CJC-1295, also known as DAC:GRF (short for drug affinity complex:growth hormone-releasing factor), is a synthetic analogue of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) (also known as growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF)) and a growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) which was developed by ConjuChem Biotechnologies. It is a modified form of GHRH (1-29) with improved pharmacokinetics, especially in regard to half-life.
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||3367.89688 g/mol g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
CJC-1295 markedly increases plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in both animals and humans. With a single injection, in human subjects, CJC-1295 increases plasma GH levels by 2- to 10-fold for 6 days or longer and plasma IGF-1 levels by 1.5- to 3-fold for 9 to 11 days. The drug has an estimated half-life of about 6 to 8 days in humans. With multiple doses of CJC-1295, IGF-1 levels were found to remain elevated in humans for up to 28 days.
CJC-1295 has been shown to extend the half-life and bioavailability of growth-hormone-releasing hormone 1-29 and stimulate insulin-like growth factor 1 secretion. It increases the half-life of acting agents by bioconjugation.
CJC-1295 was under investigation for the treatment of lipodystrophy and growth hormone deficiency and reached phase II clinical trials but was discontinued upon the death of one of the trial subjects. The attending physician of the trial believed that the most likely explanation for the incident was that the patient had asymptomatic coronary artery disease with plaque rupture and occlusion, and that the occurrence was unrelated to treatment with CJC-1295. In any case, research was terminated nonetheless as a precaution. CJC-1295 has found grey market use for bodybuilding purposes, with this, in some countries such as the Netherlands, being an illicit use.
- Jetté, Lucie; Léger, Roger; Thibaudeau, Karen; Benquet, Corinne; Robitaille, Martin; Pellerin, Isabelle; Paradis, Véronique; van Wyk, Pieter; Pham, Khan; Bridon, Dominique P. (2005). "Human Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor (hGRF)1–29-Albumin Bioconjugates Activate the GRF Receptor on the Anterior Pituitary in Rats: Identification of CJC-1295 as a Long-Lasting GRF Analog". Endocrinology. 146 (7): 3052–3058. doi:10.1210/en.2004-1286. ISSN 0013-7227. PMID 15817669.
- Alba, M.; Fintini, D.; Sagazio, A.; Lawrence, B.; Castaigne, J.-P.; Frohman, L. A.; Salvatori, R. (2006). "Once-daily administration of CJC-1295, a long-acting growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog, normalizes growth in the GHRH knockout mouse". AJP: Endocrinology and Metabolism. 291 (6): E1290–E1294. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00201.2006. ISSN 0193-1849. PMID 16822960.
- Teichman, Sam L.; Neale, Ann; Lawrence, Betty; Gagnon, Catherine; Castaigne, Jean-Paul; Frohman, Lawrence A. (2006). "Prolonged Stimulation of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Secretion by CJC-1295, a Long-Acting Analog of GH-Releasing Hormone, in Healthy Adults" (PDF). The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 91 (3): 799–805. doi:10.1210/jc.2005-1536. ISSN 0021-972X. PMID 16352683.
- Thorner, Michael O. (2008). "The Discovery of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone1: An Update". Journal of Neuroendocrinology. 20 (6): 653–654. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2826.2008.01740.x. ISSN 0953-8194. PMID 18601685.
- Ionescu, Madalina; Frohman, Lawrence A. (2006). "Pulsatile Secretion of Growth Hormone (GH) Persists during Continuous Stimulation by CJC-1295, a Long-Acting GH-Releasing Hormone Analog". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 91 (12): 4792–4797. doi:10.1210/jc.2006-1702. ISSN 0021-972X. PMID 17018654.
- "Current Research Findings Regarding CJC-1295". Neo Scientific. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
The reason why CJC1295 possesses the ability to lengthen the half-life within the active agent has to do with the scientific process known as bioconjugation. This technology, which is relatively new in nature, is defined by its ability to take a reactive group and bond it to a peptide (Aslam and Dent). This attachment causes a reaction with a nucleophilic unit; a typically partially molecule that is found within the bloodstream of an animal test subject. This reaction in turn causes a more stable bond to occur. This specific peptide has an especially high attraction to albumin, a globular protein that is soluble in water. This affinity prohibits natural degradation, which in turn increases the peptide’s half-life (Hermanson). Additionally, clinical research performed on animal test subjects has thus far shown that there have been no signs of DPP-IV degradation present when CJC-1295 was introduced (Gonzalez, US Peptide Articles).
- Andersen Hartvig, Rune; Bjerre Holm, Niels; Weihe Dalsgaard, Petur; Ask Reitzel, Lotte; Breum Müller, Irene; Linnet, Kristian (2014). "Identification of peptide and protein doping related drug compounds confiscated in Denmark between 2007-2013". Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science. 20 (2). doi:10.2478/sjfs-2014-0003. ISSN 2353-0707.
- ConjuChem (August 2006). "Patient Died in Lipodystrophy Drug Study".
- Henninge, John; Pepaj, Milaim; Hullstein, Ingunn; Hemmersbach, Peter (2010). "Identification of CJC-1295, a growth-hormone-releasing peptide, in an unknown pharmaceutical preparation". Drug Testing and Analysis. 2 (11–12): 647–650. doi:10.1002/dta.233. ISSN 1942-7603.