskatoon. However, the Regina-based Saskatchewan Roughriders have long branded themselves as a province-wide team, and claimed that the population of Saskatchewan is too small to support two teams. In any event, Saskatoon also lacks a suitable outdoor stadium. Its largest, Griffiths Stadium, home of the University of Saskatchewan's Saskatchewan Huskies, seats only 6,171 spectators. The Gordie Howe Bowl, which has hosted CFL exhibitions in the past, has even fewer seats (it seats 3,950 people).
While not openly being considered for franchise expansion, Mexico was suggested by Commissioner Randy Ambrosie as a possible location for neutral site regular season games (similar to the NFL's Mexico Series) as early as 2019, as well as potentially partnering with the LFA for player development, as part of the league's plan to expand globally. Ambrosie also later announced a special edition of the CFL Combine to be held in 2019 in Mexico for Mexican players, and in 2019, the league held a draft of LFA and Mexican university players. In March 2019, Commissioner Randy Ambrosie told the media that after the LFA combine, multiple parties inquired about purchasing a franchise for Mexico. Ambrosie reiterated that the league had no intention to expand internationally at this time.
Since 2018, the CFL season has included:
- A two-game, three-week exhibition season (or pre-season) in mid-June
- An 18-game, 21-week regular season running from late June to early November
- A six-team, three-week single elimination playoff tournament beginning in November and culminating in the Grey Cup championship in late November. Championship teams will play either two or three playoff games, including the Grey Cup game, depending on their standing at the end of the regular season. The division leaders at the end of the regular season receive byes in the first round of the playoffs.
Team training camps open 28 days prior to the first regular season game of the season, a camp solely devoted to first year players is allowed the 3 days before the main camp opens. The pre-season exhibition schedule is two weeks long with each team playing two games against teams from its own division.
The regular season is 21 weeks long, with games beginning in mid-June and finishing by early November. The CFL's nine current teams are divided into two divisions: the East Division with four teams and the West Division, with five teams. Each team plays two games against each of the other eight teams, plus two divisional games with opponents rotating each season. With 18 regular season games being played, each team gets three bye weeks.
The most popular featured week in the CFL season is the Labour Day Classic, played over the course of the Labour Day weekend, where the matchups feature the first half of home-and-home series between the traditional geographic rivalries of Toronto–Hamilton (a rivalry which began in 1873), Edmonton–Calgary (see Battle of Alberta), Winnipeg–Saskatchewan, and Ottawa–Montreal. In years that Ottawa or Montreal were not in the league, BC would play against one of these teams. The following week's rematch of these games is a popular event as well, especially in recent years, where the rematch of the Saskatchewan–Winnipeg game has been dubbed the Banjo Bowl.
Other features of the regular season schedule are the Hall of Fame Game and the Thanksgiving Day Classic, the doubleheader held on Thanksgiving where the match ups usually do not feature traditional rivalries. From 2010 to 2013, a neutral site regular season game was played in Moncton under the name Touchdown Atlantic.
The league awards points based on regular season results (much like in most ice hockey leagues, but unlike the NFL, which strictly uses winning percentages to determine their standings; two points are awarded for a win, one for a tie and none for a loss). As of the 2019 season, in the event two or more teams in a division finish the season with the same number of points, the tie is broken based on the following criteria (in descending order), with coin tosses used if all such tie-breaker steps fail:
- Number of wins in all games;
- Winning percentage in games between the tied teams;
- Net aggregate of points scored (i.e. total points scored less total points conceded) between the tied teams;
- Net quotient of points scored (i.e. total points scored divided by total points conceded) between the tied teams;
- Winning percentage in divisional games;
- Net aggregate of points scored in divisional games;
- Net quotient of points scored in divisional games;
- Net aggregate of points scored in all games;
- Net quotient of points scored in all games.
The playoffs begin in November. After the regular season, the top team from each division has an automatic home berth in the division final, and a bye week during the division semifinal. The second-place team from each division hosts the third-place team in the division semifinal, unless a fourth-place team from one division finishes with a better record than a third place team in the other (this provision is known as the crossover rule, and while it implies that it is possible for two teams in the same division to play for the Grey Cup, only three crossover teams have won a semifinal since the rule's 1996 inception, and neither advanced to the Grey Cup). The winners of each division's semifinal game then travel to play the first place teams in the division finals. Since 2005, the division semifinals and division finals have been sponsored by Scotiabank. The two division champions then face each other in the Grey Cup game, which, since 2007, has been held on the fourth or fifth Sunday of November.
