California sea lion
The California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is a coastal eared seal native to western North America. It is one of six species of sea lion. Its natural habitat ranges from southeast Alaska to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Sea lions are sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females, and have a thicker neck, and protruding sagittal crest. They mainly haul-out on sandy or rocky beaches, but they also frequent manmade environments such as marinas and wharves. Sea lions feed on a number of species of fish and squid, and are preyed on by killer whales and great white sharks.
|California sea lion|
|Male in La Jolla, California|
|Female in La Jolla, California|
|Scientific classification |
|California sea lion breeding range in dark blue, total range light blue. In red is the range of the Galapagos sea lion|
California sea lions have a polygynous breeding pattern. From May to August, males establish territories and try to attract females with which to mate. Females are free to move in between territories, and are not coerced by males. Mothers nurse their pups in between foraging trips. Sea lions communicate with numerous vocalizations, notably with barks and mother-pup contact calls. Outside their breeding season, sea lions spend much of their time at sea, but they come to shore to molt.
Sea lions are particularly intelligent, can be trained to perform various tasks and display limited fear of humans if accustomed to them. Because of this, California sea lions are a popular choice for public display in zoos, circuses and oceanariums, and are trained by the United States Navy for certain military operations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists the species as Least Concern due to its abundance. To protect fish, the US states of Oregon and Washington engage in annual kill quotas of sea lions.
The California sea lion was described by René Primevère Lesson, a French naturalist, in 1828. It is grouped with other sea lions and fur seals in the family Otariidae. Otariids, also known as eared seals, differ from true seals in having external ear flaps, and proportionately larger foreflippers and pectoral muscles. Along with the Galapagos sea lion and the extinct Japanese sea lion, the California sea lion belongs to the genus Zalophus, which derives from the Greek words za, meaning "intensive," and lophus, meaning "crest." This refers to the protruding sagittal crest of the males, which distinguishes members of the genus.
Traditionally, the Galapagos sea lion and Japanese sea lion were classified as subspecies of the California sea lion. However, a genetic study in 2007 found that all three are in fact separate species. The lineages of the California and Japanese sea lion appear to have split off 2.2 million years ago during the Pliocene. The California sea lion differs from the Galapagos sea lion in its greater sexual dimorphism. The Steller sea lion is the closest extant relative of the Zalophus sea lions, being a sister taxon.
Appearance, physiology, and movement
Being sexually dimorphic, California sea lions differ in size, shape, and coloration between the sexes. Males are typically around 2.4 m (7.9 ft) long and weigh up to 350 kg (770 lb), while females are typically around 1.8 m (5.9 ft) and weigh up to 100 kg (220 lb). Females and juveniles have a tawny brown pelage, although they may be temporarily light gray or silver after molting. The pelage of adult males can be anywhere from light brown to black, but is typically dark brown. The face of adult males may also be light tan in some areas. Pups have a black or dark brown pelage at birth. Although the species has a slender build, adult males have robust necks, chests, and shoulders. Adult males also have a protruding crest which gives them a "high, domed forehead"; it is tufted with white hairs. They also have manes, which are less developed than those of adult male South American and Steller sea lions. Both sexes have long, narrow muzzles.
As an otariid, the California sea lion relies on its foreflippers to propel itself when swimming. This form of aquatic locomotion, along with its streamlined body, effectively reduces drag underwater. Its foreflipper movement is not continuous; the animal glides in between each stroke. The flexibility of its spine allows the sea lion to bend its neck backwards far enough to reach its hindflippers. This allows the animal to make dorsal turns and maintain a streamlined posture. When moving on land, the sea lion is able to turn its hindflippers forward and walk on all fours. It moves the foreflippers in a transverse, rather than a sagittal, fashion. In addition, it relies on movements of its head and neck more than its hindflippers for terrestrial locomotion. Sea lions may travel at speeds of around 10.8 km/h (6.7 mph), and can dive at depths of 274 m (899 ft) and for up to 9.9 minutes, though most dives are typically 80 m (260 ft) and last less than 3 minutes.
