CHAYKA

Chayka (Russian: Чайка, lit. "seagull") is a Russian terrestrial radio navigation system, similar to Loran-C. It operates on similar frequencies around 100 kHz, and uses the same techniques of comparing both the envelope and the signal phase to accurately determine location. The systems differ primarily in details.

Chayka-Chains

Chayka, like LORAN-C, uses different pulse repetition frequencies (Group Repetition Intervals, or GRIs) to allow the identification of different stations operating on the same frequencies.

There are 5 Chayka chains in use:

  • GRI 8000 — Western (European) Russia Chayka Chain (1969, RSDN-3/10)
  • GRI 7950 — Eastern Russia Chayka Chain (1986, RSDN-4)
  • GRI 5980 — Russian-American Chayka Chain (1995)
  • GRI 5960 — Northern Chayka Chain (1996, RSDN-5)
  • GRI 4970 — North-Western Chayka Chain
  • And also North-Caucasian, South-Ural (GRI 5970), Siberian, Angarsk, Sayansk, Transbaikalian, Far East chains deployed on the basis of low-power mobile stations RSDN-10.

Chayka Transmitters

The following Chayka transmitters work with very high power and may use very tall mast antennas (similar to LORAN-C transmitters). The masts at Dudinka and Taymylyr (demolished in 2009) were 460 metres high.

GRI 8000

#Place Coordinates Emission delay, μsCoding delay, μsTransmission power, kW
MKarachev (44 km from Bryansk) 53°7′50.6″N 34°54′44.8″E 450
W/1Petrozavodsk 61°45′32.4″N 33°41′40.4″E 13217.2110000700
X/2Slonim (Belarus) 53°7′55.2″N 25°23′46″E 27125.0025000450
Y/3Simferopol 44°53′20.18″N 33°52′23.79″E 53070.2550000550
Z/4Syzran 53°17′17.6″N 48°6′53.4″E 67941.6065000700

GRI 7950

#Place Coordinates Emission delay, μsCoding delay, μsTransmission power, kW
MAlexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky 51°4′42.81″N 142°42′4.95″E 700
W/1Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 53°7′48.26″N 157°41′49.1″E 14506.511000700
X/2Ussuriysk 44°31′58.24″N 131°38′28.6″E 33678.030000700
Y/3Tokachibuto (Japan) 42°44′37.2″N 143°43′10.5″E 49104.1546000600
Z/4Okhotsk 59°25′1.77″N 143°5′18.68″E 64102.056100010

GRI 5980

#Place Coordinates Emission delay, μsCoding delay, μsTransmission power, kW
MPetropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 53°7′48.26″N 157°41′49.1″E 700
W/1Attu Island (United States) 52°49′44″N 173°10′49.7″E 14506.511000400
X/2Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky 51°4′42.80″N 142°42′4.95″E 31506.528000700

GRI 5960

(No longer in service)

#Place Coordinates Emission delay, μsCoding delay, μsTransmission power, kW
MDudinka 69°21′45.20″N 86°41′50.56″E 1200
W/1Taymylyr 72°34′48.92″N 122°06′40.29″E 1200
X/2Pankratiev Island 76°7′34″N 60°12′55″E 250
Y/3Inta 65°57′59.57″N 60°18′33.5″E 1200

GRI 4970

#Place Coordinates Emission delay, μsCoding delay, μsTransmission power, kW
MInta 65°57′59.57″N 60°18′33.5″E 1200
W/1Tumanny 69°3′8.4″N 35°40′14.3″E
X/2Pankratiev Island 76°7′34″N 60°12′55″E 250

GRI 5970

#Place Coordinates Emission delay, μsCoding delay, μsTransmission power, kW
MYuzhno-Uralsk 54°23.1′N 61°20.6′E
W/1Yekaterinburg 56°44.8′N 60°31.6′E 15895,115000
X/2Kurgan 55°22.2′N 65°22.6′E 30939,530000

See also


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