The Grey Cup is both the name of the championship of the CFL and the name of the trophy awarded to the victorious team. The Grey Cup is the second-oldest trophy in North American professional sports, after the Stanley Cup. The Grey Cup game is hosted in one of the league's member cities. In recent years, it has been hosted in a different city every year, selected two or more years in advance. The Toronto Argonauts have won the most Grey Cups with seventeen wins total, most recently in 2017. In 2012, the game was held in Toronto at Rogers Centre, and for the second year in row the cup was won on a team's home field, with Toronto beating Calgary 35–22. In 2013, the Grey Cup was won at home for the third consecutive time (by the Saskatchewan Roughriders), which had not been done since Toronto won at home from 1945 to 1947. In 2016, the Grey Cup was won on the natural grass turf of BMO Field by the Ottawa Redblacks beating the heavily favoured Calgary Stampeders 39–33 in overtime; the first Grey Cup championship for any Ottawa CFL team in 40 years.
As the country's single largest annual sporting event, the Grey Cup has long served as an unofficial Canadian autumn festival generating national media coverage and a large amount of revenue for the host city. Many fans travel from across the country to attend the game and the week of festivities that lead up to it. A 2014 survey found that 48% of Canadians would prefer to watch the Grey Cup over the Super Bowl if they could only watch one or the other, with 52% preferring the Super Bowl.
|Winnipeg Blue Bombers||8||6||14||2019|
Since 2015, the Grey Cup game is presented by Shaw Communications.
Following the Grey Cup game, the Grey Cup Most Valuable Player and Grey Cup Most Valuable Canadian are selected. A number of league individual player awards, such as the Most Outstanding Player and Most Outstanding Defensive Player, are awarded annually at a special ceremony in the host city during the week before the Grey Cup game; this ceremony is broadcast nationally on TSN. The Annis Stukus Trophy, also known as the Coach of the Year Award, is awarded separately at a banquet held during the off-season each February. While the CFL has not held an all-star game since 1988, an All-Star Team is selected and honoured at the league awards ceremony during Grey Cup week.
The CFL Championship game, the Grey Cup, held the record for the largest television audience in Canadian history. Television coverage on CBC, CTV and Radio-Canada of the 1983 Grey Cup attracted a viewing audience of 8,118,000 people as Toronto edged B.C. 18–17, ending a 31-year championship drought for the Argonauts. At the time, this represented 33% of the Canadian population. This has since been surpassed by the 2002 and 2010 Men's Olympic Gold Medal Hockey Game.
Currently, the official television broadcasters of CFL games are cable network TSN (which began televising CFL games in 1985), while TSN's French-language network RDS broadcasts Montreal Alouettes games for the Quebec television market. Games are typically scheduled for Thursday to Saturday evenings during June, July and August, but switch to more Saturday and Sunday afternoon games during September and October. TSN has created a tradition of at least one Friday night game each week, branded as Friday Night Football. CBC and TSN drew record television audiences for CFL broadcasts in 2005. The 2006 season was the first season in which every regular-season game was televised, as the league implemented an instant replay challenge system. In 2006, the CFL also began offering pay-per-view webcasts of every game on CFL Broadband. Until the end of the 2007 season, CBC and RDS were the exclusive television broadcasters for all playoff games, including the Grey Cup, which regularly draws a Canadian viewing audience in excess of 4 million.
In 2008, the CFL began a new, five-year television deal with CTVglobemedia. Valued at $16 million per-year, it gave TSN and RDS exclusive rights to all CFL games, including the playoffs and Grey Cup. In March 2013, TSN exercised an option to extend its contract through 2018. In 2015, the deal was extended for an additional three years, along with exclusive Grey Cup rights for Bell Media Radio stations.
On June 26, 2013, it was announced that the CFL's U.S. broadcast rights would return to the ESPN Networks for the 2013 season, with five games airing on ESPN2, and 55 airing on ESPN3. This agreement was renewed in 2014 for five years, the same length as the TSN deal (ESPN holds a stake in TSN), with a stipulation that at least 17 games would be carried on ESPN2 (or another ESPN network, such as ESPN or ESPNEWS) each season, including the Grey Cup; this gives ESPN exclusive CFL rights during this time frame. As in previous years. Originally ESPN3 carried all games not carried on one of the linear channels online, later ESPN moved those games to ESPN+.
On June 19, 2015, it was announced that ESPN Brasil will broadcast CFL games live, beginning on June 25, as a result of the growth of the NFL and College Football fan base in Brazil. BT Sport, which has a licensing partnership with ESPN, has also carried CFL games in Britain and Ireland since 2015.