Sea lions have color vision, though it is limited to the blue-green area of the color spectrum. This is likely an adaptation for living in marine coastal habitats. Sea lions have fairly acute underwater hearing, with a hearing range of 0.4–32 kHz. Sea lions rely on their whiskers or vibrissae for touch and detection of vibrations underwater. Compared to the harbor seal, the California sea lion's vibrissae are smoother and less specialized and thus perform less when following hydrodynamic trails, although they still perform well.
Range and habitat
The California sea lion ranges along the western coast and islands of North America, from southeast Alaska to central Mexico. Mitochondrial DNA sequences in 2009 have identified five distinct California sea lion populations: the U.S. or Pacific Temperate stock, the Western Baja California or Pacific Tropical stock, and the Southern, Central, and Northern Gulf of California stocks. The U.S. stock breeds mainly in the Channel Islands, although some breeding sites may be established in northern California, and females are now commonly found there. The Western Baja California stock mainly breeds near Punta Eugenia and at Isla Santa Margarita. The above-mentioned stocks are separated by the Ensenada Front. The stocks of the Gulf of California live in the shallow waters of the north (Northern stock), the tidal islands near the center (Central stock), and the mouth of the bay (Southern stock). The stock status of the sea lions at the deep waters of the central bay has not been analyzed.
Vagrants can reach western north pacific such as on Commander Islands. Although several otariinae have been recorded around Japanese archipelago in recent years, their exact origins are unclear.
During the breeding season, sea lions gather on both sandy and rocky shores. On warm days, they lie closer to the water. At night or in cool weather, they travel farther inland or to higher elevations. Non-breeding individuals may gather at marinas, wharves, or even navigational buoys. California sea lions can also live in fresh water for periods of time, such as near Bonneville Dam, nearly 150 miles up the Columbia River. In 2004 a healthy sea lion was found sitting on a road in Merced County, California, almost a hundred miles upstream from the San Francisco Bay and half a mile from the San Joaquin River.
Diet and predation
California sea lions feed on a wide variety of seafood, mainly squid and fish, and sometimes clams. Commonly eaten fish and squid species include salmon, hake, Pacific whiting, anchovy, herring, rockfish, lamprey, dogfish, and market squid. They mostly forage near mainland coastlines, the continental shelf, and seamounts. They may also search along the ocean bottom. California sea lions may eat alone or in small to large groups, depending on the amount of food available. They sometimes cooperate with other predators, such as dolphins, porpoises, and seabirds, when hunting large schools of fish. Sea lions sometimes follow dolphins and exploit their hunting efforts. Adult females feed between 10–100 km (6.2–62.1 mi) from shore. Males may forage as far as 450 km (280 mi) from shore when water temperatures rise. They also have learned to feed on steelhead and salmon below fish ladders at Bonneville Dam and at other locations where fish must queue in order to pass through dams and locks that block their passage.
Sea lions are preyed on by killer whales and large sharks. At Monterey Bay, California sea lions appear to be the more common food items for transient mammal-eating killer whale pods. The sea lions may respond to the dorsal fin of a killer whale and remain vigilant, even when encountering resident fish-eating pods. Sea lions are also common prey for white sharks. They have been found with scars made by attacks from both white sharks and shortfin mako sharks. Sharks attack sea lions by ambushing them while they are resting at the surface. Sea lions that are attacked in the hindquarters are more likely to survive and make it to the shore.
Reproductive behavior and parenting
California sea lions breed gregariously between May and August, when they arrive at their breeding rookeries. When establishing a territory, the males will try to increase their chances of reproducing by staying on the rookery for as long as possible. During this time, they will fast, relying on a thick layer of fat called blubber for energy. Size and patience allow a male to defend his territory more effectively; the bigger the male, the more blubber he can store and the longer he can wait. A male sea lion usually keeps his territory for around 27 days. Females have long parturition intervals, and thus the males do not establish their territories until after the females give birth. Most fights occur during this time. After this, the males rely on ritualized displays (vocalizations, head-shaking, stares, bluff lunges, and so on) to maintain their territorial boundaries. Since temperatures can reach over 30 °C (86 °F) during this time, males must include water within their territories. Some territories are underwater, particularly those near steep cliffs. Sea lions that fail to establish a territory are driven out to sea or gather at a nearby beach.
