C minor is a minor scale based on C, consisting of the pitches C, D, E♭, F, G, A♭, and B♭. Its key signature consists of three flats. Its relative major is E♭ major and its parallel major is C major.
|Relative key||E♭ major|
|Parallel key||C major|
|Dominant key||G minor|
|C, D, E♭, F, G, A♭, B♭|
The C natural minor scale is:
Changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with accidentals as necessary. The C harmonic minor and melodic minor scales are:
In the Baroque period, music in C minor was usually written with a two-flat key signature, and some modern editions of that repertoire retain that convention.
Joseph Haydn wrote the first piano sonata, No. 20, in C minor (H.XVI No. 20). Of the two piano concertos that Mozart wrote in a minor key, one of them (No. 24, K. 491) is in C minor.
Beethoven wrote some of his most characteristic works in the key of C minor, including the Symphony No. 5 and three of his piano sonatas. (See Beethoven and C minor.)
Brahms's first symphony and first string quartet were composed in C minor; these were both genres with which Beethoven was closely associated during Brahms's lifetime.
Three of Anton Bruckner's ten numbered symphonies are in C minor, as are two of Dmitri Shostakovich's symphonies.
- Charles-Valentin Alkan
- Trois études de bravoure, Tre scherzi ou Caprices, Op. 16, No. 2
- Bourrée d'Auvergne Op. 28
- Prelude Op. 31, No. 16 (Assez lentement)
- Symphony for Solo Piano, 1st movement: Allegro
- Trois grandes études, Op. 76, No. 3 "Mouvement semblable et perpetuel" (Rondo-Toccata) for the hands reunited
- Johannes Sebastian Bach
- Ludwig van Beethoven
- Johannes Brahms
- Anton Bruckner
- Frédéric Chopin
- Gabriel Fauré
- Élégie, Op. 24
- Franz Liszt
- Gustav Mahler
- Felix Mendelssohn
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
- Sergei Prokofiev
- Sergei Rachmaninoff
- Camille Saint-Saëns
- Dmitri Shostakovich
- Moritz Moszkowski
- Etude de Virtuosité no. 14 in C minor, op. 72