Previous broadcasting arrangements
CBC Television, which held a monopoly on Canadian television until 1961, held Canadian professional football broadcast rights beginning the year of its debut, 1952. CTV was created in 1961 in part because Toronto businessman John Bassett had won the television rights to the Eastern Conference, and needed a network to air the games. From 1962 through 1986, CBC and CTV shared CFL broadcasting rights. They split playoff games and simulcast the Grey Cup. In 1962, 1965, 1967, 1968 and 1970, CTV commentators were used for the dual network telecast, while in 1963, 1964, 1966 and 1969, CBC announcers were provided. From 1971 through 1986, one network's crew called the first half while the other called the rest of the game. After the 1986 season, CTV dropped coverage of the CFL and the Grey Cup. From 1987 through 1990, the CFL operated its own syndicated network, CFN. Like CTV, CFN split playoff games with CBC. However, CFN had completely separate coverage of the Grey Cup, utilizing its own production and commentators. From 1991 to 2007, all post-season games had been exclusively on CBC; beginning in 2008, the Grey Cup and all other CFL games were carried exclusively on TSN, although the cable provider reserves the right to move the game to sister network CTV (as of 2018, it has never done so, opting to broadcast that Sunday's NFL games on CTV instead.)
The predecessor to the CFL's East Division, the IRFU, had a television contract with NBC in 1954 that provided far more coverage than the NFL's existing contract with DuMont. NBC aired games on Saturday afternoons, competing against college football broadcasts on CBS and ABC. The revenue from the contract allowed the IRFU to directly compete against the NFL for players in the late 1950s, setting up a series of CFL games in the United States beginning in 1958 and a series of interleague exhibitions beginning in 1959. Interest in the CFL in the United States faded dramatically after the debut of the American Football League in 1960.
In 1982, during a players' strike in the NFL, NBC broadcast CFL games in the United States in lieu of the NFL games which were cancelled; the first week of broadcasts featured the NFL on NBC broadcast teams, before a series of blowout games on the network and the resulting low ratings resulted in NBC cutting back and eventually cancelling its CFL coverage after only a few weeks. ESPN host Chris Berman became a fan of the game in the early days of ESPN, when the network first aired CFL games, and continues to cover the Canadian league on-air. The now-defunct FNN-SCORE (unrelated to the Canadian The Score) carried games in the late 1980s. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, SportsChannel America carried games, using CBC Television, CFN and TSN feeds. In 1993, several SportsChannel Pacific-produced games that were part of the Sacramento Gold Miners' local package were also shown nationally.
Beginning in 1994, with now four US-based teams in the league, ESPN reached a four-year deal with the league to produce and air two games per week and all post-season games on its fledgling ESPN2. They also put some games on the main network to fill broadcast time vacated by the 1994–95 Major League Baseball strike. The 1994 and 1995 Grey Cups were shown live on ESPN2 and then re-aired on ESPN the following day, leading into the network's Monday Night Countdown show. ESPN's on-air talent included a mix of the network's American football broadcasters and established CFL broadcasters from Canada. Most of the US-based teams also had deals with local carriers to show games that were not covered in the national package. Though there were no US teams in the league after 1995, ESPN2 continued showing games until 1997, albeit on a much lighter schedule.
The now-defunct America One network held CFL broadcast rights in the United States from 2001 to 2009 and aired a majority of the league's games. Until the 2007 season, America One syndicated CFL games to regional sports networks like Altitude, NESN, and MASN; these were discontinued in 2008, mainly because America One and the CFL were able to reach a deal only days before the season began, not allowing the network time to establish agreements with individual RSNs. The Grey Cup aired on Versus on November 22, 2008, with a replay the next day on America One. From 2006 through the 2008 season, Friday Night Football was carried exclusively on World Sport HD in the United States; however, due to the January 2009 shutdown of that channel's parent company, Voom HD Networks, America One reclaimed those rights.
NFL Network took over the league broadcast contract in 2010. For the 2010 season, the network carried 14 games, no more than one each week. For 2011, the network increased its output to two games each week. NFL Network declined to continue its coverage after the 2011 season. It offered to pick up another package in 2019 on the condition that the league change its schedule to not directly compete with the NFL regular season, something that the CFL stated needs to be negotiated with the players' union.
In late July 2012, NBC Sports Network acquired rights to the CFL for the remainder of the 2012 season. The NBCSN deal included nine regular season games starting August 27 (including Labour Day Classic games) and all the playoffs. NBC Sports renewed their agreement with the CFL for the 2013 season.