Before mating begins, females gather into "milling" groups of 2–20 individuals. The females in these groups will mount each other as well as the males. These groups begin to disintegrate as the females begin to mate. The territorial and mating system of the California sea lion has been described as similar to a lek system, as females appear to choose their mates while moving though different territories. They avoid males that are too aggressive or energetic. Males are usually unable to prevent females from leaving their territories, particularly in water. Mating may occur outside the rookeries, between non-territorial males and females, as the latter move to and from the mating site. In some rookeries, copulation may be monopolized by a few males, while at others, a single male may sire no more than four pups.
Female California sea lions have a 12-month reproductive cycle, consisting of a 9-month actual gestation and a 3-month delayed implantation of the fertilized egg before giving birth in June or July. Interbirth intervals are particularly long for this species, being 21 days for sea lions off California and more than 30 days for sea lions in the Gulf of California. Females remain with their pups on shore for 10 days and nurse them. After this, females will go on foraging trips lasting as long as three days, returning to nurse their pups for up to a day. Pups left on shore tend to gather in nurseries to socialize and play. When returning from a trip, females call their pups with distinctive calls to which the pups will reply in kind. A mother and pup can distinguish each other's calls from those of other mothers and pups. At first, reunions largely depend on the efforts of the mothers. However, as pups get older, they get more involved in reunions. Older pups may sometimes join their mothers during their foraging trips. Adult male California sea lions play no role in raising pups, but they do take more interest in them than adult males of other otariid species; they have even been observed to help shield swimming pups from predators. Pups are weaned by a year but can continue to suckle for another year.
California sea lions communicate with a range of vocalizations. The most commonly used one is their characteristic bark. Territorial males are the loudest and most continuous callers, and barks are produced constantly during the peak of the breeding season. Sea lions bark especially rapidly when excited. The barks of territorial and non-territorial males sound similar, although those of the former are deeper. Males may bark when threatening other males or during courtship. The only other vocalization made by territorial males is a "prolonged hoarse grunt sound" made when an individual is startled by a human. This vocalization is also made by groups of non-reproductive males.
Female sea lions are less vocal. Their barks, high-pitched and shorter than those made by males, are used in aggressive situations. Other aggressive vocalizations given by females include the "squeal", the "belch", and the "growl". The sound a female sea lion gives when calling her pups is called a "pup-attraction call", described as "loud" and "brawling". Pups respond with a "mother-response call", which is similar in structure. Pups will also bleat or bark when playing or in distress. California sea lions can produce vocalizations underwater. These include "whinny" sounds, barks, buzzings, and clicks.
Outside the breeding season, males migrate to the northern ends of the species range to feed, while females forage near the breeding rookeries. Sea lions can stay at sea for as long as two weeks at a time. They make continuous dives, returning to the surface to rest. Sea lions may travel alone or in groups while at sea and haul-out between each sea trip. Adult females and juveniles molt in autumn and winter; adult males molt in January and February. Gulf of California sea lions do not migrate; they stay in the Gulf year-round.
Intelligence and trainability
Marine biologist Ronald J. Schusterman and his research associates have studied sea lions' cognitive ability. They have discovered that sea lions are able to recognize relationships between stimuli based on similar functions or connections made with their peers, rather than only the stimuli's common features. Sea lions have demonstrated the ability to understand simple syntax and commands when taught an artificial sign language. However, the sea lions rarely used the signs semantically or logically. In 2011, a California sea lion named "Ronan" was recorded bobbing her head in synchronization to musical rhythms. This "rhythmic entrainment" was previously seen only in humans, parrots and other birds possessing vocal mimicry.
Because of their intelligence and trainability, California sea lions have been used by circuses and marine mammal parks to perform various tricks such as throwing and catching balls on their noses, running up ladders, or honking horns in a musical fashion. Trainers reward their animals with fish, which motivates them to perform. For ball balancing, trainers toss a ball at a sea lion so it may accidentally balance it or hold the ball on its nose, thereby gaining an understanding of what to do. A sea lion may go through a year of training before performing a behavior for the public. However, its memory allows it to perform a behavior even after three months of resting. Some organizations, such as the Humane Society of the United States and World Animal Protection, object to using sea lions and other marine mammals for entertainment, claiming the tricks are "exaggerated variations of their natural behaviors" and distract the audience from the animal's unnatural environment.
