the space c becomes a Banach space. It is a closed linear subspace of the space of bounded sequences, ℓ∞, and contains as a closed subspace the Banach space c0 of sequences converging to zero. The dual of c is isometrically isomorphic to ℓ1, as is that of c0. In particular, neither c nor c0 is reflexive.
In the first case, the isomorphism of ℓ1 with c* is given as follows. If (x0,x1,...) ∈ ℓ1, then the pairing with an element (y1,y2,...) in c is given by
This is the Riesz representation theorem on the ordinal ω.
For c0, the pairing between (xi) in ℓ1 and (yi) in c0 is given by
- Dunford, N.; Schwartz, J.T. (1958), Linear operators, Part I, Wiley-Interscience.