ESPN America carried a collection of CFL games as part of its lineup until the network shut down in 2013.
There are no blackout restrictions on radio broadcasts of CFL games, while TSN streams all games online for authenticated subscribers to participating television providers.
The majority of games not on ESPN television channels are streamed in the United States via the subscription service ESPN+.
CFL teams have local broadcast contracts with terrestrial radio stations for regular season and playoff games, while TSN Radio owns the rights to the Grey Cup. In 2006, Sirius Satellite Radio gained exclusive rights for North American CFL satellite radio broadcasts and broadcast 25 CFL games per season, including the Grey Cup, through 2008.
Players and compensation
Compensation and revenue
The CFL began enforcing a salary cap for the 2007 season of $4.05 million per team. The cap was raised to $4.2 million in the 2008 season and remained at that level for 2009. On June 29, 2010, a new collective bargaining agreement was ratified that raised the salary cap to $4.25 million for the 2010 CFL season and would continue to increase by $50,000 each season until 2013. In 2014, a new CBA was ratified and the salary cap was raised to $5 million per team, with that amount increasing again by $50,000 each year until 2018. Financial penalties for teams that breach the cap are set at $1 to $1 for the first $100,000 over, $2 to $1 for $100,000 to $300,000 over, and $3 to $1 for $300,000 and above. Penalties could also include forfeited draft picks. For 2010, the minimum team salary was set at $3.9 million while the minimum player salary was set at $42,000. With the new CBA in 2014, the salary floor was raised to $4.4 million per team with increases of $50,000 per year, and the minimum salary was raised to $50,000 per year. The average salary per player in 2014 was CA$96,000. A starting quarterback in the CFL can make as much as CA$500,000. In 2018, the average salary in the CFL was $113,043 and the salary cap was $5.2 million. Mike Reilly and Bo Levi Mitchell are the highest paid players in the CFL after signing contracts in February 2018 for almost $3 million each over 4 years. Players designated as global players (see player designations) are paid the league minimum by rule and may have a portion of their salary sent back to their original home league as part of a partnership with the CFL.
Player compensation is not tied to league revenue, which remains a trade secret. Only the four publicly held teams in the league reveal their financial information, as those companies are required to do so under Canadian law. As of 2013, prior to Ottawa's rejoining the league (at which time Toronto, which is partially owned by a public company, was still fully private), estimates of the CFL's revenue varied between $150 million and CA$200 million. As of 2019, five of the CFL's nine teams are profitable, and four (including the league-owned Alouettes) operate at a loss.
Players in the CFL carry nationality designations referring to their country of origin: nationals ("a Canadian citizen at the time of signing his first contract, was classified as a non-import prior to May 31, 2014, or was physically resident in Canada for an aggregate period of five years prior to reaching the age of 18."), internationals (non-Canadians, almost exclusively used for Americans), and global (created in 2019, which a subset of international players from outside the United States and Canada, where gridiron football is not popular). In prior versions of the CFL CBA and league rules, national and international players were known as non-import and import players, respectively, with the criteria to qualify as a non-import player being more restrictive.
National players enter the CFL through the CFL Draft or free agency. Global players enter the CFL in a similar method as national players, with exclusive drafts held only for eligible players. International players are typically inducted by way of the negotiation list: any team can lay unilateral claim to up to 45 players that have never played in the CFL at any given time (each team must make at least ten of those names public as of 2018), with no limit on how long a player can be held on the list and no limit on how old the player must be (thus CFL teams can claim players not yet eligible for the NFL Draft). Once a player on a negotiation list expresses formal interest in joining the CFL, that team has up to ten days to offer a contract (usually a league-minimum, two-year contract) to retain the player's rights. Other than the names that are made public, the full list of names league-wide are a secret held from the general public and even from the other teams, with teams only finding out if a player is on another team's negotiating list if the league office tells them.
In 2006, the active roster limit was increased from 40 to 42, in 2014 it was again increased to 44, and in 2016 was increased to 46. An unlimited number of players may be put on a team's disabled, injured and suspended lists.
Each team must abide by the national/international ratio rule, which requires teams to keep at least 21 national players. Starting in 2019, teams must carry at least one global player, the new third nationality designation, on their active roster. The remaining 24 players are allowed to originate from any country. Through the 2018 season, quarterbacks, of which a team must carry three on a roster, were not allowed to be counted toward the national player requirement, which put Canadian quarterbacks at a disadvantage compared to other positions in being hired by a CFL franchise; this rule was repealed in 2019. Teams may have one reserve player on their active roster (reduced from two in 2019) who may be of any nationality; these players do not dress for games but are paid and treated like the rest of the active roster.