The California sea lion is used in military applications by the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, including detecting naval mines and enemy divers. In the Persian Gulf, the animals can swim behind divers approaching a US naval ship and attach a clamp with a rope to the diver's leg. Navy officials say the sea lions can do this in seconds, before the enemy realizes what happened. Organizations like PETA believe that such operations put the animals in danger. However, the Navy insists that the sea lions are removed once their mission is complete.
The IUCN lists the California sea lion as Least Concern due to "its large and increasing population size." The estimated population is 238,000–241,000 for the U.S. or Pacific Temperate stock, 75,000–85,000 for the Western Baja California or Pacific Tropical stock, and 31,393 for the population in the Gulf of California. Off the Pacific coast of the United States, sea lions are so numerous that they are close to carrying capacity, while the Gulf of California population declined by 20% by 2008. Sea lions may be killed when in conflict with fishermen, by poaching, and by entanglements in man-made garbage. They are also threatened by pollutants like DDT and PCB which accumulate in the marine food chain.
In the United States, the California sea lion is protected on the federal Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), passed in 1972, which outlaws hunting, killing, capture, and harassment of the animal. In 1994 an amendment to the Act allowed for the possibility of limited lethal removal of pinnipeds preying on endangered salmonids should the level of predation be documented to have a significant adverse impact on the decline or recovery of ESA-listed salmonids. Applications have been granted for removal of several individual sea lions at Ballard Locks and at the Bonneville Dam, where up to 92 sea lions can be killed each year for a 5-year period. Critics have objected to the killing of the sea lions, pointing out that the level of mortality permitted as a result of recreational and commercial fisheries in the river and as part of the operation of hydroelectric dams pose a greater threat to the salmon.
These animals exploit more man-made environments like docks for haul-out sites. Many docks are not designed to withstand the weight of several resting sea lions which cause major tilting and other problems. Wildlife managers have used various methods to control the animals and some city officials have redesigned docks so they can better withstand them.
2015 Californian shore sea lions pups crisis
In January and February 2015, 1450 malnourished or sick sea lion pups were found along stretches of the California coast, and estimations give a higher number of dead pups. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has pointed to unprecedentedly warm Pacific coastal waters, related to Pacific decadal oscillation and El Niño, as the likely cause. Elevated water temperatures reduced the abundance of anchovies, sardines and mackerel, principal components of the sea lion pup diet during nursery season. This caused many sea lion pups to starve, while others died when they took to open waters in search of food at too early an age . Several months earlier, in the Summer of 2014, a large number of Cassin's auklet chicks died during the fledging period due to similar circumstances brought about by elevated water temperatures.
- Aurioles, D. & Trillmich, F. (2008). "Zalophus californianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
- Allen, Sarah G.; Mortenson, Joe; Webb, Sophie (2011). Field Guide to Marine Mammals of the Pacific Coast: Baja, California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia. University of California Press. p. 403. ISBN 978-0520265455.
- Heath, Carolyn B.; Perrin, William F. (2008). "California, Galapagos and Japanese Sea Lions Zalophus californianus, Z. wollebaeki and Z. japonicus". In Perrin, William F.; Würsig, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (2nd ed.). pp. 170–75. ISBN 978-0123735539.
- Wolf, Jochen B.W.; Tautz, Diethard; Trillmich, Fritz (2007). "Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management". Frontiers in Zoology. 4: 20. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-4-20. PMC 2072946. PMID 17868473.
- Sakahira, F.; Niimi, M. (2007). "Ancient DNA analysis of the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus californianus japonicus Peters, 1866): preliminary results using mitochondrial control-region sequences". Zoological Science. 24 (1): 81–85. doi:10.2108/zsj.24.81. PMID 17409720.
- Schramm, Yolanda; Mesnick, S. L.; de la Rosa, J.; Palacios, D. M.; Lowry, M. S.; Aurioles-Gamboa, D.; Snell, H. M.; Escorza-Treviño, S. (2009). "Phylogeography of California and Galápagos sea lions and population structure within the California sea lion" (PDF). Marine Biology. 156 (7): 1375–1387. doi:10.1007/s00227-009-1178-1. ISSN 0025-3162.