Teams are additionally allowed up to 10 national or international players (with a minimum of 2 nationals) on their practice squad roster and may expand it to 12 if the team carries the maximum allowed two global practice squad players, though they are not required to do so. Every year, the practice squad roster is temporary increased in size to 15 following the start of the National Football League's season to accommodate for the influx of cut NFL players. Unlike players on the active roster, players on the practice squad may signed at any time to another team's active roster without compensating to the player's original team.
CFL players are represented by the Canadian Football League Players' Association (CFLPA). Each team elects two players to the CFLPA Board of Player Representatives, which meets once per year. Every two years, it elects an executive Board of Directors.
Eligible Canadian nationals (usually from U Sports football or American college football) are drafted by teams in the annual CFL Draft. The draft usually takes place in May and consists of seven rounds. The first two rounds of the draft are usually shown live on TSN. The CFL Combine (formerly known as the CFL Evaluation Camp), similar to the NFL Combine, precedes the draft. A junior player in the locale of a team may be claimed as a territorial exemption and sign with that team before beginning collegiate play (one recent example is when the BC Lions claimed Andrew Harris). Teams maintain "negotiation lists" of players they wish to sign as free agents.
|Ted Workman (interim)||1967|
|J. Donald Crump||1990–1991|
|David Braley (interim)||2002|
|Jim Lawson (interim)||2015|
|Jim Lawson (interim)||2017|
- In 1989, the commissioner role was split into two positions. Bill Baker held the title of President/Chief Operating Officer. Roy McMurtry, Q.C. held the position of Chairman/Chief Executive Officer. When Baker resigned, McMurtry continued as Chairman and CEO until Crump's appointment but did not serve as Acting Commissioner.
- Between Donald Crump's resignation and Larry Smith's appointment, Phil Kershaw held the role of Chairman but was not acting Commissioner.
- Canadian Football Act
- Canadian Football Hall of Fame
- Canadian Football League attendance
- Canadian Junior Football League
- Comparison of American and Canadian football
- Football Canada
- List of attendance figures at domestic professional sports leagues
- List of Canadian Football League mascots
- List of Canadian Football League records
- List of Canadian Football League seasons
- List of Canadian Football League stadiums
- List of Grey Cup champions
- List of neutral site Canadian Football League games
- List of professional sports teams in the United States and Canada
- Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada
- Sports in Canada
- TSN Top 50 CFL Players
- "League & Club Milestones–Canadian Football History" (PDF). 2017 CFL Guide and Record Book. CFL Enterprises LP. July 6, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
- "CFL: Canadian Football League". CFHOF.ca. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
- William Houston (December 20, 2006). "Grey Cup moves to TSN in new deal". Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved December 23, 2006.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 12, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "CANADIAN FOOTBALL TIMELINES (1860 – 2005)" (PDF). Footballcanada.com. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- "Canadian Football Timelines (1860–present)". Football Canada. Archived from the original on February 28, 2007. Retrieved December 23, 2006.
- David George-Cosh, Football: Gaining a Foothold in Canada, Wall Street Journal, November 26, 2013.
- "CFL ends working agreement with NFL". National Post. Canada. November 25, 2007. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Bills' plan exposes NFL-CFL relationship". Sportsnet.ca. October 20, 2007. Archived from the original on May 22, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "CFL Sees Numbers Rise At The Gates". Sports Business Daily. November 17, 2005. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- "2012 CFL Attendance". Canadian Football Statistics Database. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- "Sold-out stadiums and strong attendance across the board lead to highest average since 1983". CFL.ca. November 8, 2007. Retrieved December 29, 2007.
- url=https://www.tsn.ca/cfl/story/?id=410346%7Ctitle=100th Archived January 2, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Grey Cup Game Sets Viewership Records for TSN|accessdate=May 31, 2013|publisher=TSN.ca
- "Survey: Canadian interest in pro football is on the rise". Globe and Mail. Toronto. Canadian Press. June 8, 2006. Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. Retrieved June 8, 2006.
- "Expansion project approved". En.montrealalouettes.com. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- "Eskimos digging their new digs". Cfl.ca. May 27, 2010. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- Canada (May 4, 2010). "Demise of famous roof begins BC Place renewal". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on June 8, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- "Pan Ams will leave lasting legacy". Thespec.com. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- "CFL Grants Conditional Team to Ottawa". TSN.ca. March 18, 2008. Archived from the original on May 3, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
- "Blue Bombers moving back to West Division in 2014". TSN.ca. September 13, 2013. Archived from the original on September 5, 2014. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
- "New Lansdowne designs unveiled". Cfl.ca. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- "New five-year CBA ratified by CFL and CFLPA". CFL.ca. June 13, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "Argonauts announce sale, move to BMO Field". Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "Argonauts debut at BMO Field a dandy". Toronto Sun. June 12, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "Update on plans for downtown Regina domed stadium coming: Enterprise Minister Ken Cheveldayoff". Cjme.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- "Roughriders reveal plans to shift fans from old Mosaic Stadium to new facility in 2017". March 18, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "D-lineman Michael Sam signs with Alouettes". CFL.ca. May 22, 2015. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- Campbell, Morgan (May 22, 2015). "Michael Sam joins Alouettes, first openly gay CFL player". Toronto Star. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Sam leaves Als training camp". June 12, 2015. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
- AP (June 29, 2015). "Michael Sam returns to Montreal, rejoins CFL's Alouettes". Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- "CFL commissioner Orridge unveils league's new logo". SportsNet.ca. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "CFL, CFLPA agree on new drug policy for the 2016 season". CFL.ca. April 21, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "Canadian Football League issues statement regarding Jeffrey L. Orridge". CFL.ca. April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- "CFL issues statement as Orridge tenure closes". CFL.ca. June 15, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- "Postmedia Q&A: CFL interim commissioner Jim Lawson". Toronto Sun. June 21, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- "Randy Ambrosie to be named new CFL commissioner: Report". Toronto Sun. June 29, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- "Canadian Football League appoints Randy Ambrosie as 14th Commissioner". CFL.ca. July 5, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
- "New Era Cap to provide uniforms, apparel to Canadian Football League". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- "Randy's Word: Talking CFL 2.0". October 3, 2018.
- Staff, TSN ca (November 2, 2018). "CFL could play two games in Mexico in 2019 - TSN.ca". TSN.
- Florio, Mike (June 15, 2018). "CFL has its eyes on Mexico".
- "Randy's Word: CFL on the international stage". June 13, 2018.
- "CFL holds combine in Mexico City in effort to grow football worldwide - Sportsnet.ca". www.sportsnet.ca. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- "Randy's Word: Welcome to Business Season". December 12, 2018.
- January 14, Dan Ralph · The Canadian Press ·. "Eskimos select Diego Jair Viamontes Cotera with historic 1st pick in CFL/LFA draft | CBC Sports". CBC. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- "CFL reaches agreement with French American Football Federation". CFL.ca. February 5, 2019. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- January 31, The Canadian Press ·. "CFL forms strategic partnership with German league | CBC Sports". CBC. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- SUN, Toronto; Sports; Football; Cfl; Email, Share CFL signs deals with Nordic football federations Tumblr Pinterest Google Plus Reddit LinkedIn; Tumblr; Pinterest; Plus, Google; Reddit; LinkedIn; Email (February 7, 2019). "CFL signs deals with Nordic football federations - Toronto Sun".
- SUN, Toronto; Sports; Football; Cfl; Email, Share Ambrosie hopeful for European broadcast deals this CFL season Tumblr Pinterest Google Plus Reddit LinkedIn; Tumblr; Pinterest; Plus, Google; Reddit; LinkedIn; Email (February 11, 2019). "Ambrosie hopeful for European broadcast deals this CFL season - Toronto Sun".
- "Italy becomes 9th international football league to join forces with CFL - Sportsnet.ca". www.sportsnet.ca.
- Staff, 3Down. "Alouettes sold to the CFL - 3DownNation".
- "About the Ottawa REDBLACKS". Ottawa Redblacks. Archived from the original on February 17, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
- Toronto Argonauts. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved on July 26, 2013.
- "MLSE ACQUISITION OF TORONTO ARGONAUTS APPROVED BY CFL BOARD OF GOVERNORS". Toronto Argonauts. January 19, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- Saskatchewan Roughriders Football Club, Inc. Annual Report (2018-2019)
- "History of the Montreal Alouettes". CFL.ca. Retrieved December 4, 2006.
- 2009 Canadian Football League Facts, Figures & Records, Canadian Football League Properties/Publications, Toronto, Ontario, ISBN 978-0-9739425-4-5, p.282
- "History". Esks.com. August 23, 1978. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- "History". Bluebombers.com. September 27, 2011. Archived from the original on October 18, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- "CBC Sports Online: Newsmaker: The Gliebermans". September 17, 2005. Archived from the original on September 17, 2005.