- Reeves, Randall R.; Stewart, Brent S.; Clapham, Phillip J.; Powell, James A. (2002). National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 90–93. ISBN 978-0375411410.
- Lavigne, David M.; Harwood, John (2001). "Eared seal species". In David, MacDonald (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Mammals (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0760719695.
- Feldkamp, S.D. (1987). "Swimming in the California sea lion: morphometrics, drag and energetics" (PDF). The Journal of Experimental Biology. 131 (1): 117–135. PMID 3694112.
- Fish, Frank E.; Hurley, Jenifer; Costa, Daniel P. (2003). "Maneuverability by the sea lion Zalophus californianus: turning performance of an unstable body design" (PDF). The Journal of Experimental Biology. 206 (Pt 4): 667–674. doi:10.1242/jeb.00144. PMID 12517984.
- English, Arthur Wm. (1976). "Limb movements and locomotor function in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)". Journal of Zoology. 178 (3): 341–364. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1976.tb02274.x.
- Lowry, M.S.; Carretta, J.V. (1999). "Market squid (Loligo opalescens) in the diet of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in southern California (1981–1995)" (PDF). Reports of California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations. 40: 196–207. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-12.
- Feldkamp, Steven D.; DeLong, Robert L.; Antonelis, George A. (1989). "Diving patterns of California sea lions, Zalophus californianus". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 67 (4): 872–883. doi:10.1139/z89-129.
- Griebel, U.; Schmid, A. (1992). "Color vision in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)". Vision Research. 32 (3): 477–482. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(92)90239-F. PMID 1604834.
- Reichmuth, Colleen; Southall, Brandon L. (2012). "Underwater hearing in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): Expansion and interpretation of existing data" (PDF). Marine Mammal Science. 28 (2): 358–363. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00473.x.
- Gläser, N.; et al. (2011). "Hydrodynamic trail following in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)". Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 197 (2): 141–51. doi:10.1007/s00359-010-0594-5. PMID 20959994.
- Commander Islands Nature and Biosphere Reserve. California sea lion Zalophus californianus Lesson, 1828. Retrieved on August 24, 2017
- 鹿児島県薩摩川内市で種不明アシカ出現 Archived 2016-06-02 at Archive.today- 海棲哺乳類情報データベース
- "Columbia River Sea Lion Management: Restoring balance between predators and salmon". Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife. Archived from the original on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Kay, Jane (10 February 2012). "When good fishing trips go bad: Sea lion swims the Delta – lands on Merced County farm road". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "Sea Lion Diet". Southwest Fisheries Science Center. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
- Riedman, M. (1991). The Pinnipeds: Seals, Sea lions, and Walruses. University of California Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0520064980.
- Weise, Michael J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Kudela, Raphael M. (2006). "Movement and diving behavior of male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) during anomalous oceanographic conditions of 2005 compared to those of 2004" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (22): L22S10. Bibcode:2006GeoRL..3322S10W. doi:10.1029/2006GL027113. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-08.
- Ternullo, Richard; Black, Nancy. "Predation Behavior of Transient Killer Whales in Monterey Bay, California". Monterey Bay Whale Watch. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Baird, Robin W.; Stacey, Pam J. (1989). "Observations on the reactions of sea lions, Zalophus californianus and Eumetopias jubatus, to killer whales, Orcinus orca; evidence of "prey" having a "search image" for predators" (PDF). Canadian Field-Naturalist. 103 (3): 426–428. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Harris, Jeffrey D.; Melin, Sharon R.; DeLong, Robert L. "Shark-inflicted Lesions on California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) at San Miguel Island, California: a New Phenomenon" (PDF). National Marine Mammal Laboratory – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Long, Douglas J.; Hanni, Krista D.; Pyle, Peter; Roletto, Jan; Jones, Robert E.; Bandar, Raymond (1995). "White Shark Predation on Four Pinniped Species in Central California Waters: Geographic and Temporal Patterns Inferred from Wounded Carcasses". In Klimley, A. Peter; Ainley, David G. (eds.). Great White Sharks: The Biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press. pp. 263–274. ISBN 978-0124150317.
- Odell, D.K. (2001). "The Fight to Mate: Breeding strategy of California sea lions". In MacDonald, David (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Mammals (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 172–173. ISBN 978-0760719695.