- "CFL Guide & Record Book 2017" (PDF). CFL.ca. Canadian Football League. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- No Name."Saskatoon CFL team under discussion". Ottawa: CBC l. February 1, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- "Walling: The CFL will be coming east". The Sports Network. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- "canada.com - Canadian news, entertainment, television, newspapers, free email and more". Canada.com. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- The Canadian Football League: The Phoenix of Professional Sports Leagues, Steve O'Brien, Lulu Enterprises, 2005, p. 43.
- "Cohon has Moncton on his mind". National Post. Canada. Retrieved December 8, 2008.
- "CANADIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE | CFL's Touchdown Atlantic". Newswire.ca. May 28, 2010. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "CFL game in Moncton a sellout". Canada: CBC. March 25, 2010. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
- CFL may take a time out from Moncton games, Cohon says. CBC. Retrieved February 16, 2015. (In this article, Cohon notes that the cost of necessary renovations would be C$100,000,000; this number is very close to the projected cost of Hamilton's Tim Hortons Field, which was built from scratch.)
- "CFL Snaps: Halifax wants right price to build football stadium". Toronto Sun. November 14, 2015. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
- "CFL confirms discussions have taken place regarding Halifax expansion - CFL.ca". CFL.ca. November 16, 2017. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
- "Group makes 'very credible' pitch for Halifax CFL franchise - Article - TSN". TSN. November 16, 2017. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
- "Maritime Football Ltd. agree to process for securing Halifax franchise". TSN. June 19, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- "Halifax council gets CFL update behind closed doors". thestar.com. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
- "Group behind Halifax CFL expansion bid picks stadium site - TSN.ca". TSN. October 26, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "CFL expansion group proposes Halifax-area stadium at Shannon Park". Ottawa Sun. October 26, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "Game on: Halifax votes to advance negotiations on potential CFL stadium". Global News. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
- "Halifax council asks for detailed CFL stadium report". The Chronicle Herald. October 30, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "Maritime Football LTD. announces season ticket drive for potential team". CFL.ca. November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Francis Campbell (October 31, 2018). "Some say Halifax should take a pass on Shannon Park CFL stadium". The Chronicle Herald. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "O'Leary: An exclusive Q&A with Maritime Football's Anthony LeBlanc". CFL.ca. November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "Name Game: Potential tenth franchise to be named Atlantic Schooners - CFL.ca". CFL.ca. November 23, 2018. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
- "Calvillo, Alouettes hammer Renegades". CBC Sports Online. June 9, 2003. Retrieved December 2, 2006.
- "British woman wants football franchise in Quebec City". Montreal Gazette. Archived from the original on May 11, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
- "CFL road to Quebec City goes via Montreal: Cohon". CBC Sports Online. November 26, 2010. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
- "REDBLACKS and Als set to play in Quebec City". CFL.ca. Archived from the original on August 16, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- "CFL Game Schedule Announced". CFL.ca. February 14, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2007.
- "The Game". cfl.ca. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
- "Partnership of champions". CFL.ca. August 8, 2005. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- Kelly, Malcolm. "Argonauts corral Stampeders for Grey Cup on home turf". CBC. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- CBC News CFL still loved by Canadians, older people more than others: survey, CBC, November 28, 2014.
- Grey Cup record book, 2011 (PDF), Canadian Football League, 2011, archived from the original (PDF) on April 19, 2012, retrieved July 2, 2012
- "Shaw, CFL announce Grey Cup sponsorship deal". Global News. Shaw Media. May 8, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- "Broadcast". CFL.ca. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- "Schedule". CFL.ca. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- "CFL announces updated schedule". CFL.ca. April 17, 2006. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- "CFL to introduce instant replay for 2006". CFL.ca. June 13, 2006. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- "CFL debuts live webcast for entire schedule". CFL.ca. June 22, 2006. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- William Houston (November 20, 2006). "Minor rise in Grey Cup ratings good for CBC". Globe and Mail. Canada. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- Penton, Kirk (May 28, 2015). "CFL extends TV deal with TSN/RDS another three years". Winnipeg Sun. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- Stoneberg, Allison. (June 26, 2013) ESPN to Deliver 60 Live Canadian Football League Games « ESPN MediaZone. Espnmediazone.com. Retrieved on July 26, 2013.
- ESPN & CFL reach multi-year US broadcast deal Archived October 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, CFL.ca Staff, June 27, 2014
- "404". TSN. Archived from the original on August 16, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- Derek Volner (June 27, 2014). "ESPN Secures Exclusive U.S. Rights to Canadian Football League Games". ESPN MediaZone. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- "ALL 2018 CFL GAMES TO AIR ON ESPN NETWORKS AND ESPN+". Retrieved August 17, 2018.
- Skarka, Mike (June 25, 2015). "#TBT: Berman, LaPlaca Recall Vintage CFL; Wingo Explains Today's Three-Down Football". Encyclopedia of Things. ESPN Front Row. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- "A bola oval está de volta à TV! É a da CFL, mas já dá para matar a saudade". ExtraTime. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- "BT SPORT TO BROADCAST 2017 CFL SEASON IN UK AND IRELAND". Press.cfl.ca. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- "CFL signs Mexican broadcast deal with MVS". June 11, 2019.
- "54, 40 or Fight" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 18, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- Naylor, David (November 22, 2008). "Berman still shows loyalty to CFL". Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
- "CFL available in all U.S. markets". CFL.ca. June 13, 2007. Retrieved June 13, 2007.
- "CFL moves to a new home in the US". CFL.ca. June 13, 2007. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
- "Canadian Football League back on NFL Network". Retrieved June 25, 2011.
- McMillan, Ken (May 25, 2012). No CFL on NFLN, eh?. HudsonValley.com. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- Baines, Tim (November 24, 2017). "Grey Cup in October? NFL Network TV deal could follow for CFL". Sun Media. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- "CFL players search for unified voice as CBA talks loom". cbc.ca. March 23, 2018. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- 100th Grey Cup Game to air live in US on NBC Sports Network Archived October 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- "NBC Sports Network to showcase CFL in 2013 | CFL.ca | Official Site of the Canadian Football League". CFL.ca. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- "U.S. fans with cable will have to pay $5/month more to watch the 68 CFL games on ESPN+". Awful Announcing. May 24, 2018. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- "CFL 2017 season to be livestreamed in more than 130 countries". CFL.ca. June 16, 2017. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- CFL broadcasters page. Retrieved March 6, 2008.
- "CFL Gets Sirius". CFL.ca. April 24, 2006. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- "CFL salary cap won't change". Globe and Mail. Canada. Canadian Press. January 14, 2009. Retrieved January 14, 2009.
- "New CFL-CFLPA CBA at a glance". CFL.ca. Archived from the original on July 3, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- "New five-year CBA ratified by CFL and CFLPA". CFL.ca. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- "Salary Management System". CFL.ca. Archived from the original on January 21, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
- "Some CFL players not happy with concessions made". CBC.ca. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
- "The Manziel contract situation just got complicated - Article - TSN". TSN. January 9, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2018..
- "Details of Bo Levi Mitchells contract with the stampeders - Article - 3downnation". 3downnation. February 19, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018..
- "BARNES: Mexican players who make an active CFL roster will hand over 10% of salary for a scholarship fund | Toronto Sun". May 20, 2019.
- Hodgson, Glen and Mario Lefebvre. The pro sport market in Canada Archived September 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Conference Board of Canada. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- "What percentage of league-wide revenues did CFL players get in 2013 under the old CBA?". Ca.sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- CFL.ca – Official Site of the Canadian Football League Archived October 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine CFL – Import/Non-Import Classification
- Naylor, Dave (January 29, 2018). "The enduring mystery of CFL negotiation lists". TSN.ca. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- "Global additions set to make history in Week 1". June 11, 2019.
- CFL Roster Makeup — A CFLdb Razzle Document
- "Canadian QB Marc Mueller speaks out against the CFL's quarterback ratio rule". Yahoo! Sports Canada. April 23, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- Staff, TSN ca (May 15, 2019). "New CFL collective bargaining agreement will be three-year deal - TSN.ca". TSN. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- Staff, TSN ca (May 16, 2019). "CFL teams to carry one global player on roster this season - TSN.ca". TSN. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- Staff, 3Down. "UPDATED: What we know about the new CBA | 3DownNation". Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- "Organization of the CFLPA". CFLPA.ca. Archived from the original on November 2, 2006. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- "TransGlobe Evaluation Camp". CFL.ca. Retrieved May 22, 2007.
- "Harris completes journey from bleachers to Grey Cup glory". TSN.ca. November 28, 2011. Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- O'Brien, Steve (2005). The Canadian Football League: The Phoenix of Professional Sports Leagues. Lulu Press. ISBN 978-1-4116-5860-8.
- Maher, Tod (2012). The Canadian Pro Football Encyclopedia: Every Player, Coach and Game. ISBN 978-0-9835136-3-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canadian Football League.|