- García-Aguilar, M.C.; Aurioles-Gamboa, D. (2003). "Breeding season of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico". Aquatic Mammals. 29 (10): 67–76. doi:10.1578/016754203101024086.
- Flatz, Ramona; González-Suárez, Manuela; Young, Julie K.; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J.; Immel, Aaron J.; Gerber, Leah R. (2012). Fenton, Brock (ed.). "Weak Polygyny in California Sea Lions and the Potential for Alternative Mating Tactics". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e33654. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...733654F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033654. PMC 3303858. PMID 22432039.
- Gisiner, Robert; Schusterman, Ronald J. (1991). "California sea lion pups play an active role in reunions with their mothers". Animal Behaviour. 41 (2): 364–66. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80488-9.
- Nowak, Ronald M. (2003). Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 80–83. ISBN 978-0801873430.
- Peterson, Richard S.; Bartholomew, George A. (1969). "Airborne vocal communication in the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus". Animal Behaviour. 17 (1): 17–24. doi:10.1016/0003-3472(69)90108-0.
- Schusterman, Ronald J.; Gentry, Roger; Schmook, James (1966). "Underwater Vocalization by Sea Lions: Social and Mirror Stimuli". Science. 154 (3748): 540–542. Bibcode:1966Sci...154..540S. doi:10.1126/science.154.3748.540.
- Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David (1993). "A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is capable of forming equivalence relations" (PDF). Psychological Record. 43 (4): 823–839. doi:10.1007/BF03395915. ISSN 0033-2933.
- Gisiner, R.; Schusterman, R.J. (1992). "Sequence, syntax, and semantics: Responses of a language-trained sea lion (Zalophus californianus) to novel sign combinations" (PDF). Journal of Comparative Psychology. 106: 78–91. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.106.1.78.
- Stephens, Tim (1 April 2013). "Sea lion defies theory and keeps the beat". University of California, Santa Cruz. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Cook, F.; Rouse, A.; Wilson, M.; Reichmuth, M. (2013). "A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) can keep the beat: motor entrainment to rhythmic auditory stimuli in a non vocal mimic". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 127 (4): 412–27. doi:10.1037/a0032345. PMID 23544769.
- "The Case Against Marine Mammals in Captivity" (PDF). Humane Society of the United States and World Animal Protection. p. 3. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- Leinwand, Donna (17 February 2003). "Sea lions called to duty in Persian Gulf". USA Today. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- Kreider, R. (May 31, 2011). "The Real Navy Seals – and Sea Lions and Dolphins and Whales". ABC News. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program. Archived from the original on June 19, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- "16 U.S.C. § 1389" (PDF).
- "61 Fed. Reg. 13153 (March 26, 1996)" (PDF).
- "NOAA authorizes states to remove sea lions that threaten protected salmon" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "Bonneville Dam Sea Lions Under Siege". The Humane Society of the United States. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- French, C. (April 10, 2013). "Sea Lions Take Over Ventura Docks". the Log.com. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Bruscas, A. (July 27, 2012). "Shocking new idea for sea lion control". The Daily World.com. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Hecht, Peter (2015-03-07). "Sick, starving sea lion pups wash up in record numbers on California coast". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- "More Than 100 Sick Sea Lion Flooded On California Coastline". Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- "Mass Death of Seabirds in Western U.S. Is 'Unprecedented'". news.nationalgeographic.com/. 2015-01-24. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- GILLIAN FLACCUS (10 January 2019). "Oregon begins killing sea lions after relocation fails". Associated Press. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
In a similar program, Oregon and Washington have already killed more than 150 sea lions below the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River to protect threatened and endangered salmon.
- "California Sea Lion Management: Restoring balance between predators and salmon". Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
Media related to Zalophus californianus at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Zalophus californianus at Wikispecies
- "Zalophus californianus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 23 March 2006.
- WDFW Fact Sheet on sea lions
- USACE information on sea lion deterrents
- Animal Diversity Web – Zalophus californianus
- Smithsonian Institution – North American Mammals: Zalophus californianus
- Voices in the Sea - Sounds of the California Sea Lion
- Photos of California sea lion on Sealife Collection